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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237351, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249243

RESUMEN

Abstract Cladocerans are a diverse group of species that show rapid responses to changes in environmental conditions. This adaptive capacity has important implications for egg production and life cycle, especially in transitory environments such as temporary waterbodies. The present study investigated the life history and egg production of Alona gutatta Sars, 1862 (Crustacea, Cladocera), an abundant and frequent species from a high-altitude temporary pond (Lagoa Seca, Minas Gerais, Brazil). Newly hatched neonates were monitored in relation to time of maturation, number of eggs produced per female and time of survival. Neonates required a mean of 8 days to mature. A. guttata survived for a mean of 30.9 ± 8.1 days and produced 2 eggs per brood, generating a mean of 10.95 ± 6.41 neonates during the entire life cycle. The rapid development, short time to produce eggs and long life cycle are important adaptations to the adverse environmental conditions of temporary aquatic environments, which can contribute to the rapid colonization of Alona guttata in transitory ecosystems.


Resumo Os cladóceros formam um grupo diverso de espécies que apresentam respostas rápidas às mudanças nas condições ambientais. Essa capacidade adaptativa tem implicações importantes para a produção de ovos e para o ciclo de vida, especialmente em ambientes transitórios, como corpos d'água temporários. O presente estudo investigou a história de vida e a produção de ovos da espécie Alona guttata Sars, 1862 (Crustacea, Cladocera) coletada em uma lagoa temporária de altitude (Minas Gerais, Brasil). Organismos recém eclodidos foram observados (em condições de laboratório) em relação ao tempo de maturação, número de ovos produzidos por fêmea e tempo de sobrevivência. Os neonatos levaram em média 8 dias para atingir o primeiro estágio de maturação. As fêmeas produziram 2 ovos por ninhada e geraram uma média de 10,95 ± 6,41 neonatos durante todo o ciclo de vida. A. guttata apresentou uma média de 30,9 ± 8,1 dias de sobrevivência. O rápido desenvolvimento, o pouco tempo para a produção de ovos e o ciclo de vida longo são adaptações importantes às condições ambientais adversas de ambientes aquáticos temporários, que podem contribuir para a rápida colonização de Alona guttata em ecossistemas transitórios.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231134, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249257

RESUMEN

Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was estimated to be the third cause of global mortality by 2020. Acute exacerbation COPD (AECOPD) is a sudden worsening of COPD symptoms and could be due to virus/bacterial infections and air pollution. Increased expression of inflammatory markers in patients with AECOPD is associated with viral infection. This study aimed to detect different viruses and analyze the expression of various inflammatory markers associated with AECOPD patients. Three hundred and forty-seven patients diagnosed with COPD according to GOLD criteria were included in this study. Swab samples and blood were collected for the detection of viruses by RT-PCR and expression of inflammatory markers, respectively. Of the swab samples, 113 (32.6%) of samples were positive for virus detection. Of these, HRV (39.8%) was the predominant virus detected followed by FluB (27.4%) and FluA (22.1%). The presence of HRV was significantly higher (p=0.044) among the other detected viruses. When compared to healthy controls the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly higher (p<0.05) in virus-positive patients. The IL-6 and IL-8 were the next predominantly expressed in markers among the samples. The higher expression rate of IL-8 was significantly (p<0.05) associated with patients having COPD GOLD III severity level and smoking history. Although HRV was the predominant virus detected the combined prevalence of Influenza A and B surpassing the rate of HRV. The high-level expression of well known inflammatory markers of AECOPD, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 indicates a chronic severe illness. These markers play an important role and could be used as a marker for determining the severity of AECOPD.


Resumo Estima-se que a doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) seja a terceira causa de mortalidade global em 2020. A exacerbação aguda DPOC (AECOPD) é um agravamento súbito dos sintomas da DPOC e pode ser devido a infecções por vírus/bactérias e poluição do ar. O aumento da expressão de marcadores inflamatórios em pacientes com AECOPD está associado à infecção viral. Este estudo teve como objetivo detectar diferentes vírus e analisar a expressão de vários marcadores inflamatórios associados a pacientes com AECOPD. Trezentos e quarenta e sete pacientes com diagnóstico de DPOC de acordo com os critérios GOLD foram incluídos neste estudo. Amostras de swab e sangue foram coletadas para detecção de vírus por RT-PCR e expressão de marcadores inflamatórios, respectivamente. Das amostras de esfregaço, 113 (32,6%) amostras foram positivas para detecção de vírus. Nestas, o HRV (39,8%) foi o vírus predominante detectado, seguido do FluB (27,4%) e do FluA (22,1%). A presença de VFC foi significativamente maior (p = 0,044) entre os demais vírus detectados. Quando comparados a controles saudáveis, os níveis de expressão de TNF-α, IL-6 e IL-8 foram significativamente maiores (p <0,05) em pacientes com vírus positivo. A IL-6 e a IL-8 foram as próximas predominantemente expressas em marcadores entre as amostras. A maior taxa de expressão de IL-8 foi significativamente (p <0,05) associada a pacientes com grau de gravidade GOLD III da DPOC e história de tabagismo. Embora o HRV tenha sido o vírus predominante, a prevalência combinada de Influenza A e B ultrapassou a taxa de HRV. O alto nível de expressão de marcadores inflamatórios bem conhecidos de AECOPD, TNF-α, IL-6 e IL-8 indica uma doença crônica grave. Esses marcadores desempenham um papel importante e podem ser usados como um marcador para determinar a gravidade da AECOPD.

