Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.381
Filtrar
1.
Rev. cuba. ortop. traumatol ; 35(2): e413, 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341474

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Introducción: La cirugía de la artroplastia y el recambio de una prótesis de cadera es una cirugía compleja y costosa. La estrategia quirúrgica y componentes protésicos son completamente diferentes en función de las deformidades óseas existentes y características anatómicas personales de cada paciente, por tanto, la planificación de suministros de los diferentes componentes es básica para cubrir las demandas de la población necesitada y la adecuada eficiencia económica para evitar gastos innecesarios por sobreestimación o infraestimación de las demandas. Objetivos: Determinar las necesidades por medidas de los diferentes tipos de componentes protésicos utilizados en la artroplastia total de cadera en las provincias centrales y de este modo optimizar las inversiones, con las ventajas económicas que supone. Métodos: Estudio longitudinal descriptivo retrospectivo de los casos operados de artroplastia total de cadera en el Hospital Arnaldo Milián Castro de Villa Clara, desde diciembre de 1998 hasta la fecha. Se analizan las variables edad, sexo, procedencia y componentes protésicos. Se recoge la información en la base de datos creada en SPSS, donde se realizan los análisis estadísticos. Resultados: La edad media fue 62,36 años. El grupo de 61 - 80 años fue el de mayor incidencia con 215 pacientes. Predominó el sexo masculino 51,8 %. La mayor incidencia, correspondió a Villa Clara con 692 pacientes. Los componentes cementados 46 - 50 fueron los más usados y en los no cementados los más usados fueron 48-56. Vástagos Tipo Müller 7.5 - 12.5. RALCA Cementadas T0-T4, no cementados T1-T3. En las SLA, 11.5 y 13. Los cuellos estándar fueron los de mayor incidencia con 390 pacientes. Conclusiones: Con las incidencias de las diferentes medidas utilizadas por cada uno de los componentes expresados, se puede determinar con bastante exactitud la demanda de cada medida por cada 100 casos pendientes de operación. Esto permite satisfacer las demandas de las medidas más usadas y hacer una distribución apropiada a la hora del suministro, lo que redundaría en un beneficio económico vital en las actuales condiciones del país.


ABSTRACT Introduction: The arthroplasty surgery and the replacement of a hip replacement is a complex and expensive surgery. The surgical strategy and prosthetic components are completely different depending on the existing bone deformities and personal anatomical characteristics of each patient, therefore, the planning of supplies of the different components is essential to meet the demands of the needy population and adequate economic efficiency to avoid unnecessary expenses due to overestimation or underestimation of claims. Objective: To determine the needs by measurements of the different types of prosthetic components used in total hip arthroplasty in the central provinces and thus optimize investments, with the economic advantages that it entails. Methods: A retrospective descriptive longitudinal study was carried out of the total hip arthroplasty operated cases at Arnaldo Milián Castro Hospital in Villa Clara, from December 1998 to date. Age, sex, origin and prosthetic components are the variables examined. The information is collected in the database created in SPSS, statistical analyzes was performed. Results: The mean age was 62.36 years. The group of 61-80 years was the one with the highest incidence (215 patients). Male sex predominated (51.8%). The highest incidence corresponded to Villa Clara (692 patients). The cemented components 46-50 were the most used and in the uncemented components the most used were 48-56. Müller Stems 7.5 - 12.5. RALCA Cemented T0-T4, uncemented T1-T3. In the SLA the most used were 11.5 and 13 respectively. Standard necks were those with the highest incidence (390 patients). Conclusions: The demand for each measure can be determined quite accurately for every 100 cases pending operation with the incidents of the different measures used by each of the components expressed, allowing to meet the demands of the most used measures and appropriate distribution at supplying, which would result in vital economic benefit in the current conditions of the country.

2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640890

RESUMEN

In recent years, machine learning for trading has been widely studied. The direction and size of position should be determined in trading decisions based on market conditions. However, there is no research so far that considers variable position sizes in models developed for trading purposes. In this paper, we propose a deep reinforcement learning model named LSTM-DDPG to make trading decisions with variable positions. Specifically, we consider the trading process as a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process, in which the long short-term memory (LSTM) network is used to extract market state features and the deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG) framework is used to make trading decisions concerning the direction and variable size of position. We test the LSTM-DDPG model on IF300 (index futures of China stock market) data and the results show that LSTM-DDPG with variable positions performs better in terms of return and risk than models with fixed or few-level positions. In addition, the investment potential of the model can be better tapped by the reward function of the differential Sharpe ratio than that of profit reward function.


