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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 27(4): 1467-1473, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36876686

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Noise is still today one of the main causes of occupational diseases; in fact, in Italy in the three-year period 2019-2022, hearing loss represented 15% of all occupational diseases recognized by the National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work. The extra-auditory effects related to noise exposure also require particular attention, because they can interfere with mental activities that require concentration, memory and ability to deal with complex problems, causing sleep and learning disorders. For this reason, acoustic comfort is considered a fundamental requirement for obtaining an optimal degree of well-being in closed environments. In schools, a high degree of noise pollution not only makes it difficult for students to listen and learn, but also affects school workers. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of international literature and analysis of the preventive measures of extra-auditory effects among school workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The presentation of this systematic review is in accordance with the PRISMA statement. The methodological quality of the selected studies was assessed with specific rating tools (INSA, Newcastle Ottawa Scale, JADAD, JBI scale and AMSTAR). Only publications in English were selected. No restrictions were applied for the publication type. We excluded articles not concerned with the extra-auditory effects of noise exposure in school workers and preventive measures, findings of less academic significance, editorial articles, individual contributions, and purely descriptive studies published in scientific conferences. RESULTS: Online research indicated 4,363 references: PubMed (2,319), Scopus (1,615) and Cochrane Library (429) have been consulted; 30 studies were included in this review (5 narrative or systematic reviews and 25 original articles). Regarding the scores of narrative reviews, the INSA score showed an average and a median value of 6.5, thus indicating an intermediate/high quality of the studies. Regarding the scores of systematic reviews, the AMSTAR score showed an average of 6.7 and a median and a modal value of 6, thus indicating a high quality of the studies. The scores assigned to the original articles have an average and median value of 7 and a modal value of 6 and this demonstrates an intermediate/high quality of the studies. CONCLUSIONS: We can assume that, as it is highlighted by this study, to date these consequences are not considered at the legislative level for the protection of exposed workers. The extra-auditory effects impacting health afterward environmental noise exposure are many and widespread. Therefore, there is a need for interventions to be carried out by institutions and that the physician of the schools, during health surveillance, investigates the effects and clinical manifestations, in order to prevent disorders and deficits highlighted by our study.


Asunto(s)
Cefapirina , Sordera , Enfermedades Profesionales , Humanos , Instituciones Académicas , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales
2.
Environ Int ; 173: 107845, 2023 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36871324

RESUMEN

Exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) and associated PAHs are frequently linked with lung cancer, which makes the understanding of their occurrence and health risk in human lungs urgently important. Using the ultrasonic treatment and sequencing centrifugation (USC) extraction method coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC - MS/MS) analysis, we revealed the molecular fingerprints of PM-accumulated PAHs in human lungs from a cohort of 68 patients with lung cancer in a typical air-polluted region, China. Sixteen priority PAHs can be grouped by concentrations as âˆ¼ 1 × 104 ng/g (ANT/BkF/ACE/DBA/BgP/PHN/PYR), 2-5 × 103 ng/g (BaP/FLE/NaP/BbF), and âˆ¼ 1 × 103 ng/g (IND/Acy/CHR/FLT/BaA). The sum concentration of 16 PAHs was approximately equaled to 13% of those in atmospheric PM2.5, suggesting significant pulmonary leaching of PAHs deposited in lungs. Low- and high-molecular weight PAHs accounted for âˆ¼ 41.8% and âˆ¼ 45.1% of the total PAHs, respectively, which indicated that atmospheric PM2.5, tobacco and cooking smoke were likely to be important sources of pulmonary PAHs. The evident increasing concentrations of NaP and FLE in pulmonary PM were significantly correlated with smoking history among smokers. The implicated carcinogenic potency of PM-accumulated PAHs among the participants aged 70-80 was 17 times that among participants aged 40-50 on the basis of BaP equivalent concentration (BaPeq) evaluation. The particulate enrichment factor (EFP), the PAH content in pulmonary PM relative to the bulk lung tissue, was equaled to 54 âˆ¼ 835 and averaged at 436. The high value of EFP suggested that PAHs were essentially accumulated in pulmonary PM and exhibited a pattern of "hotspot" distribution in the lungs, which would likely increase the risk of monoclonal tumorigenesis. The chemical characteristics of PM-accumulated PAHs in human lungs together with their implicated lung cancer risks could provide significant information for understanding health effects of particulate pollution in the human body.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Humanos , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efectos adversos , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Polvo/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Pulmón/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiología
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 4202, 2023 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36918716