3.
Licere (Online) ; 24(02): 281-320, 20210630.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282736

RESUMEN

O objetivo geral desse estudo de Mestrado foi realizar uma pesquisa histórica sobre os principais divertimentos ocorridos no sul de Minas Gerais, entre as décadas finais do século XIX e as décadas iniciais do século XX, analisando as representações de tais diversões através dos periódicos das cidades de Campanha, Pouso Alegre e Itajubá. A metodologia aplicada foi a análise documental dos periódicos. Optou-se por realizar um "Estudo da Diversão", os quais consideram recortes temporais anteriores à modernidade e também no âmbito desta, uma vez que não se substituiu de imediato um antigo formato de diversão por outros que surgiam. Foram encontradas referências sobre os festejos religiosos, a passagem do circo e companhias teatrais com suas apresentações de comédias e dramas, as festas nos dias de folia (carnaval e entrudo) e a inauguração da ferrovia na região. A imprensa deu destaque a esses momentos inspirada nos ideais de progresso e civilidade e os dados obtidos junto aos periódicos estavam impregnados de sentidos e significados próprios daqueles que escreviam em suas páginas, onde os divertimentos divulgados eram estratégias de controle, mas também permeados por contradições onde o antigo e o novo se influenciavam e fizeram parte do olhar para o futuro, mas com foco nas tradições e valores que persistiam em continuar também na vida divertida de quem habitava a região.


The overall objective of this Master's study was to conduct historical research on the main amusements that occurred in the southern region of Minas GeraisBrazil between the last decade of the nineteenth century and the early decades of the twentieth century (1891-1930), analyzing their representations through the newspapers of the cities of Campanha, Pouso Alegre and Itajubá. At that time, the progress and modernity ideals were in vogue, which influenced the political, economic and cultural circumstances of the region. The methodology applied in this research was a documental analysis on press and a "Study of Amusement" was carried out, which consider temporal excerpt prior to modernity and within its scope, since the new forms of amusement that arose did not immediately replace the prior ones. Were found reference on the religious festivities, the circus walk and theater companies with their comedy performances and dramas, the festivities in the days (carnival celebration and shrovetide) and the railway inauguration. The Press focused these moments, inspired by the ideals of progress and civility and the data obtained from newspapers were impregnated with particular meanings from those who wrote in their pages, where the announcement of amusements were control strategies, but also permeated by contradictions where the old and the new were influenced by each other and were part of the outlook for the future, but with a focus on the traditions and values that persisted in continuing also in the recreational life of those who inhabited the region.


Asunto(s)
Placer , Historia
4.
Licere (Online) ; 24(02): 321-340, 20210630.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282956

RESUMEN

A rivalidade entre os Bois-Bumbás Caprichoso e Garantido está presente desde sua gênese, porém passou e passa por transformações ao longo de sua história de práticas e relações. Este texto tem como objetivo apontar as transformações pelas quais o boi-bumbá passou de um folguedo de rua ao espetáculo expresso no Festival Folclórico de Parintins. Para isso, foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica e exploratória de modo a registrar a origem e os duelos dos Bois-Bumbás Caprichoso e Garantido enquanto um folguedo de rua, e sua evolução para a diplomacia e, consequentemente, para o lazer. Neste percurso de mudanças, fica evidente a relação dicotômica e antitética entre autonomia e heteronomia que está presente na luta entre rupturas e permanências culturais para atrair, ano após ano, milhares de pessoas para a Ilha Tupinambarana em busca de emoções prazerosas.