Asunto(s)
Inversiones en Salud , Memoria a Largo Plazo , Predicción , Aprendizaje Automático , Políticas
3.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 2993870, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603429

RESUMEN

Today, the global exchange market has been the world's largest trading market, whose volume could reach nearly 5.345 trillion US dollars, attracting a large number of investors. Based on the perspective of investors and investment institutions, this paper combines theory with practice and creatively puts forward an innovative model of double objective optimization measurement of exchange forecast analysis portfolio. To be more specific, this paper proposes two algorithms to predict the volatility of exchange, which are deep learning and NSGA-II-based dual-objective measurement optimization algorithms for the exchange investment portfolio. Compared with typical traditional exchange rate prediction algorithms, the deep learning model has more accurate results and the NSGA-II-based model further optimizes the selection of investment portfolios and finally gives investors a more reasonable investment portfolio plan. In summary, the proposal of this article can effectively help investors make better investments and decision-making in the exchange market.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Profundo , Algoritmos , Inversiones en Salud
4.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 7348599, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630551

RESUMEN

Based on the theoretical mechanism analysis of FDI, regional innovation, and green economic efficiency, this article uses China's provincial panel data to calculate the provincial green economic efficiency level based on the three-stage DEA method and uses the system GMM model, intermediary effect model, and threshold model to empirically test the specific effects and transmission paths of FDI on the efficiency of the green economy. Research shows that FDI is one of the important factors that promote the improvement of green economic efficiency. Subregional tests have found that FDI has a significant regional heterogeneity in promoting the efficiency of the green economy. The mediation effect test found that the mediation effect of regional innovation is significant, and FDI can significantly promote the growth of green economic efficiency through regional innovation. The threshold effect analysis found that there are significant and effective double thresholds for regional economic levels, and the impact of FDI on green economic efficiency is heterogeneous within different threshold intervals. The research conclusions provide new inspiration for China to allocate FDI more rationally and efficiently under the new development pattern.


Asunto(s)
Internacionalidad , Inversiones en Salud , China
5.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 8128879, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621309

RESUMEN

Stock price prediction is very important in financial decision-making, and it is also the most difficult part of economic forecasting. The factors affecting stock prices are complex and changeable, and stock price fluctuations have a certain degree of randomness. If we can accurately predict stock prices, regulatory authorities can conduct reasonable supervision of the stock market and provide investors with valuable investment decision-making information. As we know, the LSTM (Long Short-Term Memory) algorithm is mainly used in large-scale data mining competitions, but it has not yet been used to predict the stock market. Therefore, this article uses this algorithm to predict the closing price of stocks. As an emerging research field, LSTM is superior to traditional time-series models and machine learning models and is suitable for stock market analysis and forecasting. However, the general LSTM model has some shortcomings, so this paper designs a LightGBM-optimized LSTM to realize short-term stock price forecasting. In order to verify its effectiveness compared with other deep network models such as RNN (Recurrent Neural Network) and GRU (Gated Recurrent Unit), the LightGBM-LSTM, RNN, and GRU are respectively used to predict the Shanghai and Shenzhen 300 indexes. Experimental results show that the LightGBM-LSTM has the highest prediction accuracy and the best ability to track stock index price trends, and its effect is better than the GRU and RNN algorithms.


Asunto(s)
Inversiones en Salud , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Algoritmos , China , Predicción
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 727047, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568265

RESUMEN

The worldwide spread of COVID-19 dramatically influences the world economic landscape. In this paper, we have quantitatively investigated the time-frequency co-movement impact of COVID-19 on U.S. and China stock market since early 2020 in terms of daily observation from National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations Index (NDX), Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), Standard & Poor's 500 Index (SPX), Shanghai Securities Composite Index (SSEC), Shenzhen Securities Component Index (SZI), in favor of spatiotemporal interactions over investor sentiment index, and propose to explore the divisibility and the predictability to the volatility of stock market during the development of COVID-19. We integrate evidence yielded from wavelet coherence and phase difference to suggest the responses of stock market indexes to the COVID-19 epidemic in a long-term band, which could be roughly divided into three distinguished phases, namely, 30-75, 110-150, and 220-280 business days for China, and 80-125 and 160-175 after 290 business days for the U.S. At the first phase, the reason for the extreme volatility of stock market mainly attributed to the sudden emergence of the COVID-19 epidemic due to the pessimistic expectations from investors; China and U.S. stock market shared strongly negative correlation with the growing number of COVID-19 cases. At the second phase, the revitalization of stock market shared strong simultaneous moves but exhibited opposite responses to the COVID-19 impact on China and U.S. stock market; the former retained a significant negative correlation, while the latter turned to positively correlated throughout the period. At the third phase, the progress in vaccine development and economic stimulus began to impose forces to stock market; the vulnerability to COVID-19 diminished to some extent as the investor sentiment indexes rebounded. Finally, we attempted to initially establish a coarse-grained representation to stock market indexes and investor sentiment indexes, which demonstrated the homogenous spacial distribution in the vectorgraph after normalization and quantization, implying the strong consistency when filtering the frequent small fluctuations during the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic, which might help insights into the prediction of possible status transition in stock market performance under the public health issues, potentially performing as the quantitative references in reasonably deducing the economic influences.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , China , Humanos , Inversiones en Salud , SARS-CoV-2
7.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256879, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499691

