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Hum Reprod Open ; 2020(2): hoaa010, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32309638


STUDY QUESTION: What are the psychosocial and financial issues experienced among families with children 2-12 years of age conceived by ART? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our results suggest that families with children, 2-12 years of age, conceived via ART are doing well, although impacts were identified on parents of twins and higher-order multiples. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Multiple births have been associated with higher morbidity and mortality of children, as well as financial costs to families and society. STUDY DESIGN SIZE DURATION: This study was an assessment of familial response to birth of singletons, twins and higher order multiples at child's ages of 2-12. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS SETTING METHODS: Semi-structured interviews and surveys were conducted with mothers (n = 348) and fathers (n = 338) of singletons, twins and higher-order multiple gestations who received fertility services. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: No significant differences were observed between the groups in domains of primary caregiving or parental separation/divorce. Impacts were identified on parent's ability to maintain employment. The revised 15-item scores of the Impact on Family Scale were significantly lower, reflecting more negative impacts, among families with twins (beta = -2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI), -4.7, -0.5, P = 0.014) and multiples (beta = -7.4, 95% CI, -10.4, -4.5, P < 0.001) than among families with singletons. Similarly, the Parenting Stress Index total scores were significantly lower among families with twins and multiples, indicating greater levels of stress, when compared to those with singletons. In addition, the Beck Depression Inventory total score were significantly higher for twins and multiples, and the Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5 total problem score was significantly higher for twins when compared to singletons. LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION: The study was limited to families who received fertility treatment and constitutes a population that was well educated and had higher incomes. Additionally, interview data was self-reported. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: This work was supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH)/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) U10 HD39005 (to M.P.D.), U10 HD077680 (to K.R.H.), U10 HD077844 (to A.Z.), U10 HD077841 (to M.C.), U10 HD38992 (to R.S.L.), U10 HD27049 (to C.C.), U10 HD055925 (to H.Z.). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NICHD or NIH.Dr Virginia Miller-no conflicts; Dr Michael P. Diamond-NIH Funding, AbbVie, Bayer and ObsEva Funding; Board of Directors and Stockholder for Advanced Reproductive Care; Dr Karl R. Hansen-Yale University/Reproductive Medicine Network/NICHD, Roche Diagnostics and Ferring International Pharmascience Center US funding; Dr Anne Steiner-NIH Funding; Dr Marcelle I. Cedars-no conflicts; Dr Richard Legro-consultant for Ogeda, Millendo, Kindex and Bayer; Ferring and Astra Zeneca funding; Dr Stephen A. Krawetz-no conflicts; Dr Christos Coutifaris-NIH Funding; Dr Hao Huang-no conflicts; Dr Nanette Santoro-no conflicts; Dr Heping Zhang-NIH Funding. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209495, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586394


Relatively little is known of leprosy in Medieval Ireland; as an island located at the far west of Europe it has the potential to provide interesting insights in relation to the historical epidemiology of the disease. To this end the study focuses on five cases of probable leprosy identified in human skeletal remains excavated from inhumation burials. Three of the individuals derived from the cemetery of St Michael Le Pole, Golden Lane, Dublin, while single examples were also identified from Ardreigh, Co. Kildare, and St Patrick's Church, Armoy, Co. Antrim. The individuals were radiocarbon dated and examined biomolecularly for evidence of either of the causative pathogens, M. leprae or M. lepromatosis. Oxygen and strontium isotopes were measured in tooth enamel and rib samples to determine where the individuals had spent their formative years and to ascertain if they had undertaken any recent migrations. We detected M. leprae DNA in the three Golden Lane cases but not in the probable cases from either Ardreigh Co. Kildare or Armoy, Co. Antrim. M. lepromatosis was not detected in any of the burals. DNA preservation was sufficiently robust to allow genotyping of M. leprae strains in two of the Golden Lane burials, SkCXCV (12-13th century) and SkCCXXX (11-13th century). These strains were found to belong on different lineages of the M. leprae phylogenetic tree, namely branches 3 and 2 respectively. Whole genome sequencing was also attempted on these two isolates with a view to gaining further information but poor genome coverage precluded phylogenetic analysis. Data from the biomolecular study was combined with osteological, isotopic and radiocarbon dating to provide a comprehensive and multidisciplinary study of the Irish cases. Strontium and oxygen isotopic analysis indicate that two of the individuals from Golden Lane (SkCXLVIII (10-11th century) and SkCXCV) were of Scandinavian origin, while SkCCXXX may have spent his childhood in the north of Ireland or central Britain. We propose that the Vikings were responsible for introducing leprosy to Ireland. This work adds to our knowledge of the likely origins of leprosy in Medieval Ireland and will hopefully stimulate further research into the history and spread of this ancient disease across the world.

Restos Mortales/microbiología , Lepra/historia , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Arqueología/métodos , Restos Mortales/anatomía & histología , Huesos/química , Huesos/microbiología , Entierro , ADN Bacteriano/genética , ADN Bacteriano/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Técnicas de Genotipaje , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Irlanda , Lepra/microbiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Isótopos de Oxígeno/análisis , Filogenia , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis , Adulto Joven
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 120(30): 3714-8, 2000 Dec 10.
Artículo en No | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11215944


The Origin of Species, Charles Darwin's most important work, was published in London in 1859. The first presentation in Norway, by P. Chr. Asbjørnsen, appeared in the journal Budstikken. About 30 years passed before it was translated into Norwegian, and it took some time before Darwin's theories were debated in Norway. The zoologist Michael Sars introduced them in the Scientific Society in Christiania (i.e., Oslo) in 1869, but he was not met with a great deal of interest. However, a new generation of scientist saw this differently, mainly the botanist Axel Blytt, the zoologist G.O. Sars and the geologist W.C. Brøgger. Two prominent professors of medicine were also involved in the debate, on different sides. The Darwinist Gerhard Henrik Armauer Hansen, who discovered the lepra bacillus, wrote several books and articles about Darwinism, while Professor Ernst Ferdinand Lochmann, though admiring Darwin as a prominent naturalist, strongly rejected Darwinism as a scientific theory.

Evolución Biológica , Animales , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Noruega , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/historia , Opinión Pública , Publicaciones/historia , Religión y Medicina , Sociedades Médicas/historia , Especificidad de la Especie