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1.
Simul Healthc ; 17(1): e136-e140, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600139

RESUMEN

SUMMARY STATEMENT: Simulation is a well-studied teaching tool for multidisciplinary teamwork, crisis resource management, and communication skills. These attributes are essential for successful international medical missions, which include healthcare providers with different familiarities with the outreach environment and each team member's role. However, immersive simulation remains underused in similar settings. Our team designed a simulation-based curriculum that focuses on multidisciplinary teamwork and crisis resource management skills. In this commentary, we describe its implementation during high-risk cleft care outreach missions conducted by the Global Smile Foundation. We discuss the importance of a simple, feasible, and flexible platform to successfully overcome the limitations of time and resources inherent to outreach mission work while addressing the clinical and geographic needs specific to each site. We highlight challenges, including unpredictability of the outreach environment, a language barrier, and the short duration of missions. Finally, we offer a roadmap for groups involved in similar global health efforts.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Grupo de Atención al Paciente , Humanos
2.
Educ Health (Abingdon) ; 34(3): 101-104, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488656

RESUMEN

Background: We analyze the University of British Columbia's Department of Political Science's first course on health, "Global Politics and Health," to determine whether one course could inform political science students to tackle health issues. The major concept was global public health is politics writ large, as determinants of health are rooted in economic and social power. Course objectives encouraged student agency in ameliorating population health status. Methods: We use three surveys, with qualitative and quantitative components, to assess interest and knowledge of public health issues, and determine whether student agency increased as the course progressed. Results: We confirmed that political science develops an excellent foundation for the analysis of issues related to global public health status. One course can stimulate curiosity in health issues. Unexpectedly, we discovered that students' greatest learning outcome integrated personal, interpersonal, and scholarly analyses of health issues. This provided an avenue for students outside of the health sciences to frame mental health, sexuality, and other stigmatized subjects within scholarly discourse. After the course, virtually all students had developed a sense of agency, hope, and tools to understand the roots of mental and physical health. Following case studies on various countries, students quickly grasped the significant impact of politics and economics on people's health. Discussion: We recommend that political science departments offer courses that focus on health for all alongside existing courses on healthcare systems' politics. Furthermore, departments of public health may benefit from including political science courses as core elements of their curriculum to assist graduates in navigating the highly politicized infrastructure of public health. Both disciplines stand to gain from this interdisciplinary opportunity-- in the service of better health for all.


Asunto(s)
Política , Salud Pública , Curriculum , Salud Global , Humanos
3.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e027689, 2019 05 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101699

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals will require data-driven public health action. There are limited publications on national health information systems that continuously generate health data. Given the need to develop these systems, we summarised their current status in low-income and middle-income countries. SETTING: The survey team jointly developed a questionnaire covering policy, planning, legislation and organisation of case reporting, patient monitoring and civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems. From January until May 2017, we administered the questionnaire to key informants in 51 Centers for Disease Control country offices. Countries were aggregated for descriptive analyses in Microsoft Excel. RESULTS: Key informants in 15 countries responded to the questionnaire. Several key informants did not answer all questions, leading to different denominators across questions. The Ministry of Health coordinated case reporting, patient monitoring and CRVS systems in 93% (14/15), 93% (13/14) and 53% (8/15) of responding countries, respectively. Domestic financing supported case reporting, patient monitoring and CRVS systems in 86% (12/14), 75% (9/12) and 92% (11/12) of responding countries, respectively. The most common uses for system-generated data were to guide programme response in 100% (15/15) of countries for case reporting, to calculate service coverage in 92% (12/13) of countries for patient monitoring and to estimate the national burden of disease in 83% (10/12) of countries for CRVS. Systems with an electronic component were being used for case reporting, patient monitoring, birth registration and death registration in 87% (13/15), 92% (11/12), 77% (10/13) and 64% (7/11) of responding countries, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Most responding countries have a solid foundation for policy, planning, legislation and organisation of health information systems. Further evaluation is needed to assess the quality of data generated from systems. Periodic evaluations may be useful in monitoring progress in strengthening and harmonising these systems over time.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Información en Salud/organización & administración , Desarrollo Sostenible , Países en Desarrollo , Objetivos , Sistemas de Información en Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Salud Pública
4.
Psychol Serv ; 14(4): 443-450, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29120202