RESUMEN

This paper uses event study based on the Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) model to study the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on China's financial market. It finds that the pandemic had an overall significant and negative impact on the stock prices of firms listed on SSE, SZSE and ChiNext. However, such impact appeared to be heterogeneous across industries, affecting listed firms in industries such as pharmaceutical and telecommunications positively, but those in services industries such as accommodation, catering, and commercial services negatively. Apparently, a crisis for some had been an opportunity for others. In addition, this paper seeks to understand the micro mechanism behind the heterogeneity of pandemic shock from the perspective of firms' financial position. It finds that listed firms with higher debt level were hit harder, whereas those with more net cash flow had displayed higher resilience against the blow of the pandemic. However, the opposite pattern is found among those listed on ChiNext and in industries severely devastated by the pandemic. These findings have policy implications in terms of preventing systemic financial risks and facilitating recovery during pandemic-induced economic downturns. It also helps investor adjust investment strategies, hedge against risks, and secure gains when the market conditions in general are unfavorable.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/economía , COVID-19/epidemiología , Modelos Económicos , China/epidemiología , Administración Financiera , Industrias , Inversiones en Salud
8.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113617, 2021 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530363

RESUMEN

The nexus between environmental degradation and economic growth continues to generate growing interest from environmental practitioners, industrialists, and researchers. Most existing studies in Africa have investigated the relationship based on the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) theory under assumptions of homogeneity and spatial independence. In contrast, we investigate the EKC theory under more realistic possibilities of country heterogeneity and spatial dependence. Accordingly, we make two contributions. First, following estimation based on a sample of 48 African countries, we perform a quadratic regression for each country to account for heterogeneity. Second, we test and control for spatial dependence using the Global Moran's I test and the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) within the Fixed and Random effects on the Spatial-Durbin-Model, respectively. We also estimate the relationship using pooled OLS, Fixed and Random effects, and the generalised methods of moments (GMM). We document three key results: (1) the EKC hypothesis holds for the entire sample of 48 countries, even though the relationship is weak, (2) the relationship is sensitive to factor heterogeneity, with the EKC holding in some countries, while it breaks in others, and (3) there exist significant direct and spillover effects in the Co2-growth nexus across countries. Our findings provide a strong case for increased technological progress in pollution abatement, more abatement intensity, and adoption of cleaner production techniques. Specifically, we urge governments, multilateral organisations, and private investors to increase investments in renewable energy development projects. Given heterogeneity effects, we call for country specific measures which speaks to the Paris agreement.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Desarrollo Económico , África , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Inversiones en Salud , Energía Renovable
9.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113673, 2021 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530369

RESUMEN

Untreated rural sewage seriously affects the universal access to clean water of rural residents. The lack of decision-support tools in rural sewage treatment (RuST) planning makes it difficult for RuST system to achieve the expected results and is not conducive to the optimal allocation of limited funds. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop a decision-support framework for large-scale RuST planning. For the first time, RuST planning decision-support framework was developed using divide-and-conquer strategy based on rural residents' spatial pattern (RESP) and the optimal pattern of RuST. This framework can be transferred to other countries/regions easily by correcting RESP dataset according to the spatial and environmental characteristics. We confirmed that the variation of RESP made the ideal RuST pattern varied significantly under different topography. And community-based pattern could be the optimal pattern for large-scale RuST planning, when spatial obstacle and RESP were fully considered. The price of onsite sewage treatment facility is the most significant factor for RuST planning. In our selected case, requited onsite facility accounted for 65.51%. For the total investment, the cost of sewer systems accounted for 56.01%, and the average investment in plains, hills, platforms and mountains was 1401, 1803, 1903 and 1859 USD/household, respectively. We expect this research could provide reference for RuST planning in other developing countries/regions all around the world.