The rivalry between the Bumbás Caprichoso and Garantido has been present since its genesis, but has passed and undergoes transformations throughout its history of practices and relationships. This text aims to point out the transformations by which the bumbás went from a street's "folguedo" to the show expressed in the Parintins Folk Festival. For this, a bibliographical and exploratory research was carried out in order to record the origin and duels of the Bois-Bumbás Caprichoso and Garantido as a street's "folguedo" and its evolution to diplomacy and consequently to leisure. In this course of change, it is evident the dichotomous and antithetical relationship between autonomy and heteronomy present in the struggle between ruptures and cultural permanence to attract, year after year, thousands of people to Tupinambarana Island in search of pleasurable emotions.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Recreativas
5.
Licere (Online) ; 24(02): 509-544, 20210630.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291109

RESUMEN

O trabalho objetiva apresentar as vivências no lazer e as imagens sobre ele na perspectiva de idosas com doença celíaca. O estudo tem abordagem qualitativa e características descritivo-exploratórias. Está pautado na sociologia compreensiva e do quotidiano de Michel Maffesoli. A estratégia metodológica da história de vida tópica orientou a coleta de dados. Participaram nove idosas, com média de idade de 67 ± 6,6 anos, residentes em Florianópolis/SC, São José/SC e Governador Celso Ramos/SC. Utilizaram-se entrevista em profundidade e diário de campo. Utilizou-se o modelo de análise qualitativa de Schatzman e Strauss. O lazer foi associado a imagens variadas, mas contemplando as próprias vivências ocorridas nesse âmbito, que, por vezes, são limitadas pelo tratamento da doença celíaca, especialmente as vivências sociais. Imagens e vivências foram abordadas pelas idosas considerando aspectos sensíveis diversos.


This study to describe their experiences and the participants imaginarium about the leisure it from the perspective of elderly women with celiac disease. The study's approach was qualitative and it involves descriptive-exploratory characteristics. Based on the comprehensive and everyday sociology of Michel Maffesoli. The topological life history method guided data collection. The sample included 9 older women, with a mean age of 67 ± 6.6 years, in Florianópolis, São José or Governador Celso Ramos, Brazil. In-depth interviews and field diaries were used. Schatzman and Strauss' field research method of qualitative analysis was used. Leisure describes various experiences and images that involve sensitive aspects, which are sometimes limited by the treatment of celiac disease.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Recreativas
7.
Infectio ; 25(4): 262-269, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286720

RESUMEN

Abstract Objective: To analyse the clinic characteristics, risk factors and evolution of the first cohort of hospitalised patients with confirmed infection by COVID-19 in 5 Colombian institutions. Materials and methods: Is a retrospective observational study of consecutive hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed from March 01 to May 30, 2020 in Colombia. Results: A total of 44 patients were included. The median age was 62 years. 43.2% had a history of smoking, while 69.8% were overweight or obese. 88.6% had at least one comorbidity and 52.3% had three or more comorbidities. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia were the most frequent comorbidities (40.9% and 34.1%, respectively). The 30-day mortality rate was 47.7% with a median of 11 days. The composite outcome occurred in the 36.4%. The biomarkers associated with mor tality risk included troponin higher than 14 ng/L (RR: 5.25; 95% CI 1.37-20.1, p = 0.004) and D-dimer higher than 1000 ng/ml (RR: 3.0; 95% CI 1.4-6.3, p = 0.008). Conclusions: The clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalized Colombian was characterised by a more advanced stage of the infection.


Resumen Objetivo: Analizar las características, clínicas, factores de riesgo, y la evolución de pacientes hospitalizados con infección confirmada por COVID-19 en 5 Institu ciones de Colombia. Material y método: Es un estudio observacional retrospectivo de pacientes consecutivos hospitalizados con diagnóstico de COVID-19 confirmado entre 01 de Febrero de 2020 y 30 de Mayo de 2020 en Colombia. Resultados: Un total de 44 pacientes fueron incluidos. La mediana de edad fue de 62 años y la mayoría del sexo masculino. El 43.2% tenían historia de tabaquismo, mientras que el 69.8% tenían sobrepeso u obesidad. El 88.6% tenían al menos una comorbilidad y el 52.3% tenían tres o más comorbilidades. La hipertensión arterial fue la comorbilidad más frecuente (40.9%), seguido de la dislipidemia (34.1%). La tasa de letalidad a 30 días fue de 47.7% y ocurrió con una mediana de 11 días. El 36.4% presentó el desenlace compuesto. Los biomarcadores asociados con el riesgo de muerte fue troponina > 14 ng/mL (RR:5.25, IC95% 1.37-20.1, p=0.004) y dímero D mayor a 1000 mg/dL (RR: 3.0, IC95% 1.4-6.3, p=0.008). Conclusiones: El curso clínico de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 en colombianos hospitalizados fue un estadio más avanzado de la infección.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Biomarcadores , COVID-19 , Pacientes , Tabaquismo , Comorbilidad , Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Mortalidad , Colombia , Sobrepeso , Cursos , Infecciones , Obesidad
8.
Infectio ; 25(4): 207-211, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286715

