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2.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 80(2): 474-489, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582838

RESUMEN

This study provides data on the characteristic levels, spatial patterns, sources, and risk of n-alkanes (AHs) [octane, n-C8, to tetracontane, n-C40] and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surficial sediments from the Escravos River Basin (ERB), Nigeria. The n-alkane and PAH concentrations in sediments were quantified by chromatographic methods. The concentrations of AHs and PAHs in the ERB sediments varied from 95 to 3430 µg g-1 and from 0.75 to 213 µg g-1, respectively. Both the concentrations of AHs and PAHs in ERB sediments exceeded their respective guideline values. The carbon preference index and other AH markers provide evidence that the AHs in the ERB sediments originated from petroleum sources. Ecological risk assessment indicated that the ecological risk relating to an organism's contact with PAHs in the ERB sediments was high. The possible carcinogenic risk arising from human exposure with PAHs in surface sediments through accidental oral ingestion and skin contact exceeded the safe level of 10-6, indicating a considerable probable cancer risk for fishermen and other inhabitants of the ERB. PAH isomer ratios and multivariate statistics suggested that the PAHs in sediments from the ERB originated from gas flaring inputs, discharges from oil drilling platforms, diesel engines, ships, and speed boats, and combustion of wood and other biomass.


Asunto(s)
Alcanos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Petróleo/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Humanos , Niger , Nigeria , Industria del Petróleo y Gas , Contaminación por Petróleo , Medición de Riesgo , Ríos/química
3.
Chemosphere ; 271: 129542, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445031

RESUMEN

The occurrence of emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) such as chemicals in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, plasticizers, etc. in surface waters is a growing global concern. The discharge of most EOCs is not regulated, and EOCs have been shown to be toxic to both human and aquatic life even at low concentrations. In this work, acid-leached carbon black waste (LCBW), a carbonaceous residue from petroleum refineries, was investigated as a potential waste-derived adsorbent for the removal of EOCs. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, (CIPRO, antibiotic), sulfamethoxazole (SULFA, antibiotic), acetaminophen (ACET, pharmaceutical), bisphenol A (BPA, plasticizer) and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET, insect repellent) were chosen as the target EOCs owing to their presence in relatively high concentrations in surface waters as well as in the influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plants. LCBW, with a specific surface area of 409 m2/g, demonstrated 90-99% removal of 10 ppm CIPRO, BPA, and ACET and 70-80% removal of 10 ppm SULFA and DEET in tap water. Adsorption was rapid, particularly for CIPRO, BPA, and ACET, wherein >85% of the adsorption occurred within 1 h of contact time. To illustrate the potential of LCBW as an adsorbent in different physical forms, ∼3 mm spherical beads of LCBW encapsulated within carboxymethyl cellulose matrix were prepared by a facile ionic gelation method and their adsorption performance was demonstrated.


Asunto(s)
Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Adsorción , Humanos , Industria del Petróleo y Gas , Aguas Residuales/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 323: 124605, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388600

RESUMEN

Differences in the rhamnolipid structures must result in its different activities, thus affecting its application effect. The rhlC gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa SG was knocked out to construct strain P. aeruginosa SGΔrhlC. Rhamnolipid production was enhanced by 23.3% through knocking out rhlC gene. P. aeruginosa SGΔrhlC produced 14.22 g/L of rhamnolipid using glycerol and nitrate. Five kinds of mono-rhamnolipid but no di-rhamnolipid were produced by strain SGΔrhlC. The main rhamnolipid homologues were Rha-C10-C10, Rha-C10-C12:1 and Rha-C10-C12. Mono-rhamnolipid exhibited better antimicrobial activity to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. Rhamnolipid produced from strain SGΔrhlC showed greater emulsifying activity to crude oil with EI24 of 84.73%. Rhamnolipid produced from strain SGΔrhlC efficiently washed oily sludge at 35 °C. High-producing strain P. aeruginosa SGΔrhlC and its produced mono-rhamnolipid are more promising in agriculture and petroleum industry. This study is a step forward to the tailor-made biosynthesis and application of rhamnolipid.