Asunto(s)
Aguas del Alcantarillado , Purificación del Agua , Humanos , Inversiones en Salud , Población Rural
10.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00271020, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495097

RESUMEN

This study aimed to assess the degree of implementation of the response to the emergency of microcephaly associated with Zika virus in Pernambuco State, Brazil. This was a normative evaluative study conducted in the initial epicenter of the public health emergency of international concern, from October 2015 to July 2017. A logical model was produced for the intervention under analysis, with the components of Management, Surveillance, and Care in the dimensions of structure, process, and result, based on technical publications and institutional guidelines, in addition to a corresponding log frame of indicators for assessment. Data were collected through a questionnaire, direct observation, and consultation of official documents. The results showed partial implementation (74.9%) of the response to the microcephaly emergency by the Pernambuco State Health Department, with the process dimension reaching 75% of the expected level and the structure dimension, 74.5%. Surveillance was the only component that was assessed as implemented (81%), although with a shortage of regional and laboratory investments, while Management (74.2%) and Care (68.8%) were partially implemented, with insufficiencies in items related to human resources and physical structure, planning, and evaluation. In conclusion, the response to the public health emergency of international concern involving microcephaly associated with the Zika virus was assessed as partially implemented, with different levels between the intervention´s components, especially surveillance when compared to management and care. The shortcomings signal the need for investments to deal with future public health emergencies, with a view towards more timely and adequate interventions.


Asunto(s)
Microcefalia , Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Brasil/epidemiología , Urgencias Médicas , Humanos , Microcefalia/epidemiología , Salud Pública , Infección por el Virus Zika/diagnóstico , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología
11.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 567-584, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542092

RESUMEN

Investments in animal health and Veterinary Services can have a measurable impact on the health of people and the environment. These investments require a baseline metric that describes the burden of animal health and welfare in order to justify and prioritise resource allocation and from which to measure the impact of interventions. This paper is part of a process of scientific enquiry in which problems are identified and solutions sought in an inclusive way. It poses the broad question: what should a system to measure the animal disease burden on society look like and what value would it add? Moreover, it aims to do this in such a way as to be accessible by a wide audience, who are encouraged to engage in this debate. Given that farmed animals, including those raised by poor smallholders, are an economic entity, this system should be based on economic principles. These poor farmers are negatively impacted by disparities in animal health technology, which can be addressed through a mixture of supply-led and demand-driven interventions, reinforcing the relevance of targeted financial support from government and non-governmental organisations. The Global Burden of Animal Diseases (GBADs) Programme will glean existing data to measure animal health losses within carefully characterised production systems. Consistent and transparent attribution of animal health losses will enable meaningful comparisons of the animal disease burden to be made between diseases, production systems and countries, and will show how it is apportioned by people's socio-economic status and gender. The GBADs Programme will produce a cloud-based knowledge engine and data portal, through which users will access burden metrics and associated visualisations, support for decisionmaking in the form of future animal health scenarios, and the outputs of wider economic modelling. The vision of GBADs, strengthening the food system for the benefit of society and the environment, is an example of One Health thinking in action.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Animales , Salud Única , Enfermedades de los Animales/epidemiología , Animales , Acuicultura , Ganado
12.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 483-495, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542101

RESUMEN

Animal health services play an essential role in supporting livestock production, with the potential to address the challenges of hunger, poverty, health, social justice and environmental health as part of the path towards the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) defined in the United Nations, 2030 Agenda. However, the provision of animal health services remains chronically underfunded. Although the aspiration that â€Ëœno one will be left behind' is core to the SDG agenda, animal health service provision still fails to meet the basic needs of many of the poorest livestock owners. This review draws largely on experience from Tanzania and highlights the obstacles to equitable provision of animal health services, as well as identifying opportunities for improvement. Delivery models that rely on owners paying for services, whether through the private sector or public?private partnerships, can be effective for diseases that are of clear economic importance to animal keepers, particularly in more market-orientated production systems, but are currently constrained by issues of access, affordability, availability and quality. Substantial challenges remain when attempting to control diseases that exert a major burden on animal or human health but are less well recognised, as well as in the delivery of veterinary public health or other public good interventions. Here, the authors propose solutions that focus on: improving awareness of the potential for animal health services to address the SDGs, particularly those concerning public and environmental health; linking this more explicitly with advocacy for increased investment; ensuring that the voices of stakeholders are heard, particularly those of the rural poor; and embracing a cross-cutting and expanded vision for animal health services to support more adaptive development of livestock systems.