RESUMEN

There is an increasing call to attend to the needs of students in distress (Reynolds, 2013). Furthermore, research has begun to highlight links between distress, risky, or dangerous behaviors as well as issues in mental health in the higher education population (Deasy, Coughlan, Pironom, Jourdan, & Mannix-McNamara, 2014). The National Alliance on Mental Health and the Jed Foundation (National Alliance on Mental Illness & the Jed Foundation, 2016) estimate that about 20% of enrolled college students will face some type of mental illness. As such, the work of mental health professionals, which has been increasing with time, will continue to play a pivotal role on today's campus (Kitzrow, 2009). Yet mental health in higher education is too pervasive and significant of a topic for counseling and psychological centers to handle by themselves (Joint Task Force in Student Learning, 1998; Mitchell et al., 2012). Therefore, a collaborative approach is warranted as higher education professionals strive to meet the increasing mental health demands of the student population. Case studies amalgamated from housing and residence life professionals are used to gain a greater understanding of how interdepartmental work is carried out without compromising or breaching ethical or legal regulations as set by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, and/or organizational standards like that of the International Association of Counseling Services Inc. (International Association for Counseling Services Inc., 2014) Specifically, the cases demonstrate ways inter- and intradepartmental staffers can work as a team, safeguard private and confidential information, and concurrently create an environment in which care is nurtured. (PsycINFO Database Record


Asunto(s)
Confidencialidad , Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act , Colaboración Intersectorial , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Servicios de Salud Mental/organización & administración , Servicios de Salud para Estudiantes/organización & administración , Estudiantes , Adulto , Consejo/ética , Consejo/legislación & jurisprudencia , Consejo/organización & administración , Consejo/normas , Humanos , Servicios de Salud Mental/ética , Servicios de Salud Mental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Servicios de Salud Mental/normas , Servicios de Salud para Estudiantes/ética , Servicios de Salud para Estudiantes/legislación & jurisprudencia , Servicios de Salud para Estudiantes/normas , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Adulto Joven
5.
Cornell Law Rev ; 102(6): 1539-648, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29048862

RESUMEN

Today, intellectual property (IP) scholars accept that IP as an approach to information production has serious limits. But what lies beyond IP? A new literature on "intellectual production without IP" (or "IP without IP") has emerged to explore this question, but its examples and explanations have yet to convince skeptics. This Article reorients this new literature via a study of a hard case: a global influenza virus-sharing network that has for decades produced critically important information goods, at significant expense, and in a loose-knit group--all without recourse to IP. I analyze the Network as an example of "open science," a mode of information production that differs strikingly from conventional IP, and yet that successfully produces important scientific goods in response to social need. The theory and example developed here refute the most powerful criticisms of the emerging "IP without IP" literature, and provide a stronger foundation for this important new field. Even where capital costs are high, creation without IP can be reasonably effective in social terms, if it can link sources of funding to reputational and evaluative feedback loops like those that characterize open science. It can also be sustained over time, even by loose-knit groups and where the stakes are high, because organizations and other forms of law can help to stabilize cooperation. I also show that contract law is well suited to modes of information production that rely upon a "supply side" rather than "demand side" model. In its most important instances, "order without IP" is not order without governance, nor order without law. Recognizing this can help us better ground this new field, and better study and support forms of knowledge production that deserve our attention, and that sometimes sustain our very lives.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Propiedad Intelectual , Cooperación Internacional , Pandemias/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Ciencia , Animales , Capitalismo , Financiación Gubernamental , Humanos , Subtipo H5N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Aviar/epidemiología , Difusión de la Información/legislación & jurisprudencia , Modelos Teóricos , Motivación , Patentes como Asunto , Aves de Corral , Edición , Investigación , Vigilancia de Guardia , Organización Mundial de la Salud
6.
J Health Polit Policy Law ; 42(3): 459-483, 2017 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28213396

RESUMEN

The United States is experiencing a renewed period of immigration and immigrant policy activity as well as heightened enforcement of such policies. This intensified activity can affect various aspects of immigrant health, including mental health. We use the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2015 Latino National Health and Immigration Survey (n = 1,493) to examine the relationship between immigration and immigrant policy and Latino health and well-being. We estimate a series of categorical regression models and find that there are negative health consequences associated with Latinos' perceptions of living in states with unfavorable anti-immigration laws, including reporting poor health and problems with mental health. This article builds on the work of public health scholars who have found a link between this heightened policy environment and the mental health of immigrants, yet expands on this research by finding that the health consequences associated with immigration policy extend to Latinos broadly, not just immigrants. These findings are relevant to scholars of immigration and health policy as well as policy makers who should consider these negative effects on the immigrant community during their decision-making process.