RESUMEN

Resumen Objetivo: Describir la proporción, características clínicas, demográficas y programáticas de casos fatales de coinfección TB/VIH de Cali-Colombia, en 2017. Material y Método: Estudio de corte transversal, con información de las bases de datos del programa de tuberculosis, las historias clínicas y unidades de análisis de mortalidad disponibles. Resultados: Se depuraron 257 casos fatales por TB, el 24,5% (63/257) falleció con coinfección TB/VIH. La mediana de edad fue 43 años (Rango Intercuartílico: 30-52), 73% (46/63) eran hombres, 76,2% (48/63) no pertenecían al régimen contributivo, 28,6% eran habitantes de calle. 81,2% (39/48) eran casos nuevos de TB, 76,6% (37/47), inició tratamiento; al 74,6% (47/63) se les realizó unidad de análisis de mortalidad. La presentación pulmonar fue frecuente (75,9%-44/58), en 60% de los registros se observó desnutrición (Índice de Masa Corporal <20), en 39,7% (25/63) dependencia al alcohol, tabaco o farmacodependencia. Conclusiones: La mortalidad asociada a TB/VIH es prevenible, pero en 2017 representó la cuarta parte de la mortalidad por TB en Cali. Hombres adultos con condiciones de vulnerabilidad social, diagnosticados en estados avanzados de enfermedad, fueron blanco de fatalidad. Mejorar los sistemas de información e integrar los programas de TB/VIH, deben ser estrategias prioritarias para la salud pública en Colombia.


Abstract Objective: To describe the proportion, clinical, demographic and programmatic characteristics of fatal cases of TB/HIV coinfection from Cali-Colombia, in 2017. Material and Method: Cross-sectional study, with information from the TB program databases, clinical records and mortality analysis units available. Results: 257 TB fatal cases were cleared in Cali in 2017, 24.5% (63/257) of these died with TB/HIV coinfection. The median age was 43 years (Interquartile Range: 30-52), 73% (46/63) were men, 76.2% (48/63) did not belong to the contributory health regimen, 28.6% were homeless. 81.2% (39/48) were new TB cases, 76.6% (37/47) started treatment; 74.6% (47/63) had mortality analysis register. Pulmonary presentation was frequent (75.9% -44 / 58), in 60% of the registries malnutrition was observed (Body Mass Index <20), in 39.7% (25/63), dependence on alcohol, tobacco or drug dependence was registered. Conclusions: Mortality associated with TB/HIV is preventable, but in 2017 it represented a quarter of the TB mortality in Cali. Adult men with conditions of social vulnerability, diagnosed in advanced stages of disease, were fatally targeted. Improving information systems and integrating TB/HIV programs should be priority strategies for public health in Colombia.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tuberculosis , VIH , Índice de Masa Corporal , Infecciones por VIH , Salud Pública , Estudios Transversales , Mortalidad , Estrategias de Salud , Colombia , Vulnerabilidad Social , Desnutrición
9.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e51211, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151915

RESUMEN

Objetivo: compreender os sentimentos maternos em relação ao cuidado com o filho dentro da unidade penal. Método: a pesquisa tem abordagem qualitativa. Participaram do estudo gestantes a partir do terceiro trimestre e mães que se encontravam com os filhos no berçário de uma unidade Penal em Aquiráz/Ceará, totalizando 17 participantes nos 9 encontros realizados. A coleta se deu entre junho e outubro de 2018. Foi usada a técnica de Desenho-Estória. A análise dos desenhos foi feita de forma individual com cada detenta e categorizada pelas pesquisadoras. O trabalho obteve aprovação do Comitê de Ética. Resultados: a atividade de Desenho-Estória possibilitou a compreensão do sentimento materno em relação aos cuidados com os filhos e, a partir disso, foi possível a definição de ações vistas como cuidado dentro da unidade. Conclusão: a partir da análise da vivência da maternidade na prisão, é possível a compreensão de sentimentos que perpassam o desenvolvimento do papel materno.


Objective: to understand mothers' feelings about caring for their children in prison. Method: the participants in this qualitative study were women in the seventh to ninth months of pregnancy, and mothers with children in the nursery, at a Prison Unit in Aquiráz, Ceará, totaling 17 participants in the 9 meetings held. Data were collected between June and October 2018 using the story-drawing technique. The drawings were analyzed individually with each prisoner and categorized by the researchers. The study had research ethics committee approval. Results: the story-drawing activity made it possible to understand how the mothers' felt about caring for their children and, from that, it was possible to specify measures seen as care inside the prison. Conclusion: from analysis of the experience of motherhood in prison, it is possible to comprehend the feelings running through the role of motherhood.