Asunto(s)
Petróleo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Agricultura , Decanoatos , Glucolípidos , Industria del Petróleo y Gas , Ramnosa/análogos & derivados , Tensoactivos
5.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127872, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791370

RESUMEN

Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) was firstly used to enhance pollutants removal during coal gasification wastewater (CGW) treatment in anaerobic digestion (AD) system. Bench-scale results revealed that 200 mg/L and 20-40 nm of Fe3O4 NPs addition resulted in a maximum removal capacity of total phenol (TPh) at a temperature of 36 °C and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 36 h. Meanwhile, Fe3O4 NPs addition reduced the oxidation reduction potential (ORP) values and biological toxicity, and enhanced the stability of AD system. Pilot-scale results showed that the TPh and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency (53% and 49%) were obtained with the optimal dosage of Fe3O4 NPs. Moreover, electron nanowires may be established with Fe3O4 NPs assisted to perform direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) among Geobacter, Pseudomonas and Methanosaeta species, and finally enhanced the pollutants removal efficiency.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Industriales , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Industria del Petróleo y Gas , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/métodos , Anaerobiosis , Análisis de la Demanda Biológica de Oxígeno , Reactores Biológicos , Carbón Mineral , Electrones , Fenol , Fenoles , Pseudomonas , Aguas Residuales
6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244738, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382855

RESUMEN

Utilization of metal-oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has generated substantial recent research interest in this area. Among these NPs, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have demonstrated promising results in improving oil recovery due to their prominent thermal properties. These nanoparticles can also be polarized by electromagnetic (EM) field, which offers a unique Nano-EOR approach called EM-assisted Nano-EOR. However, the impact of NPs concentrations on oil recovery mechanism under EM field has not been well established. For this purpose, ZnO nanofluids (ZnO-NFs) of two different particle sizes (55.7 and 117.1 nm) were formed by dispersing NPs between 0.01 wt.% to 0.1 wt.% in a basefluid of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) and NaCl to study their effect on oil recovery mechanism under the electromagnetic field. This mechanism involved parameters, including mobility ratio, interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability. The displacement tests were conducted in water-wet sandpacks at 95˚C, by employing crude oil from Tapis. Three tertiary recovery scenarios have been performed, including (i) SDBS surfactant flooding as a reference, (ii) ZnO-NFs flooding, and (iii) EM-assisted ZnO-NFs flooding. Compare with incremental oil recovery from surfactant flooding (2.1% original oil in place/OOIP), nanofluid flooding reaches up to 10.2% of OOIP at optimal 0.1 wt.% ZnO (55.7 nm). Meanwhile, EM-assisted nanofluid flooding at 0.1 wt.% ZnO provides a maximum oil recovery of 10.39% and 13.08% of OOIP under EM frequency of 18.8 and 167 MHz, respectively. By assessing the IFT/contact angle and mobility ratio, the optimal NPs concentration to achieve a favorable ER effect and interfacial disturbance is determined, correlated to smaller hydrodynamic-sized nanoparticles that cause strong electrostatic repulsion between particles.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas del Metal , Industria del Petróleo y Gas , Óxido de Zinc , Campos Electromagnéticos , Tensión Superficial
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239493, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956424

RESUMEN

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have received significant attention as potential extracting agents in recent years due to their favorable characteristics including low cost, easy preparation and environmentally safe starting materials. Experimentally screening for highly efficient DESs meeting various requirements for natural gas sweetening remains a challenging task. Thus, an extensive database of estimated Henry's law constants (Hi) and solubilities (xi) of CO2 in 170 different DESs at 25°C has been constructed using the COSMO-RS method to select potential DESs. Based on the COSMO-RS study, three DESs, namely tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB)+polyethylene glycol (PEG-8) (on a molar basis 1:4), TBAB+octanoic acid (OCT) (1:4), and methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (MTPB)+PEG-8 (1:10), were chosen for further experimentation up to 2 bar at 25°C using a vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) apparatus. Reliable thermophysical properties were determined experimentally, and a detailed equilibrium-based model was developed for one of the glycol-based DESs (i.e., TBAB+PEG-8 (1:4)). This information is an essential prerequisite for carrying out process simulations of natural gas sweetening plants using ASPEN PLUS. The simulation results for the proposed DES were compared to those of monoethylene glycol (MEG). Here, we find that the aqueous TBAB+PEG-8 (1:4) solvent shows ~60% lower total energy consumption and higher CO2 removal when compared to those using the MEG solvent.