Asunto(s)
Emigración e Inmigración/legislación & jurisprudencia , Miedo/psicología , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Política Pública , Migrantes/psicología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Aplicación de la Ley , Percepción , Migrantes/legislación & jurisprudencia , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos , United States Government Agencies
7.
BMC Med Educ ; 16(1): 227, 2016 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27565709

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This paper presents a conceptual framework developed from empirical evidence, to guide medical schools aspiring towards greater social accountability. METHODS: Using a multiple case study approach, seventy-five staff, students, health sector representatives and community members, associated with four medical schools, participated in semi-structured interviews. Two schools were in Australia and two were in the Philippines. These schools were selected because they were aspiring to be socially accountable. Data was collected through on-site visits, field notes and a documentary review. Abductive analysis involved both deductive and inductive iterative theming of the data both within and across cases. RESULTS: The conceptual framework for socially accountable medical education was built from analyzing the internal and external factors influencing the selected medical schools. These factors became the building blocks that might be necessary to assist movement to social accountability. The strongest factor was the demands of the local workforce situation leading to innovative educational programs established with or without government support. The values and professional experiences of leaders, staff and health sector representatives, influenced whether the organizational culture of a school was conducive to social accountability. The wider institutional environment and policies of their universities affected this culture and the resourcing of programs. Membership of a coalition of socially accountable medical schools created a community of learning and legitimized local practice. Communities may not have recognized their own importance but they were fundamental for socially accountable practices. The bedrock of social accountability, that is, the foundation for all building blocks, is shared values and aspirations congruent with social accountability. These values and aspirations are both a philosophical understanding for innovation and a practical application at the health systems and education levels. CONCLUSIONS: While many of these building blocks are similar to those conceptualized in social accountability theory, this conceptual framework is informed by what happens in practice - empirical evidence rather than prescriptions. Consequently it is valuable in that it puts some theoretical thinking around everyday practice in specific contexts; addressing a gap in the medical education literature. The building blocks framework includes guidelines for social accountable practice that can be applied at policy, school and individual levels.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Educación Médica/normas , Facultades de Medicina , Responsabilidad Social , Australia/epidemiología , Femenino , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Cultura Organizacional , Filipinas/epidemiología , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Facultades de Medicina/organización & administración , Facultades de Medicina/normas
8.
Hum Resour Health ; 13: 87, 2015 Nov 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26581196

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Due to a limited health workforce, many health care providers in Africa must take on health leadership roles with minimal formal training in leadership. Hence, the need to equip health care providers with practical skills required to lead high-impact health care programs. In Uganda, the Afya Bora Global Health Leadership Fellowship is implemented through the Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) and her partner institutions. Lessons learned from the program, presented in this paper, may guide development of in-service training opportunities to enhance leadership skills of health workers in resource-limited settings. METHODS: The Afya Bora Consortium, a consortium of four African and four U.S. academic institutions, offers 1-year global health leadership-training opportunities for nurses and doctors. Applications are received and vetted internationally by members of the consortium institutions in Botswana, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and the USA. Fellows have 3 months of didactic modules and 9 months of mentored field attachment with 80% time dedicated to fellowship activities. Fellows' projects and experiences, documented during weekly mentor-fellow meetings and monthly mentoring team meetings, were compiled and analyzed manually using pre-determined themes to assess the effect of the program on fellows' daily leadership opportunities. RESULTS: Between January 2011 and January 2015, 15 Ugandan fellows (nine doctors and six nurses) participated in the program. Each fellow received 8 weeks of didactic modules held at one of the African partner institutions and three online modules to enhance fellows' foundation in leadership, communication, monitoring and evaluation, health informatics, research methodology, grant writing, implementation science, and responsible conduct of research. In addition, fellows embarked on innovative projects that covered a wide spectrum of global health challenges including critical analysis of policy formulation and review processes, bottlenecks in implementation of national HIV early infant diagnosis and prevention of mother-to-child HIV-transmission programs, and use of routine laboratory data about antibiotic resistance to guide updates of essential drug lists. CONCLUSION: In-service leadership training was feasible, with ensured protected time for fellows to generate evidence-based solutions to challenges within their work environment. With structured mentorship, collaborative activities at academic institutions and local health care programs equipped health care providers with leadership skills.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Cooperativa , Educación/normas , Salud Global , Personal de Salud/educación , Servicios de Salud , Liderazgo , Universidades , Curriculum , Atención a la Salud , Becas , Recursos en Salud , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Médicos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Uganda
9.
Prescrire Int ; 24(157): 50-4, 2015 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25802924