Objetivo: comprender los sentimientos maternos respecto al cuidado con el hijo dentro de una cárcel. Método: la investigación tiene enfoque cualitativo. Se analizaron mujeres a partir del tercer trimestre de embarazo y madres cuyos hijos se encontraban en la guardería de una prisión en Aquiraz/Ceará, totalizando 17 participantes en los 9 encuentros realizados. La recolección de datos se hizo entre junio y octubre de 2018. Se usó la técnica de historia a través de dibujos. El análisis de los dibujos se hizo de forma individual con cada reclusa y fue categorizado por las investigadoras. El trabajo obtuvo aprobación del Comité de Ética. Resultados: la actividad de historia a través de dibujos posibilitó la comprensión del sentimiento materno respeto al cuidado con sus hijos y, a partir de ello, se hizo posible definir acciones consideradas como atención dentro de la cárcel. Conclusión: a partir del análisis de la vivencia de la maternidad en la prisión, se posibilita la comprensión de sentimientos que atraviesan el desarrollo del rol materno.

10.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1144-1165, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153445

RESUMEN

Abstract Although currently there is already a set of studies regarding ecological aspects of some particular reptile and amphibian species living in Brazilian sandy coastal plains (including the so-called "restinga" and "campo nativo" habitats), there is comparatively few information on the species composition usually associated to these environments. During 31 years (1988-2019) of herpetological studies carried out in sandy coastal plains environments by our research team of the Laboratory of Vertebrate Ecology (Department of Ecology, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, in Rio de Janeiro Brazil) we have surveyed reptile and amphibian communities and performed different studies with similar methods in 70 sites from 10 different states along the Brazilian coast. Our surveys resulted in records of 87 species of reptile (five turtles, two crocodylians, six amphisbaenians, 36 lizards and 39 snakes) from 24 families, and 77 species of anuran amphibians from nine families. We have studied multiple natural history topics for anurans and reptiles which resulted in the publication of some specific ecological studies, especially regarding some species, encompassing population and community ecology, foraging and feeding habits, species activity, thermoregulation, reproduction, use of microhabitats, and parasitism by ecto and endoparasites. Our results along these three decades have also contributed for the description of four new lizard species (Ameivula nativo, Glaucomastix littoralis, G. abaetensis and G. itabaianensis). Our studies constitute an important contribution to the knowledge of the ecology of anuran amphibians and reptiles in these ecosystems, as well as to the conservation of sandy coastal plains environment. The checklist presented in this study, based on our records of sandy coastal plains herpetofauna, provides for many localities along the Brazilian coast, the needed knowledge on species occurrence, including the presence of endemic and/or endangered species, which can be of value for many conservation actions.


Resumo Embora atualmente exista um conjunto de estudos sobre aspectos ecológicos de algumas espécies de répteis e de anfíbios que ocorrem nas planícies costeiras arenosas brasileiras (incluindo os chamados habitats de "restinga" e de "campo nativo"), há relativamente poucas informações sobre a composição de espécies geralmente associada a esses ambientes. Durante 31 anos (1988-2019) de estudos herpetológicos realizados em restingas por nossa equipe de pesquisa do Laboratório de Ecologia de Vertebrados (Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) nós estudamos comunidades de répteis e de anfíbios e realizamos diferentes estudos com métodos semelhantes em 70 localidades de dez diferentes Estados ao longo da costa brasileira. Nossas pesquisas resultaram em registros de 87 espécies de répteis (cinco tartarugas, dois crocodilianos, seis anfisbênios, 36 lagartos e 39 serpentes) de 24 famílias, e 77 espécies de anfíbios anuros de nove famílias. Estudamos vários tópicos de história natural sobre anuros e répteis, que resultaram na publicação de alguns estudos ecológicos específicos, especialmente em relação a algumas espécies, abrangendo ecologia populacional e de comunidades, forrageamento e dieta, horário de atividade de espécies, termorregulação, reprodução, uso do microhabitat e parasitismo por ecto e endoparasitas. Nossos resultados ao longo dessas três décadas também contribuíram para a descrição de quatro novas espécies de lagartos (Ameivula nativo, Glaucomastix littoralis, G. abaetensis e G. itabaianensis). Nossos estudos constituem uma importante contribuição para o conhecimento da ecologia de répteis e de anfíbios anuros nesses ecossistemas, bem como para a conservação dos ecossistemas de restinga. A lista de espécies apresentada neste estudo, com base em nossos registros de herpetofauna das planícies costeiras arenosas, fornece para muitas localidades ao longo da costa brasileira o conhecimento necessário sobre a ocorrência de espécies, incluindo a presença de espécies endêmicas e/ ou ameaçadas de extinção, que podem ser úteis para muitas ações de conservação.