Asunto(s)
Gas Natural/análisis , Industria del Petróleo y Gas/métodos , Polietilenglicoles/química , Solventes/química , Absorción Fisicoquímica , Bromuros , Caprilatos , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Colina , Simulación por Computador , Contaminación Ambiental/prevención & control , Diseño de Equipo , Enlace de Hidrógeno , Modelos Químicos , Estructura Molecular , Industria del Petróleo y Gas/economía , Industria del Petróleo y Gas/instrumentación , Compuestos Onio , Compuestos de Amonio Cuaternario , Sales (Química) , Temperatura , Termodinámica , Temperatura de Transición , Compuestos de Tritilo
8.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746568

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the relationship between sleep quality and occupational stress in field gas recovery workers. Methods: In October 2018, cluster sampling method was adopted to conduct cross-sectional survey on 1726 field workers in a gas production oilfield. The individual characteristics, occupational stress factors, stress regulation factors, stress response and sleep quality, social support and coping strategies were evaluated by occupational stress measurement tools and job content questionnaire. Mann Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis H test were used to compare sleep quality scores between the groups. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between sleep quality and occupational stress, and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze multiple factors. Results: There were significant differences in sleep quality scores among different positions, gender, marital status, age, length of service, smoking and drinking (P<0.05) . There were no significant differences in sleep quality scores between different education levels and work shift groups (P>0.05) . Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that sleep quality score was negatively correlated with job satisfaction, reward, job stability, promotion opportunity, positive emotion, respect, self-esteem, control strategy, support strategy and self-efficacy score (r(s)=-0.361, -0.311, -0.238, -0.261, -0.248, -0.212, -0.139, -0.188, -0.152, -0.226, P<0.01) , and was positively correlated with social support, giving, daily tension, negative emotion, work monotony and depression symptom (r(s)=0.312, 0.279, 0.547, 0.493, 0.429, 0.599, P<0.01) . Compared with the high sleep quality score group, the middle and low sleep quality score groups had lower giving, work monotony, daily tension, depressive symptoms, negative emotions and social support (P<0.01) , while the scores of respect, reward, job satisfaction, positive emotion, self-efficacy, job stability, promotion opportunity, control strategy and support strategy were higher (P<0.01) . Multiple depressive symptoms, high daily tension, high negative emotion and high work monotony were the risk factors for sleep disorders (OR=3.417, 2.659, 2.913, 1.543) . Conclusion: Depressive symptoms, daily tension and negative emotion have great influence on sleep quality of field gas recovery workers.


Asunto(s)
Estrés Laboral , Sueño , Estrés Psicológico , Estudios Transversales , Depresión , Humanos , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Ocupaciones , Yacimiento de Petróleo y Gas , Industria del Petróleo y Gas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 44, 2020 Aug 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861244

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Petrol is the non-specific term for petroleum which is used for inside combustion of engines. Petrol filling workers are highly vulnerable to occupational exposure to these harmful substances which lead to hemato-toxicity and blood disorders such as leukemia, aplastic anemia, and dysplastic bone marrow. Thus, this study was aimed to assess hematological parameters of petrol filling workers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2019 in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A total of 110 study participants comprising 55 study groups and 55 controls group were recruited by a convenient sampling technique. Socio-demographic data were collected using a structured questionnaire, and 3 ml of venous blood was collected for the determination of hematological parameters. The data were entered into Epi info 7.2.0.1 and analyzed by SPSS version of 20. Mean, standard deviation, median, and interquartile ranges were used to present the data. Independent t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare the mean or median difference between parametric and non-parametric hematological parameters, respectively. Moreover, Pearson product-moment and Spearman's rank-order bivariable correlations analyses were used to describe the correlation between hematological parameters and duration of exposure to petrol. A P value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The study revealed that mean red blood cell count and hemoglobin level as well as the median hematocrit, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, absolute lymphocytes count, and red cell distribution width values of petrol filling workers showed a significant increment compared with the control group. On the other hand, the mean cell hemoglobin value of petrol filling workers showed a significant decrement compared with healthy controls. Moreover, the duration of exposure to petrol showed a significant positive correlation with red blood cell count and mean cell hemoglobin concentration; however, a significant negative correlation was observed with mean cell volume. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the majority of hematological parameters of petrol filling workers showed an increment compared with healthy controls which might be associated with exposure to petrol chemicals. However, further longitudinal study with a larger sample size should be conducted to explore the impact of petrol exposure on hematopoiesis.