RESUMEN

Despite the fact that adverse effects are vastly under-reported, spontaneous reporting remains the foundation of pharmacovigilance. A small series of properly documented cases, when very specific, can suffice to constitute a signal. In France, reporting adverse effects to Regional Pharmacovigilance Centres (CRPVs) permits high-quality analysis of pharmacovigilance signals, so that they can be brought to the attention of the national agency responsible for making decisions about drugs, the French Health Products Agency (ANSM). The ANSM can use this information to protect patients by implementing the measures within its power or by initiating a European referral. When a decision taken at the national level concerns a drug marketed in several Member States of the European Union, a "harmonisation" procedure results in a decision taken at community level, applicable in all Member States. This means that a safety issue raised by a single Member State sometimes leads to a decision that protects the population of the entire European Union. But it also means that other European decisions can compel national agencies to allow back onto the market a drug that they sought to withdraw in order to protect their citizens. Negotiations with other Member States, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the European Commission must be supported by robust data: this is yet another reason for each country to have its own effective national pharmacovigilance database, the contents of which should be publicly accessible. This is unfortunately not yet the case in France in 2014. It also provides another good reason for healthcare professionals and patients to report adverse effects, so that the details can be recorded in national and European databases.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Registro de Reacción Adversa a Medicamentos/organización & administración , Aprobación de Drogas/organización & administración , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos/prevención & control , Política de Salud , Seguridad del Paciente , Farmacovigilancia , Salud Pública , Sistemas de Registro de Reacción Adversa a Medicamentos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Conducta Cooperativa , Aprobación de Drogas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos/epidemiología , Europa (Continente) , Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Innovación Organizacional , Objetivos Organizacionales , Política Organizacional , Seguridad del Paciente/legislación & jurisprudencia , Formulación de Políticas , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo
10.
Stem Cells Dev ; 23 Suppl 1: 66-7, 2014 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25457966

RESUMEN

The emergence of regenerative medicine raises new questions about the best ways to ensure the safety and efficacy of stem cell therapies for patients. The Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT) believes minimum requirements for cellular therapy for regenerative medicine will promote patient safety, protect the research environment, and aid in the swift advancement of regenerative therapies from bench to bedside. The standards development process has demonstrated that consensus on minimum requirements advances the field. FACT's accreditation process and newly established "Common Standards for Cellular Therapies" can help meet unmet needs in regenerative medicine that will drive commercialization of new cell therapies.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Regenerativa/tendencias , Trasplante de Células Madre/tendencias , Transfusión Sanguínea/métodos , Trasplante de Médula Ósea/métodos , Trasplante de Células Madre de Sangre del Cordón Umbilical/métodos , Difusión de Innovaciones , Regulación Gubernamental , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Seguridad del Paciente , Control de Calidad , Medicina Regenerativa/legislación & jurisprudencia , Medicina Regenerativa/organización & administración , Sistema de Registros , Trasplante de Células Madre/legislación & jurisprudencia
11.
J Surg Educ ; 71(1): 18-20, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24411418

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To outline a structured approach for general surgery resident integration into institutional quality improvement and patient safety education and development. DESIGN: A strategic plan to address Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Clinical Learning Environment Review assessments for resident integration into Quality Improvement and Patient Safety initiatives is described. SETTING: Gundersen Lutheran Medical Foundation is an independent academic medical center graduating three categorical residents per year within an integrated multi-specialty health system serving 19 counties over 3 states. RESULTS: The quality improvement and patient safety education program includes a formal lecture series, online didactic sessions, mandatory quality improvement or patient safety projects, institutional committee membership, an opportunity to serve as a designated American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project and Quality in Training representative, mandatory morbidity and mortality conference attendance and clinical electives in rural surgery and international settings. CONCLUSIONS: Structured education regarding and participation in quality improvement and patient safety programs are able to be accomplished during general surgery residency. The long-term outcomes and benefits of these strategies are unknown at this time and will be difficult to measure with objective data.


Asunto(s)
Cirugía General/educación , Internado y Residencia/normas , Seguridad del Paciente , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Curriculum , Sistemas en Línea , Estados Unidos
12.
Tob Control ; 23(6): 518-23, 2014 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23788605

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Namibia is typical of low-income and middle-income countries with growing tobacco use, but with limited capacity to impose comprehensive tobacco control legislation. Despite initiating dialogue on national tobacco control policy in 1991, the country took nearly 20 years to pass the Tobacco Products Control Act. OBJECTIVE: To use Namibia as a case study to illustrate challenges faced by low-income countries working to forward tobacco control legislation. METHOD: Face-to-face and telephonic interviews were conducted with 13 bureaucrats and advocates currently or previously engaged in tobacco-related work in Namibia. Tobacco-related news articles from national newspapers were examined. RESULTS: The constitutional obligation of the government to promote public health laid the foundation for Namibia's tobacco control policy. Staff capacity constraints greatly delayed the passing of tobacco control legislation. It is unclear what influence the tobacco industry's involvement as a stakeholder had on policy; however, in at least one instance, the tobacco industry actively misled government. Namibia's ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control was instrumental in passing legislation that meets most provisions of the international treaty. The media have generally played a supportive role in pushing the government to pass tobacco control legislation. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that Namibia was able to pass fairly comprehensive tobacco control legislation with such meagre resources is commendable. The government must now implement the regulations that make the legislation effective. Tobacco control progress in low-income and middle-income nations can be encouraged through use of the media and improved staff and legal capacity within health ministries.