11.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e219638, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1254752

RESUMEN

Diagnosis of oral and oropharyngeal cancer in advanced stages may be associated with social nature factors, access to health care, education, occupation, and behavioral/ cultural factors. Aim: To determine the factors related to high clinical-staging in patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma in the oral and oropharyngeal region in a Cancer Center in Brazil between 2009 and 2015. Methods: It is an epidemiological, retrospective, and exploratory study. Patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma had their medical records analyzed. The variables considered were sociodemographic, lifestyle, and disease characteristics. Descriptive and exploratory tests (Pearson's, chi-square test and, Student's t-test) were realized. Results: We analyzed 365 patient records, among which 289 (79.17%) were male, and 73 (20.0%) were female. Age ranged from 16 to 101 years, with a mean of 61.13. Regarding education, 157 (43.01%) studied < 8 years, 103 (28.21%) were illiterate and 102 (27.94%) studied > 8 years. 305 (83.56%) patients live in urban areas. There was an association between high clinical-staging and low educational level. For high clinical-staging, symptomatology, tobacco, and alcohol intake as well. Conclusion: Patients with low educational levels tend to report the disease later, and their diagnostics occurred in advanced stages. Thus, specific public health policies for this population, including access to dental care to recognize the clinical signs and early diagnosis, are necessary


Asunto(s)
Factores Socioeconómicos , Neoplasias de la Boca/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Registros Médicos
12.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e53642, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224513

RESUMEN

Objetivo: descrever os cuidados domiciliares prestados por parteiras tradicionais durante a assistência ao parto. Método: estudo qualitativo conduzido por meio do método da História Oral Temática, realizado com 16 parteiras em nove municípios do Cariri cearense. A coleta de dados ocorreu entre julho e dezembro de 2015 por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, os relatos foram transcritos, textualizados e transcriados. Resultados: as parteiras prestavam cuidados familiares, assistência ao parto vaginal, cuidados com o recém-nascido e no puerpério imediato. Usavam chás e orações como adjuvantes do seu ofício. Conclusão: o cuidado das parteiras na assistência ao parto centralizava-se nas necessidades da mulher e da família, sendo, em alguns casos, extensivo à casa. As parteiras conheciam os sinais e sintomas do trabalho de parto e agiam nas possíveis intercorrências.


Objective: to describe home care provided by traditional midwives during childbirth care. Method: this qualitative study, using the Thematic Oral History method, was conducted with 16 midwives from nine municipalities in Cariri, Ceará. Data were collected from July to December 2015 through semi-structured interviews, the reports were transcribed, textualized and transcreated. Results: midwives provided family care, vaginal delivery care, newborn care and immediate postpartum care. They used teas and prayers as an adjuncts to their craft. Conclusion: childbirth care by midwives centered on the women's and families' needs and, in some cases, extended to the home. Midwives knew the signs and symptoms of labor and acted on possible complications.


Objetivo: describir los cuidados domiciliarios brindados por parteras tradicionales durante la atención al parto. Método: estudio cualitativo conducido mediante el método de Historia Oral Temática, realizado con 16 parteras en nueve municipios de Cariri en Ceará. La recolección de datos se realizó entre julio y diciembre de 2015 a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas; los relatos fueron transcritos, textualizados y transcreados. Resultados: las parteras brindaron atención familiar, asistencia en el parto vaginal, cuidados al recién nacido y en el puerperio inmediato. Usaban tés y oraciones como complemento de su oficio. Conclusión: el cuidado de las parteras en la atención al parto se centraba en las necesidades de la mujer y de la familia, extendiéndose, en algunos casos, al hogar. Las parteras conocían los signos y síntomas del trabajo de parto y actuaban sobre las posibles complicaciones.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Atención Perinatal , Parto Domiciliario , Atención Domiciliaria de Salud , Partería , Trabajo de Parto , Investigación Cualitativa , Periodo Posparto
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e051707, 2021 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598988

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with COVID-19 test positivity and assess viral and antibody test concordance. DESIGN: Observational retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Optum de-identified electronic health records including over 700 hospitals and 7000 clinics in the USA. PARTICIPANTS: There were 891 754 patients who had a COVID-19 test identified in their electronic health record between 20 February 2020 and 10 July 2020. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Per cent of viral and antibody tests positive for COVID-19 ('positivity rate'); adjusted ORs for factors associated with COVID-19 viral and antibody test positivity; and per cent concordance between positive viral and subsequent antibody test results. RESULTS: Overall positivity rate was 9% (70 472 of 771 278) and 12% (11 094 of 91 741) for viral and antibody tests, respectively. Positivity rate was inversely associated with the number of individuals tested and decreased over time across regions and race/ethnicities. Antibody test concordance among patients with an initial positive viral test was 91% (71%-95% depending on time between tests). Among tests separated by at least 2 weeks, discordant results occurred in 7% of patients and 9% of immunocompromised patients. Factors associated with increased odds of viral and antibody positivity in multivariable models included: male sex, Hispanic or non-Hispanic black or Asian race/ethnicity, uninsured or Medicaid insurance and Northeast residence. We identified a negative dose effect between the number of comorbidities and viral and antibody test positivity. Paediatric patients had reduced odds (OR=0.60, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.64) of a positive viral test but increased odds (OR=1.90, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.23) of a positive antibody test compared with those aged 18-34 years old. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with COVID-19 test positivity and provided real-world evidence demonstrating high antibody test concordance among viral-positive patients.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Registros Electrónicos de Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
15.
Torture ; 31(1): 37-52, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606476