Asunto(s)
Recuento de Eritrocitos , Índices de Eritrocitos , Hematócrito , Recuento de Linfocitos , Exposición Profesional/análisis , Industria del Petróleo y Gas , Recuento de Plaquetas , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
10.
Mar Environ Res ; 158: 104996, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501265

RESUMEN

Fossil fuel drilling operations create sediment plumes and release waste materials into the ocean. These operations sometimes occur close to sensitive marine ecosystems, such as cold-water corals. While there have been several studies on the effects of energy industry activities on adult corals, there is very little information on potential impacts to their early life history stages. Larval stages of many marine organisms, including cold-water corals use cilia as a means of feeding and swimming, and if these structures become clogged with suspended particulates, the larvae may sink and be lost to the system. The objective of this study was to understand the response of Lophelia pertusa larvae to a different drilling waste components, and assess post-exposure recovery. Larvae of two ages (eight and 21 days) were exposed to a range of concentrations of bentonite, barite and drill cuttings. Larval sensitivity was assessed using the concentration at which 50% of the larvae showed behavioral effects (EC50) or lethal effects (LC50). Larvae showed greatest sensitivity to bentonite, followed by barite and drill cuttings, and also showed age-related responses that differed among the test materials. Post exposure recovery was variable across materials, with larvae exposed to bentonite having the lowest recovery rates. Understanding the vulnerability of early life history stages to human activities can help inform management strategies to preserve reproductive capacity of important marine ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Sulfato de Bario , Bentonita , Animales , Sulfato de Bario/toxicidad , Bentonita/toxicidad , Ecosistema , Sedimentos Geológicos , Larva , Industria del Petróleo y Gas
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481656

RESUMEN

Large oil shale resources are found in Eastern Estonia, where the mineral resource is mined, excavated, and used for electricity generation and shale oil extraction. During industrial activities in the last 100 years, pollutants have been emitted in large amounts, some of which are toxic and carcinogenic. The current study aims to analyse time trends in cancer incidence in the oil shale industry-affected areas and compare them with overall cancer incidence rates and trends in Estonia. We analysed Estonian Cancer Registry data on selected cancer sites that have been previously indicated to have relationships with industrial activities like oil shale extraction. We included lung cancer, kidney cancer, urinary bladder cancer, leukaemia, breast cancer, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. A statistically significantly higher lung cancer age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) was found during the study period (1992-2015) only in males in the oil shale areas as compared to males in Estonia overall: 133.6 and 95.5 per 100,000, respectively. However, there appeared to be a statistically significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the lung cancer ASIR in males in the oil shale areas (overall decrease 28.9%), whereas at the same time, there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in non-oil shale areas (13.3%) and in Estonia overall (1.5%). Other cancer sites did not show higher ASIRs in the oil shale industrial areas compared to other areas in Estonia. Possible explanations could be improved environmental quality, socio-economic factors, and other morbidities.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias/epidemiología , Industria del Petróleo y Gas , Estonia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Minerales
13.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 53, 2020 05 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430062

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The petrochemical industry is a major source of hazardous and toxic air pollutants that are recognised to have mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. A wealth of occupational epidemiology literature exists around the petrochemical industry, with adverse haematological effects identified in employees exposed to 'low' concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene). Releases from the petrochemical industry are also thought to increase the risk of cancer incidence in fenceline communities. However, this emerging and at times inconclusive evidence base remains fragmented. The present study's aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association between incidences of haematological malignancy and residential exposure to the petrochemical industry. METHODS: Epidemiological studies reporting the risk of haematological malignancies (Leukaemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Multiple myeloma) were included where the following criteria were met: (i) Cancer incidence is diagnosed by a medical professional and coded in accordance to the International Classification of Diseases; (ii) A clear definition of fenceline communities is provided, indicating the proximity between exposed residents and petrochemical activities; and (iii) Exposure is representative of normal operating conditions, not emergency events. Two investigators independently extracted information on study characteristics and outcomes in accordance with PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. Relative risks and their 95% confidence intervals were pooled across studies for the four categories of haematological malignancy, using a random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: The systematic review identified 16 unique studies, which collectively record the incidence of haematological malignancies across 187,585 residents living close to a petrochemical operation. Residents from fenceline communities, less than 5 km from a petrochemical facility (refinery or manufacturer of commercial chemicals), had a 30% higher risk of developing Leukaemia than residents from communities with no petrochemical activity. Meanwhile, the association between exposure and rarer forms of haematological malignancy remains uncertain, with further research required. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of developing Leukaemia appears higher in individuals living near a petrochemical facility. This highlights the need for further policy to regulate the release of carcinogens by industry.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiología , Industria del Petróleo y Gas , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/etiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(18): 22511-22522, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319056