Asunto(s)
Sector Privado , Salud Pública , Animales , Ganado , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Desarrollo Sostenible
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501911

RESUMEN

Ecological footprint (EF) and human development index (HDI) are two critical indicators for assessing sustainable development worldwide. Past studies in Africa have ignored dynamic sustainable total-factor ecological efficiency (DSTFEE) assessment. This present study proffers a novel dynamic sustainable total-factor ecological efficiency (DSTFEE) that comprehensively assesses the ecological efficiency among 44 sampled African economies from 2010 to 2016. Our study incorporates EF and HDI in the model. Second, the study evaluates regional DSTFEE heterogeneity efficiency as well as the technological gap efficiency in Africa. Further, projection analysis is done to offer a viable solution path to address the inefficient African countries. Third, the study investigates the determinants of ecological efficiency using the bootstrap truncation regression technique. The results from the implemented models are as follows: first, the DSTFEE for the 44 sampled African countries is very low (0.403), indicating enormous potential for improvement. Second, the heterogeneity of DSTFEE across the five Africa regional blocs is evident. The southern bloc had the highest efficiency score, followed by the northern, central, western, and eastern regions. The technology gap ratio also reveals a massive gap among the five Africa regional blocs. Third, the bootstrap truncation regression results established a U-shape nexus between growth and DSTFEE in Africa. REC and trade openness is positively corrected to DSTFEE for African countries. In contrast, financial development, foreign direct investment (FDI), and urbanization impede dynamic ecological efficiency in Africa. The study's results equip African countries with adequate knowledge of their ecological efficiency situation and provide them a viable path to improve environmental efficiency, thereby boosting their ecological sustainability.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Urbanización , África , Eficiencia , Humanos , Inversiones en Salud
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 710147, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368072

RESUMEN

This paper explores the necessity of expanding government expenditures on health (GEH) from the perspective of promoting residents' consumption (RC). It employs bootstrap full- and subsample rolling-window Granger causality tests to investigate the mutual causal influence between GEH and RC. It finds that GEH have a positive impact on RC in some periods and a negative impact in other periods. The positive effect from GEH to RC reveals that Chinese governments at all levels should continue to increase GEH, narrow the gap between their medical and health investments and those of developed countries', directly reduce current medical expenses of residents, and increase the immediate consumption of residents. However, this opinion cannot always be upheld because a negative impact from GEH to RC also exists. The current paper shows that the government should improve the efficiency of the use of health expenditures; effectively shorten the time lag of government health fiscal policies; and promote the positive effect of government health expenditures on RC.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Gastos en Salud , China/epidemiología , Gobierno , Humanos , Inversiones en Salud
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 723557, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368074

RESUMEN

This study examines the asymmetric impact of human capital investment, and technological innovation on population health from the years spanning from 1991 to 2019, by using a panel of the BRICS countries. For this purpose, we have employed the PMG panel NARDL approach, which captures the long-run and short-run dynamics of the concerned variables. The empirical results show that human capital investment and technological innovation indeed happen to exert asymmetric effects on the dynamics of health in BRICS countries. Findings also reveal that increased human capital investment and technological innovation have positive effects on health, while the deceased human capital investment and technological innovation tend to have negative effects on population health in the long run. Based on these revelations, some policy recommendations have been proposed for BRICS economies.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Salud Poblacional , Dióxido de Carbono , Humanos , Invenciones , Inversiones en Salud
17.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256883, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464413

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The GeneXpert diagnostic platform from the US based company Cepheid is an automated molecular diagnostic device that performs sample preparation and pathogen detection within a single cartridge-based assay. GeneXpert devices can enable diagnosis at the district level without the need for fully equipped clinical laboratories, are simple to use, and offer rapid results. Due to these characteristics, the platform is now widely used in low- and middle-income countries for diagnosis of diseases such as TB and HIV. Assays for SARS-CoV-2 are also being rolled out. We aimed to quantify public sector investments in the development of the GeneXpert platform and Cepheid's suite of cartridge-based assays. METHODS: Public funding data were collected from the proprietor company's financial filings, grant databases, review of historical literature concerning key laboratories and researchers, and contacting key public sector entities involved in the technology's development. The value of research and development (R&D) tax credits was estimated based on financial filings. RESULTS: Total public investments in the development of the GeneXpert technology were estimated to be $252 million, including >$11 million in funding for work in public laboratories leading to the first commercial product, $56 million in grants from the National Institutes of Health, $73 million from other U.S. government departments, $67 million in R&D tax credits, $38 million in funding from non-profit and philanthropic organizations, and $9.6 million in small business 'springboard' grants. CONCLUSION: The public sector has invested over $250 million in the development of both the underlying technologies and the GeneXpert diagnostic platform and assays, and has made additional investments in rolling out the technology in countries with high burdens of TB. The key role played by the public sector in R&D and roll-out stands in contrast to the lack of public sector ability to secure affordable pricing and maintenance agreements.