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Freedom from Torture developed remote telephone assessments to provide interim medico-legal reports, ensuring people could obtain medical evidence to support their asylum claim. METHOD: To audit this new way of working, feedback was collected from the doctors, interpreters, individuals being assessed, and senior medical and legal staff who reviewed the reports. This paper presents findings from the first 20 assessments. RESULTS: Individuals assessed reported that the doctor developed good rapport, but in 35% of assessments reported that there were some experiences they felt unable to disclose. In 70% of assessments, doctors felt that rapport was not as good compared to face-to-face. In the majority of assessments, doctors were unable to gain a full account of the torture or its impact. They reported feeling cautious about pressing for more information on the telephone, mindful of individuals' vulnerability and the difficulty of providing support remotely. Nevertheless, in 85% of assessments doctors felt able to assess the consistency of the account of torture with the psychological findings, in accordance with the Istanbul Protocol (United Nations, 2004). Factors that hindered the assessment included the inability to observe body language, the person's ill health, and confidentiality concerns. CONCLUSION: This research indicates that psychological medico-legal reports can safely be produced by telephone assessment, but are more likely to be incomplete in terms of both full disclosure of torture experiences and psychological assessment. The limitations underline the need for a follow-up face-to-face assessment to expand the psychological assessment as well as undertake a physical assessment.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Relaciones Médico-Paciente/ética , Refugiados/psicología , Consulta Remota/ética , Teléfono , Tortura , Humanos , Anamnesis , Pandemias , Examen Físico , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiología
16.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 6(1): 37, 2021 09 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593054

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has seriously affected people's mental health and changed their behaviors. Previous studies for mental state and behavior promotion only targeted limited people or were not suitable for daily activity restrictions. Therefore, we decided to explore the effect of health education videos on people's mental state and health-related behaviors. METHODS: Based on WeChat, QQ, and other social media, we conducted an online survey by snowball sampling. Spearman's non-parametric method was used to analyze the correlation related to mental health problems and health-related behaviors. Besides, we used binary logistic regression analyses to examine mental health problems and health-related behaviors' predictors. We performed SPSS macro PROCESS (model 4 and model 6) to analyze mediation relationships between exposure to health education videos and depression/anxiety/health-related behaviors. These models were regarded as exploratory. RESULTS: Binary logistic regression analyses indicated that people who watched the health education videos were more likely to wear masks (OR 1.15, p < 0.001), disinfect (OR 1.26, p < 0.001), and take temperature (OR 1.37, p < 0.001). With higher level of posttraumatic growth (PTG) or perceived social support (PSS), people had lower percentage of depression (For PSS, OR 0.98, p < 0.001; For PTG, OR 0.98, p < 0.01) and anxiety (For PSS, OR 0.98, p < 0.001; For PTG, OR 0.98, p = 0.01) and better health behaviors. The serial multiple-mediation model supported the positive indirect effects of exposure to health education videos on the depression and three health-related behaviors through PSS and PTG (Depression: B[SE] = - 0.0046 [0.0021], 95% CI - 0.0098, - 0.0012; Mask-wearing: B[SE] = 0.0051 [0.0023], 95% CI 0.0015, 0.0010; Disinfection: B[SE] = 0.0059 [0.0024], 95% CI 0.0024, 0.0012; Temperature-taking: B[SE] = 0.0067 [0.0026], 95% CI 0.0023, 0.0013). CONCLUSION: Exposure to health education videos can improve people's self-perceived social support and inner growth and help them cope with the adverse impact of public health emergencies with better mental health and health-related behaviors.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , China , Femenino , Educación en Salud/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Apoyo Social , Adulto Joven
17.
Reumatol Clin (Engl Ed) ; 17(8): 475-481, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625151