RESUMEN

This paper empirically investigates the impact of overall sustainability reporting as well as its components (economic, environmental, and social sustainability reporting) on the cost of debt and equity capital for Malaysian oil and gas companies. The data was collected from 41 publicly listed oil and gas companies in Malaysia for the period from 2008 to 2017. Qualitative information was gathered for sustainability reporting and then converted into quantitative form by assigning weights according to the extent of reporting. The cost of capital information was sourced through Thomson Reuters Datastream. Panel data analysis was employed using generalized least square (GLS) random effects regression to examine the relationship between sustainability reporting and cost of capital. Firm reputation, size, and profitability were included as control variables. The findings indicate that overall sustainability reporting and one component, economic sustainability reporting, reduce both cost of debt and cost of equity. However, environmental sustainability reporting reduces only the cost of debt but does not reduce the cost of equity. Social sustainability reporting shows no effect on the cost of debt or equity. The findings of this paper should be useful for regulators, legislators, shareholders, creditors, and practitioners in pursuing sustainability practices that not only improve economic and environmental performance but also enhance overall performance by reducing the cost of capital. The results of the paper highlight that companies investing in sustainability can generate positive value through the enhancement of reputational capital. This study is the first to empirically investigate the relationship between overall sustainability reporting, including its three components, and the cost of both debt and equity capital.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Energéticos , Industria del Petróleo y Gas , Economía , Malasia
15.
Arch Environ Occup Health ; 75(8): 483-490, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338162

RESUMEN

This study aimed to evaluate pulmonary function among workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene and was carried out in a petrochemical industry in Iran. The study participants consisted of fifty male workers with current respiratory exposure to 1,3-butadiene and fifty non-exposed workers as the control group. Exposure to 1,3-butadiene was measured according to the NIOSH 1024 method. Respiratory symptom histories were collected through the American Thoracic Society respiratory symptom questionnaire. Lung functions were evaluated using spirometry method. The results showed that exposed participants had significantly higher prevalence rates of all respiratory symptoms compared to the control group. Statistical tests demonstrated a significant difference between pulmonary function tests of exposed and non-exposed personnel. Ultimately, the results of the present study indicate that respiratory exposure to 1,3-butadiene can lead to negative effects on pulmonary functions.


Asunto(s)
Butadienos/toxicidad , Enfermedades Pulmonares/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades Profesionales/inducido químicamente , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Industria del Petróleo y Gas , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Irán , Masculino , Pruebas de Función Respiratoria
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244419

RESUMEN

Visual practices of representing fossil fuel projects are entangled in diverse values and relations that often go underexplored. In Canada, visual media campaigns to aggressively push forward the fossil fuel industry not only relegate to obscurity indigenous values but mask evidence on health impacts as well as the aspirations of those most affected, including indigenous communities whose food sovereignty and stewardship relationship to the land continues to be affronted by oil pipeline expansion. The Tsleil-Waututh Nation, based at the terminal of the Trans Mountain Pipeline in Canada, has been at the forefront of struggles against the pipeline expansion. Contributing to geographical, environmental studies, and public health research grappling with the performativity of images, this article explores stories conveying health, environmental, and intergenerational justice concerns on indigenous territory. Adapting photovoice techniques, elders and youth illustrated how the environment has changed over time; impacts on sovereignty-both food sovereignty and more broadly; concepts of health, well-being and deep cultural connection with water; and visions for future relationships. We explore the importance of an intergenerational lens of connectedness to nature and sustainability, discussing visual storytelling not just as visual counter-narrative (to neocolonial extractivism) but also as an invitation into fundamentally different ways of seeing and interacting.


Asunto(s)
Narración , Industria del Petróleo y Gas , Salud Pública , Justicia Social , Adolescente , Anciano , Canadá , Combustibles Fósiles , Humanos , Pueblos Indígenas , Yacimiento de Petróleo y Gas
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260460

RESUMEN

The air pollution emitted by petrochemical industrial complexes (PICs) may affect the respiratory health of surrounding residents. Previous meta-analyses have indicated a higher risk of lung cancer mortality and incidence among residents near a PIC. Therefore, in this study, a meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the degree to which PIC exposure increases the risk of the development of nonmalignant respiratory symptoms among residents. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to systematically identify, select, and critically appraise relevant research. Finally, we identified 16 study groups reporting 5 types of respiratory symptoms: asthma, bronchitis, cough, rhinitis, and wheezing. We estimated pooled odds ratios (ORs) using random-effect models and investigated the robustness of pooled estimates in subgroup analyses by location, observation period, and age group. We determined that residential exposure to a PIC was significantly associated with a higher incidence of cough (OR = 1.35), wheezing (OR = 1.28), bronchitis (OR = 1.26), rhinitis (OR = 1.17), and asthma (OR = 1.15), although the latter two associations did not reach statistical significance. Subgroup analyses suggested that the association remained robust across different groups for cough and bronchitis. We identified high heterogeneity for asthma, rhinitis, and wheezing, which could be due to higher ORs in South America. Our meta-analysis indicates that residential exposure to a PIC is associated with an increased risk of nonmalignant respiratory symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Industria del Petróleo y Gas , Enfermedades Respiratorias , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Humanos , Incidencia , Ruidos Respiratorios , Enfermedades Respiratorias/epidemiología , América del Sur , Tailandia
18.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(4): 438-443, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062695