RESUMEN

Due to rapid socioeconomic development, antibiotic pollution and heavy metal pollution are receiving increasing amounts of attention. Both antibiotics and heavy metals in the environment are persistent and toxic, and the interactions between the pollutants create potential long-term hazards for the ecological environment and human health as mixed pollutants. In this study, the surface water of the Yitong River in Changchun was used as the research object, and the hazards associated with antibiotics and heavy metals in the surface water were assessed by analyzing the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of antibiotics and heavy metals and by using ecological risk assessment and human health risk assessment models. The results showed that ofloxacin (OFL) and norfloxacin (NOR) varied seasonally according to the seasonal climate, with total concentrations ranging from 17.65 to 902.47 ng/L and ND to 260.49 ng/L for OFL and NOR, respectively, and from 8.30 to 120.40 µg/L, 1.52 to 113.41 µg/L and 0.03 to 0.04 µg/L for copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd), respectively. In terms of spatial distribution, the concentration of antibiotics in the urban sections, which had intensive human activities, was higher than that in the suburban sections, while the concentration of heavy metals in the suburban sections, which had intensive agricultural operations, was greater than that in the urban section. Ecological risk evaluation showed that NOR and OFL were present in the water bodies at a high-risk level, Cd was at a low pollution level, and the heavy metal Cd was the primary pollutant associated with health risks toward for adults and children, and it was mainly at a medium risk level. Additionally, both antibiotics and heavy metals posed higher health risks for children than for adults.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Cadmio , Antibacterianos , Ríos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Norfloxacino , Ofloxacino , China
4.
Food Res Int ; 166: 112604, 2023 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36914350

RESUMEN

Doxycycline is an important medicine in aquaculture for treating fish diseases. However, its excess use causes residue exceeding to threaten human health. So, this study aimed to estimate a reliable withdrawal time (WT) of doxycycline (DC) in crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) based on statistical approaches and conduct a risk assessment for human health in the natural environment. Samples were collected at predetermined time points and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. A novel statistical method was used to process the data of residue concentration. The homogeneity and linearity of the regressed line of data were evaluated by Bartlett's, Cochran's, and F tests. Outliers were excluded by establishing the standardized residual versus their cumulative frequency distribution on a normal probability scale. The calculated WT was 43 days in muscle of crayfish based on China and European stipulations. After 43 days, estimated daily intakes of DC were ranged from 0.022 to 0.052 µg/kg/d. Hazard Quotients were ranged from 0.007 to 0.014, which were far less than 1. These results indicated that established WT could avoid health risks for humans resulting from DC's residue in crayfish.


Asunto(s)
Astacoidea , Doxiciclina , Animales , Humanos , Astacoidea/química , Alimentos Marinos/análisis , Ambiente , Medición de Riesgo
5.
Environ Res ; 224: 115478, 2023 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36796611

RESUMEN

Manganese (Mn), despite being a trace element necessary in small quantities for the correct functioning of the organism, at higher concentrations can induce health disorders, mainly in motor and cognitive functions, even at levels found in non-occupational environments. For this reason, US EPA guidelines define safe reference doses/concentrations (RfD/RfC) for health. In this study, the individualised health risk of exposure to Mn through different media (air, diet, soil) and routes of entry into the organism (inhalation, ingestion and dermal absorption) was assessed according to the procedure defined by the US EPA. Calculations related to Mn present in ambient air were made on the basis of data obtained from size-segregated particulate matter (PM) personal samplers carried by volunteers recruited in a cross-sectional study conducted in the Santander Bay (northern Spain), where an industrial source of airborne Mn is located. Individuals residing in the vicinity of the main Mn source (within 1.5 km) were found to have a hazard index (HI) higher than 1, indicating that there is a potential risk for these subjects to develop health alterations. Also, people living in Santander, the capital of the region, located 7-10 km from the Mn source, may have some risk (HI > 1) under some wind conditions (SW). In addition, a preliminary study of media and routes of entry into the body confirmed that inhalation of PM2.5-bound Mn is the most important route contributing to the overall non-carcinogenic health risk related to environmental Mn.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Manganeso , Humanos , Manganeso/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis
6.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 249: 114135, 2023 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36758443