RESUMEN

Nahuatl medicine was remarkably advanced in Prehispanic Mesoamerica. Thoughts on health and disease were different to those prevalent in Europe in the sixteenth century because they included magic, religion and different kinds of animal, mineral and, notably, herbal medicine. These resources were used in a supplementary, not isolated, way by Nahua physicians (ticitl) according to patients' needs and beliefs. Most Nahua physicians had similar knowledge but there were some differences between rural and urban areas, and those who were also doctor-priests of a particular deity. After the European colonization of Mesoamerica, great efforts were made by Spaniards and Indians to recover the immense amount of ancient knowledge in Mesoamerica related to medicine. Some of this work, not all, is included in the Cruz-Badiano Codex, the Florentine Codex or Historia general de las cosas de la Nueva España, and the Francisco Hernández Codex. A review of these codices and the recent literature on the practice of Nahua Medicine was performed with particular interest in herbal medicine in rheumatic diseases, or symptoms probably related to rheumatic diseases, during the sixteenth century in the land currently known as Mexico.

18.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 39(4): 807-820, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600639

RESUMEN

Abdominal pain in an immunocompromised patient represents a common clinical scenario that may have uncommon causes. Evaluation relies first on identifying the immunocompromise, whether due to congenital immunodeficiencies, malignancy, hematopoietic stem cell transplant, solid organ transplant, or human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Based on this determination, the emergency physician may then build a focused differential of pathophysiologic possibilities. Careful evaluation is necessary given the absence of classic physical examination findings, and liberal use of laboratory and cross-sectional imaging is prudent. Conservative evaluation and disposition of these high-risk patients is important to consider.


Asunto(s)
Dolor Abdominal/etiología , Huésped Inmunocomprometido , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa/efectos adversos , Infecciones por Citomegalovirus/complicaciones , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Enterocolitis Neutropénica/complicaciones , Enfermedad Injerto contra Huésped/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas , Humanos , Inmunosupresores/efectos adversos , Obstrucción Intestinal/complicaciones , Trastornos Linfoproliferativos/complicaciones , Anamnesis , Mucositis/complicaciones , Neoplasias/complicaciones , Examen Físico
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 670, 2021 Oct 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602060

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus currently cause a lot of pressure on the health system. Accordingly, many changes occurred in the way of providing health care, including pregnancy and childbirth care. To our knowledge, no studies on experiences of maternity care Providers during the COVID-19 Pandemic have been published in Iran. We aimed to discover their experiences on pregnancy and childbirth care during the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study was a qualitative research performed with a descriptive phenomenological approach. The used sampling method was purposive sampling by taking the maximum variation possible into account, which continued until data saturation. Accordingly, in-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted by including 12 participants, as 4 gynecologists, 6 midwives working in the hospitals and private offices, and 2 midwives working in the health centers. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi's seven stage method with MAXQDA10 software. RESULTS: Data analysis led to the extraction of 3 themes, 9 categories, and 25 subcategories. The themes were as follows: "Fear of Disease", "Burnout", and "Lessons Learned from the COVID-19 Pandemic", respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal health care providers experience emotional and psychological stress and work challenges during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, comprehensive support should be provided for the protection of their physical and mental health statuses. By working as a team, utilizing the capacity of telemedicine to care and follow up mothers, and providing maternity care at home, some emerged challenges to maternal care services can be overcome.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Servicios de Salud Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Perinatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Agotamiento Psicológico/psicología , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Emociones/fisiología , Femenino , Ginecología/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Entrevistas como Asunto , Irán/epidemiología , Servicios de Salud Materna/tendencias , Persona de Mediana Edad , Partería/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Perinatal/organización & administración , Trastornos Fóbicos/psicología , Embarazo , Investigación Cualitativa , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Telemedicina/métodos
20.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 78(3): 283-286, 2021 09 06.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617713

RESUMEN

Background: Due to ambiguities in terminology, acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in childhood are frequently not properly recorded, especially during outpatient visits. A tool that accurately identifies them, would assess the impact on respiratory health of massive harms, and design policies to prevent or mitigate their effects. We aimed to design an algorithm that allows identifying children with ALRI based on data from the electronic clinical record (ECR) of the Government of the City of Buenos Aires (GCBA). Methods: From the ECR-GCBA database, we randomly selected 1000 outpatient visits of patients aged under 2 years. Terms showing that the visit was due to LARI were searched using an algorithm based on hard rules. Another dataset including 800 visits was used to adjust the algorithm and, finally, its performance was tested in a third dataset of 800 queries corresponding to the entire year 2018. Results: In the validation set, our tool identified LARI with sensitivity 88.24%, specificity 97.5%, PPV 86.07% and NPV 97.93%. Conclusion: Our search algorithm allows us to identify with acceptable precision the outpatient visits related to LARI in children under 2 years of age from electronic clinical records.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Pediatría , Niño , Electrónica , Humanos , Derivación y Consulta
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