Asunto(s)
Inversiones en Salud , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/economía , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/historia , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Tuberculosis/diagnóstico , Estados Unidos
18.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113572, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450298

RESUMEN

Air quality is a social, economical, and health issue for fast-developing countries such as China. Due to the overuse of nonrenewable energy, industrialization, and the population put pressure on air quality, which seriously threatens public health and economic growth. This study focuses on air quality and also aims to investigate the short-and long-run correlation between foreign direct investment, energy consumption, domestic credit, and financial development. The Autoregressive distributed lag model and the Granger non-causality test were carried out over the period from 1985 to 2018. The main findings of this study show a positive and significant long-run impact of energy consumption on air quality. In addition, domestic credit and financial development similarly show a significant positive short-run association with air quality. Moreover, the unidirectional causality correlation running from foreign direct investment and domestic credit to air quality was concluded by the Granger non-causality test. Considering the empirical analysis, this study suggests that domestic financial institutions should offer credit to industries at a low-interest rate in order to help them to switch from non-renewable to renewable energy consumption towards the promotion of sustainable and healthy air quality.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , China , Desarrollo Económico , Inversiones en Salud , Energía Renovable
19.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113513, 2021 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403918

RESUMEN

Mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions has become an utmost important global agenda, keeping into consideration the associated environmental hardships. As a result, it is important to unearth the factors which can neutralize carbon emissions to transform the world economy into a low-carbon one. Against this backdrop, this study explores the carbon dioxide neutralizing effects of economic growth, international tourism, clean energy promotion, and technological innovation in the context of five European Union (EU-5) nations during the 1990-2015 period. This study's main contribution is in terms of its approach to test the interaction effect between foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows and energy innovation on carbon dioxide emissions. The econometric analysis chronologically involves the employment of unit root, cointegration, causality, and regression methods. Overall, the findings support the inverted-U-shaped economic growth-carbon dioxide emissions nexus to verify the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. Besides, the Pollution Haven Hypothesis in the context of the selected panel is also verified as higher FDI inflows are seen to boost the carbon dioxide emission levels. The results also confirm that energy innovation moderates the harmful effect of air transport (a proxy for international tourism) on carbon dioxide emissions during the developing stage of the tourism industry. On the other hand, renewable energy promotion is found to curb carbon dioxide emissions. These findings suggest that the European governments need to enhance investments in their respective renewable energy sectors and simultaneously ensure the development of clean industries, which can collectively help these nations become carbon-neutral in the future.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Turismo , Desarrollo Económico , Unión Europea , Inversiones en Salud , Energía Renovable
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360089

RESUMEN

Indigenous peoples' environments can be easily disrupted by foreign investments, and disputes have occasionally occurred over the past few years. The objective of this research article is to examine if current international investment law, especially its investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) mechanism, could provide necessary protection to Indigenous rights. We searched all publicly available ISDS cases from 2000 to 2020, and selected 10 typical ones for comprehensive case study by using various research methods such as doctrinal legal research and comparative analysis. Our research revealed that Indigenous peoples' participation in the ISDS proceedings is legally restrained, time-consuming, and rarely favorably decided by the arbitral tribunals. Responsibility for such undesirable outcomes rests with all stakeholders involved in the process, while the consequences of post-arbitration tend to be "triple losing". These findings highlight the quest for a more sustainable international investment regime that promotes Indigenous peoples' wellbeing and environment protection. We argue that future reform could be promoted not only over ISDS procedural matters, but also by upgrading substantive rules in international investment agreements (IIAs), emphasizing free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC), and strengthening foreign investors' corporate social responsibilities (CSR).


Asunto(s)
Disentimientos y Disputas , Pueblos Indígenas , Humanos , Inversiones en Salud , Grupos de Población , Responsabilidad Social
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...