RESUMEN

Unintentional chemical mixtures that are present in the environment are of societal concern as the (environmental) chemicals contained therein, either singly or in combination, may possess properties that are hazardous (toxic) for human health. The current regulatory practice, however, is still largely based on evaluating single chemical substances one-by-one. Over the years various research efforts have delivered tools and approaches for risk assessment of chemical mixtures, but many of these were not considered sufficiently mature for regulatory implementation. This is (partly) due to mixture risk assessment (MRA) being very complex because of the large number of chemicals present in the environment. A key element in risk assessment is information on actual exposures in the population of interest. To date, information on actual personal (internal) mixture exposures is largely absent, severely limiting MRA. The use of human biomonitoring data may improve this situation. Therefore, we investigated within the European Human Biomonitoring Initiative (HBM4EU) various approaches to assess combined exposures and MRA. Based on the insights and lessons learnt in the context of the HBM4EU project, conclusions as well as recommendations for policy development regarding chemical mixtures and for further research were drafted. These conclusions and recommendations relate to both exposure and adverse health effects in humans. The recommendations were discussed with stakeholders in a workshop held in October 2021. There was considerable support and agreement with the spirit, scope and intention of the draft recommendations. Here we describe the lessons learnt on mixture risk assessment through the HBM4EU project and present the final recommendations. Overall, HBM4EU results demonstrated the potential of human biomonitoring as an instrument to obtain insight into the real-life mixtures the human population is exposed to. Also, HBM4EU results demonstrated that chemical mixtures are of public health concern. In the majority of the cases, it was possible to identify risk drivers, i.e. chemicals that contribute more strongly than others to the health risk. The novel approaches to identify co-occurrence patterns demonstrated clusters of co-occurring chemicals; chemicals in these mixture clusters are regulated independently under different legislative frameworks. Moreover, HBM4EU data and expertise can support a science-based derivation of a Mixture Assessment Factor and gauge potential impacts on the population's exposure to chemicals. While further expansion is needed on various aspects of the mixture activities carried out in the context of HBM4EU, application of available methodologies for mixture risk assessment should already be implemented to the degree possible.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo Biológico , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Humanos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Formulación de Políticas
7.
Environ Int ; 173: 107843, 2023 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36822001

RESUMEN

Contaminants of emerging concerns (CECs) include numerous chemicals that may pose known and unknown risks to the ecosystem, and identification and risk ranking of these compounds is essential for the environmental management. In this study, liquid and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS and GC-QTOF-MS) were used to characterize the occurrence of CECs in the surface water of the Yellow River Estuary (YRE). A total of 295 and 315 chemicals were identified by LC-QTOF-MS and GC-QTOF-MS, respectively. The occurrence of two compounds, erucamide and 2-phenylquinoline, was for the first time reported in the aquatic environment in YRE. The concentrations of 121 CECs, including 35 antibiotics, 49 pesticides and veterinary, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 21 phthalic acid esters were further quantified by target analysis, which showed the detection of 99 compounds in the surface water in the range of 7.07-4611.26 ng/L. Ecological risks of pollutants based on the risk quotient (RQ) method revealed that 13 pollutants posed ecological risks to the aquatic ecosystem (RQ > 1), and pesticides (n = 12) were the main risk contributors. Here, all CECs data sets were finally transformed and ranked in the framework of the toxicological priority index (ToxPi), and a total of 81 priority control pollutants were identified in the surface water of YRE. This study highlighted the necessity of suspect and nontarget screening for CECs in estuaries, and revealed the importance of localized contamination sources in urban and agricultural environment.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Plaguicidas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Estuarios , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Ríos/química , Ecosistema , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Plaguicidas/toxicidad , Plaguicidas/análisis , Medición de Riesgo
9.
Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) ; 22(1): 82-87, 2023 Feb 03.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36753145

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To generate a model of intervention, from the National Integrated Health System (NIHS, Uruguay), with school facilitators of health, web resources and approach from the schools to the community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional study of population base using a random sampling, non-clustered, during the months of April and December 2016. This was based in the model of schoolchildren health promoters, the use of web resources and community approach with the school as the centre of actions. RESULTS: The prevalence of parasites was 14% for Giardiasis (6,5 and 22%) (IC95%: 11-17) and 26% for Oxiurosis (IC95%: 22-30) (20 and 44%). Soil transmitted helminthiases were geo-referenced: we found 45 clusters, mainly in slums without basic services. CONCLUSIONS: These worrying results show that there are regions in Montevideo (Uruguay) with high levels of faecal home and environmental contamination. Community approaches with prevention activities from NIHS may have a positive impact on these vulnerable populations.