RESUMEN

In the city of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), the districts located in the northern area are considered the most critical regarding ozone levels year-round. In this study, the potential factors that contribute to high levels of ozone in the district of Irajá were investigated. The obtained results clearly showed that, in spite of the high correlation of ozone concentrations with wind speed and temperature, ozone episodes depend on the ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to nitrogen oxides (NOx) rather than on the individual VOC and NOx levels, as expected for the VOC-controlled condition typical of the urban area of Rio de Janeiro. Moreover, high VOCs/NOx ratios are highly dependent on the transport of air masses. When pollutants are transported from urban areas with heavy vehicular flux and high NOx concentrations, ozone levels are reduced. When air masses are transported from the industrial petrochemical area, NOx levels are relatively low, and ozone episodes are frequent.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Óxidos de Nitrógeno/análisis , Industria del Petróleo y Gas , Ozono/análisis , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Brasil , Ciudades , Viento
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067565

RESUMEN

Bioremediation is one of the existing techniques applied for treating oil-contaminated soil, which can be improved by the incorporation of low-cost nutritional materials. This study aimed to assess the addition of two low-cost plant residues, sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and leaf litter (LL) of the forest leguminous Mimosa caesalpiniifolia plant (sabiá), either separately or combined, to a contaminated soil from a petroleum refinery area, analyzed after 90 days of treatment. Individually, both amounts of SCB (20 and 40 g kg-1) favored the growth of total heterotrophic bacteria and total fungi, while LL at 20 g kg-1 better stimulated the hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism's activity in the soil. However, no TPH removal was observed under any of these conditions. Higher microbial growth was detected by the application of both plant residues in multicontaminated soil. The maximum TPH removal of 30% was achieved in amended soil with 20 g kg-1 SCB and 20 kg-1 LL. All the experimental conditions revealed changes in the microbial community structure, related to the handling of the soil, with abundance of Alphaproteobacteria. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the plant residues SCB and LL as low-cost nutritional materials for biodegradation of hydrocarbon in real oil contaminated soil by indigenous populations.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Industria del Petróleo y Gas , Petróleo/análisis , Microbiología del Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Suelo/química , Alphaproteobacteria/crecimiento & desarrollo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Brasil , Celulosa/química , Mimosa/química , Mimosa/microbiología , Petróleo/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/microbiología , Saccharum/química , Saccharum/microbiología , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Residuos Sólidos
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046214

RESUMEN

To test whether gas and oil field work is accompanied by stress and altered immune function, the perception of workplace stress, levels of salivary cortisol, plasma levels, and mononuclear cell production of cytokines were examined in 80 healthy workers recruited among a population of operators on gas and oilfields. Specific questionnaires for determining the perception of anxiety, occupational stress, and subjective symptoms were administered. Salivary cortisol and cytokines plasma levels were evaluated by Elisa and to investigate immune function, both spontaneous and PHA- or LPS-induced expression and production of cytokines were assessed by qRT-PCR. Workers showed medium stress levels at work, with growth and increased motivation for work, and based on salivary cortisol concentrations, were divided into two groups of ≤10 ng/mL (n = 31) or >10 ng/mL (n = 49). Statistically significant higher plasma levels of IL-6, while lower TNFα, were detected in workers with cortisol >10 ng/mL. Also, BMI, DL, JD and Job strain were significantly higher in workers with cortisol >10 ng/mL. Thus, even modest variations of cortisol might have a role in the modulation of immune response and worker's vulnerability to health imbalance.Thus, the evaluation of immune status, in addition to cortisol levels, could be useful to prevent illnesses; exacerbation of pre-existing conditions; morbidity; and consequent absences from work, with economic repercussions.


Asunto(s)
Citocinas/sangre , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Estrés Laboral/sangre , Industria del Petróleo y Gas/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estrés Laboral/epidemiología , Estrés Laboral/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo
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