OBJETIVOS: Generar un modelo de intervención en promoción de salud, desde el Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud (SNIS) de Uruguay, con promotores escolares de salud, recursos web y abordaje desde los centros educativos a la comunidad. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo transversal, de base poblacional, mediante un muestreo aleatorio, no agrupado, durante los meses de abril y diciembre de 2016. Se llevó a cabo una capacitación para escolares en promoción de salud, encuesta poblacional, herramientas web, exámenes parasitológicos y georreferenciación. RESULTADOS: Se observaron prevalencias de giardiasis, del 14% (IC95%: 11-17) (6,5 a 22%); y oxiurosis 26% (IC95: 22-30) (20 a 44%). Se visualizaron 45 conglomerados de geohelmintiasis (HTS), la mayoría en zonas con asentamientos poblacionales carentes de servicios básicos. CONCLUSIONES: La existencia de sectores poblacionales vulnerables con índices de contaminación fecal intradomiciliaria y ambientales hace necesario que el SNIS realice de forma sistemática actividades de promoción de salud que puedan aportar datos relevantes para intervenciones gubernamentales intersectoriales y para mejorar la salud de estos sectores desprotegidos.


Asunto(s)
Prestación Integrada de Atención de Salud , Helmintiasis , Parasitosis Intestinales , Parásitos , Animales , Humanos , Niño , Salud Pública , Uruguay/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Parasitosis Intestinales/prevención & control , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Instituciones Académicas , Prevalencia
10.
PeerJ ; 11: e14719, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36748091

RESUMEN

The environmental fate of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the urban water cycle is still uncertain and their status is mainly assessed based on specific water components and information on human risk assessments. This study (a) explores the environmental fate of NSAIDs (ibuprofen, IBU; naproxen, NAP; ketoprofen, KET; diazepam, DIA; and diclofenac, DIC) in the urban water cycle, including wastewater, river, and treated water via gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GCMS), (b) assesses the efficiency of reducing the targeted NSAIDs in sewage treatment plant (STP) using analysis of variance (ANOVA), and (c) evaluates the ecological risk assessment of these drugs in the urban water cycle via teratogenic index (TI) and risk quotient (RQ). The primary receptor of contaminants comes from urban areas, as a high concentration of NSAIDs is detected (ranging from 5.87 × 103 to 7.18 × 104 ng/L). The percentage of NSAIDs removal in STP ranged from 25.6% to 92.3%. The NAP and KET were still detected at trace levels in treated water, indicating the persistent presence in the water cycle. The TI values for NAP and DIA (influent and effluent) were more than 1, showing a risk of a teratogenic effect. The IBU, KET, and DIC had values of less than 1, indicating the risk of lethal embryo effects. The NAP and DIA can be classified as Human Pregnancy Category C (2.1 > TI ≥ 0.76). This work proved that these drugs exist in the current urban water cycle, which could induce adverse effects on humans and the environment (RQ in high and low-risk categories). Therefore, they should be minimized, if not eliminated, from the primary sources of the pollutant (i.e., STPs). These pollutants should be considered a priority to be monitored, given focus to, and listed in the guideline due to their persistent presence in the urban water cycle.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Humanos , Malasia , Ciclo Hidrológico , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas
11.
Molecules ; 28(4)2023 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36838826

RESUMEN

The reduction and replacement of in vivo tests have become crucial in terms of resources and animal benefits. The read-across approach reduces the number of substances to be tested, exploiting existing experimental data to predict the properties of untested substances. Currently, several tools have been developed to perform read-across, but other approaches, such as computational workflows, can offer a more flexible and less prescriptive approach. In this paper, we are introducing a workflow to support analogue identification for read-across. The implementation of the workflow was performed using a database of azole chemicals with in vitro toxicity data for human aromatase enzymes. The workflow identified analogues based on three similarities: structural similarity (StrS), metabolic similarity (MtS), and mechanistic similarity (McS). Our results showed how multiple similarity metrics can be combined within a read-across assessment. The use of the similarity based on metabolism and toxicological mechanism improved the predictions in particular for sensitivity. Beyond the results predicting a large population of substances, practical examples illustrate the advantages of the proposed approach.


Asunto(s)
Aromatasa , Sustancias Peligrosas , Animales , Humanos , Flujo de Trabajo , Metabolismo Secundario , Biosíntesis de Péptidos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(3): 375, 2023 Feb 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36757458

RESUMEN

This study presents the assessment of the air, soil, and water quality within the residential communities around two passive limestone mining/cement factories. The associations between the pollutants were tested across the media, within each medium, between the layers, and between two groups of the communities. The mean values for the PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 were 65.8 µgm-3, 50.1, and 73.7, respectively, in the air; for the Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, K-40, U-238, and Th-232 were 0.433 g/kg, 8.950, 0.005, 0.054, 0.104, 161.57 Bq. kg-1, 61.10, and 15.85, respectively, in the topsoil; 0.365 g/kg, 8.259, 0.004, 0.029, 0.057, 71.84 Bq. kg-1, 16.37, 4.66, respectively, in the subsoil; and for the Mn, Fe, and Zn were 0.190, 1.499, and 0.256 mg/l, respectively, in the water. The PM10, Fe, and K-40 were the most abundant pollutants. The Co and Mn, Zn and Cu, Fe and Cu, the absorbed dose rate (ADR) and K-40, and ADR and U-238 correlated significantly. Though the Ibese group was more polluted than the Ewekoro group, the generally low levels of the pollutions were confirmatory of the earlier suspicions of the mining/production activities. The 2nd lithological layer at 0.5 to 1.9 m depths or the 3rd lithological layer at 1.1 to 7.69 m depths for the Ibese group and the 1st layer at the surface or the 2nd layer at 0.5 m depth for the Ewekoro group are protective layers for the groundwater that must not be exploited, given the three classes of groundwater vulnerability indices observed in the area.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Uranio , Carbonato de Calcio , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36768100

RESUMEN

According to the best of our knowledge, there are no critical studies to date about associations between the work environment and prevalence of respiratory diseases and their symptoms among urban informal vendors in South Africa. This study followed a risk assessment methodology to assess the risks associated with the occurrence of respiratory health problems among 617 indoor and outdoor market vendors in the inner city of Johannesburg, South Africa. A walkthrough survey using a checklist was conducted in 16 Markets for identification of respiratory risk factors and description of sanitary conditions. Face-to-face interviews were conducted amongst informal food vendors using a previously validated questionnaire to collect information on demographics and occupational and respiratory health. In addition, a single day area air pollution monitoring of PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, and CO2 was conducted in two stalls (indoor and outdoor). The Chi-squared test of association and frequency distribution were used to analyse data. Female vendors aged between 30 to 39 years dominated the trade. The results revealed that a majority of the vendors' work shifts are longer than the recommended eight hours per day (73%), six to seven days per week (90%), and most of them have been working for six to ten years (41%). Poor sanitary conditions were observed in 75% of the markets. The concentrations of air pollutants at the outdoor markets were much greater than those in the indoor markets. All air pollution concentrations were below the recommended national and international standards. The risk of outdoor vendors developing any symptoms were extremely greater than those of indoor vendors, especially cooking vendors. Upper respiratory symptoms were the highest amongst the vendors. The results demonstrated a significant association between work-related risk factors, such as type of work location, duration, type of cooking fuel or heat, vendor training, frequency of hand hygiene practice, and using of a mask, and the upper respiratory symptoms. Based on the findings, there is a need for formalization of the trade, improvement in infrastructure, respiratory health care assessments, and sustainable educational programs.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo
14.
Soc Sci Res ; 110: 102838, 2023 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36796995

RESUMEN

Schools provide theoretical and methodological puzzles around complex stratification and organizational dynamics. Using organizational field theory, and the Schools and Staffing Survey, we study characteristics of charter and traditional high schools that are correlated with school rates of college-going. We first use Oaxaca-Blinder (OXB) models to decompose shifts in characteristics between charter and traditional public high schools. We find that charters have come to look more like traditional schools which may account for some of charters' increase in college-going rates. Then we use Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to examine how the combination of certain characteristics may create unique "recipes" that help some charters outpace traditional schools. Without both methods, we would have drawn incomplete conclusions, because the OXB results highlight isomorphism while QCA emphasizes variation in school characteristics. We contribute to the literature by showing how conformity and variation simultaneously yield legitimacy in an organizational population.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones Académicas , Conducta Social , Humanos , Universidades , Ambiente , Dinámica de Grupo
15.
Toxins (Basel) ; 15(2)2023 01 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36828417

RESUMEN

Rice is a widely consumed food worldwide; however, it can be a source of pollutants, such as potentially toxic elements (PTEs), mycotoxins, and pesticides. Sixty rice samples imported from Pakistan (PAK), India (IND), and Thailand (THAI), as well as domestic Iranian (IRN) rice, were collected from Bushehr, Iran, and investigated for the contamination of PTEs, including arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni); pesticides, including chlorpyrifos, trichlorfon, diazinon, fenitrothion, and chlorothalonil; mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN), ochratoxin A (OTA), and deoxynivalenol (DON); and molds. Estimated daily intake (EDI) and hazard quotient (HQ) of pollutants and hazard index (HI) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) of rice types for the Iranian adult population were calculated. The content of PTEs in Iranian rice was not higher than Iran's national standard limits. In contrast, other types of rice (imported) had at least one PTE above the permissible level. OTA content was below the detection limit, and all other mycotoxins were within the allowable range in all rice types. Thai rice was the only group without pesticides. The HI order of rice types was as follows: HIPAK = 2.1 > HIIND = 1.86 > HIIRN = 1.01 > HITHAI = 0.98. As was the biggest contributor to the HI of Iranian and Thai rice, and diazinon in the HI of Pakistani and Indian rice. The calculation of ILCR confirmed that the concentrations of Ni and Pb in Pakistani and Ni and As in Indian, Thai, and Iranian rice were not acceptable in terms of lifetime carcinogenic health risks.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Contaminantes Ambientales , Metales Pesados , Micotoxinas , Plaguicidas , Micotoxinas/análisis , Plaguicidas/análisis , Irán , Diazinón/análisis , Plomo/análisis , Arsénico/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Metales Pesados/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente
16.
Environ Pollut ; 322: 121246, 2023 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36764380

RESUMEN

The adaptive responses to moderate environmental challenges by the biological systems have usually been credited to hormesis. Since the hormetic biphasic dose-response illustrates a prominent pattern towards biological responsiveness, the studies concerning such aspects will get much more significance in risk assessment practices and toxicological evaluation research. From this point of view, the past few epochs have witnessed the extending recognition of the notion concerning hormesis. The extraction of its basic foundations of evolutionary perspectives-along with the probable underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms followed by the practical implications to enhance the quality of life. To get better and more effective output in this regard, the present article has evaluated the various observations of previous investigations. The intent of integrating the novel inferences concerning the hormesis-tempting stressors driven by predominant evolutionary factors for mitigating the adverse impacts that were prompted over frequent and continuous exposure to the various chemical elements. Such inferences can offer extensive insight into the implications concerning the risk assessment of hormesis.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Hormesis , Hormesis/fisiología , Calidad de Vida , Medición de Riesgo , Estrés Fisiológico , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Ambientales/efectos adversos
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36767973

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study is to understand the impact of ideological and political education with regards to ecological civilization on college students' pro-environment attitudes. Based on the survey data of 1622 college students, a series of econometric models are built to understand and test the impact of ideological and political education on students' pro-environment willingness. The results show that the ideological and political education of ecological civilization can effectively promote the environmental will of college students; the accumulation of environmental knowledge, ecological concern, and ecological reflection are the important mediums for the ideological and political education of ecological civilization; and the medium effect of ecological reflection is the strongest. In addition, this study also indicates that the pro-environment willingness of college students and their professional categories, whether to join the eco-environmental association, and other factors have a significant correlation. Therefore, this study reveals the current impact of ecological civilization education and the role of the mechanism for college educators and policymakers to promote the protection of the ecological environment, which provides an important reference.


Asunto(s)
Civilización , Estudiantes , Humanos , Escolaridad , China , Ambiente , Universidades
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 870: 161907, 2023 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36731549

RESUMEN

To better respond to heavy air pollution, the local government of Baoji City, a traditionally industry dominated city in northwest China, released several warning levels between December 2019 and January 2020. The system aims to provide a more efficient control of pollution sources. In this study, a high-time resolution measurement of PM2.5-bound elements was applied to capture the diurnal-scale dynamic processes associated with major pollution activities in northwest China. A series of elements were quantified and used for source apportionment using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. Combined with the local characteristics, nine sources were resolved with contributions in descending order: fugitive dust (36.6 %), biomass burning (20.1 %), traffic-related (10.4 %), coal combustion (10.0 %), titanium alloy smelting (7.2 %), As-related industry (6.9 %), Zn-related industry (5.6 %), molybdenum alloy smelting (2.5 %), and Cr-related industry (0.7 %). The health risk assessment indicated non-carcinogenic risks for Mn and carcinogenic risks for As and Cr in both adults and children. The cumulative non-carcinogenic risk for the elements was 3.2 times the safety threshold, while the carcinogenic risk (CR) was 6.8 and 27 times the acceptable levels for children and adults, respectively. For source-resolved risks, As- and Cr-related industry emissions showed the highest carcinogenic risk. Five of the nine resolved sources for adults have CR values 1.4 and 9.7 times the acceptable level. This study provides valuable information for developing targeted strategies to control air pollutants and protect public health.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Niño , Adulto , Humanos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Polvo/análisis , China , Medición de Riesgo , Aleaciones , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado/análisis
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36767417

RESUMEN

The Junggar Basin in Xinjiang is located in the hinterland of Eurasia, where the groundwater is a significant resource and has important ecological functions. The introduction of harmful organic pollutants into groundwater from increasing human activities and rapid socioeconomic development may lead to groundwater pollution at various levels. Therefore, to develop an effective regulatory framework, establishing a list of priority control organic pollutants (PCOPs) is in urgent need. In this study, a method of ranking the priority of pollutants based on their prevalence (Pv), occurrence (O) and persistent bioaccumulative toxicity (PBT) has been developed. PvOPBT in the environment was applied in the screening of PCOPs among 34 organic pollutants and the risk assessment of screened PCOPs in groundwater in the Junggar Basin. The results show that the PCOPs in groundwater were benzo[a]pyrene, 1,2-dichloroethane, trichloromethane and DDT. Among the pollutants, benzo[a]pyrene, 1,2-dichloroethane and DDT showed high potential ecological risk, whilst trichloromethane represented low potential ecological risk. With the exception of benzo[a]pyrene, which had high potential health risks, the other screened PCOPs had low potential health risks. Unlike the scatter distribution of groundwater benzo[a]pyrene, the 1,2-dichloroethane and trichloromethane in groundwater were mainly concentrated in the central part of the southern margin and the northern margin of the Junggar Basin, while the DDT in groundwater was only distributed in Jinghe County (in the southwest) and Beitun City (in the north). Industrial and agricultural activities were the main controlling factors that affected the distribution of PCOPs.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Humanos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , DDT , Cloroformo , Benzo(a)pireno , Medición de Riesgo , China/epidemiología , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 872: 162228, 2023 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36791848

RESUMEN

The "Gold Country" region of California is impacted by legacy and active gold mines. Concomitantly, Gold Country has an increased rate of female breast cancer relative to the state average. Using community-based participatory research methods, 40 participants completed surveys and collected a total of 354 water, soil, home-grown foods, and dust samples from their homes, which we compared to state, federal, and international contamination standards for arsenic, cadmium, and lead. All soil samples exceeded U.S. EPA and California EPA soil standards for arsenic. When comparing other media to state, federal and international standards for arsenic, cadmium, and lead, 15 additional exceedances for indoor/outdoor dust, drinking water, and/or vegetable were documented. A probabilistic risk assessment was conducted to determine an adult female's exposure to arsenic, cadmium, and lead and estimated risk. Arsenic exposure, due largely to water (63.5 %) and homegrown food (33.3 %), presents carcinogenic risks in excess of the EPA recommended upper limit for contaminated sites (1 × 10-4) in 12.5 % of scenarios, and exceeds a risk level of 1 × 10-6 in 98.0 % of cases. Cadmium exposure results mainly from homegrown food consumption (83.7 %), and lead exposure results from a broader range of sources. This research indicates that rural areas in Gold Country face environmental exposures different than in urban areas. Exposure to arsenic in the female population of Gold Country may be driven by consumption of home-grown foods and water, and exposure to cadmium is driven by home-grown food intake. Since mining sites are of concern internationally, this risk assessment process and associated findings are significant and can be used to inform and tailor public health interventions. The weight of the evidence suggests that the arsenic exposure identified in this study could contribute to increases in the cancer rate among those living in Gold Country, California.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Neoplasias de la Mama , Agua Potable , Contaminantes del Suelo , Adulto , Humanos , Femenino , Arsénico/análisis , Cadmio , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Oro , Polvo/análisis , Agua Potable/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Suelo
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