Asunto(s)
Gobierno Federal , Maniobras Políticas , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Industria del Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Países en Desarrollo , Regulación Gubernamental , Política de Salud , Humanos , Tabaquismo/prevención & control
13.
Reprod Health Matters ; 22(44): 137-47, 2014 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25555771

RESUMEN

The context of sexual relations is changing in the Asia-Pacific. While the age of sexual debut remains the same, young people are generally marrying later and sex outside of marriage is increasing. The first systematic review of how laws and policies govern young people's access to sexual and reproductive health services was conducted in 2013. The study considered >400 national documents and held focus group discussions with >60 young people across three countries in the region. This paper examines the study findings in light of epidemiological data on young people's sexual behaviour and health, exposing a critical mismatch between the onset of sexual activity and laws and policies governing consent (to sex and medical treatment), and the restriction and orientation of services to married persons. An enabling legal and policy environment is an essential foundation for efforts to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health. This paper argues that international guidance and commitments (including the widely ratified Convention on the Rights of the Child) provide a framework for recognising young people's evolving capacity for independent decision-making, including in the realm of sexual and reproductive health. A number of countries in the region are using these frameworks to expand access to services, providing valuable examples for others to build on.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Salud Reproductiva , Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos , Conducta Sexual , Aborto Inducido/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Asia , Niño , Toma de Decisiones , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Masculino , Matrimonio , Nueva Zelanda , Consentimiento Paterno/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adulto Joven
14.
J Vasc Surg ; 57(5): 1422-8, 2013 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23601597

RESUMEN

Vascular surgical training currently has to cope with various challenges, including restrictions on work hours, significant reduction of open surgical training cases in many countries, an increasing diversity of open and endovascular procedures, and distinct expectations by trainees. Even more important, patients and the public no longer accept a "learning by doing" training philosophy that leaves the learning curve on the patient's side. The Vascular International (VI) Foundation and School aims to overcome these obstacles by training conventional vascular and endovascular techniques before they are applied on patients. To achieve largely realistic training conditions, lifelike pulsatile models with exchangeable synthetic arterial inlays were created to practice carotid endarterectomy and patch plasty, open abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery, and peripheral bypass surgery, as well as for endovascular procedures, including endovascular aneurysm repair, thoracic endovascular aortic repair, peripheral balloon dilatation, and stenting. All models are equipped with a small pressure pump inside to create pulsatile flow conditions with variable peak pressures of ~90 mm Hg. The VI course schedule consists of a series of 2-hour modules teaching different open or endovascular procedures step-by-step in a standardized fashion. Trainees practice in pairs with continuous supervision and intensive advice provided by highly experienced vascular surgical trainers (trainer-to-trainee ratio is 1:4). Several evaluations of these courses show that tutor-assisted training on lifelike models in an educational-centered and motivated environment is associated with a significant increase of general and specific vascular surgical technical competence within a short period of time. Future studies should evaluate whether these benefits positively influence the future learning curve of vascular surgical trainees and clarify to what extent sophisticated models are useful to assess the level of technical skills of vascular surgical residents at national or international board examinations. This article gives an overview of our experiences of >20 years of practical training of beginners and advanced vascular surgeons using lifelike pulsatile vascular surgical training models.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/métodos , Procedimientos Endovasculares/educación , Maniquíes , Modelos Anatómicos , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Flujo Pulsátil , Enseñanza/métodos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Vasculares/educación , Competencia Clínica , Curriculum , Diseño de Equipo , Humanos , Curva de Aprendizaje , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas
15.
Med Teach ; 35(2): e971-7, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23102155

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Project design and implementation, applied to real life situations, is emerging as an educational strategy for application of health professions faculty development learning within a supportive environment. AIM: We conducted a retrospective analysis of project evolution to identify common experiences, challenges, and successful strategies of 54 mid-career faculty members from 18 developing countries who attended the Foundation for the Advancement of International Medical Education and Research Institute between 2001 and 2006 and designed, conducted, and evaluated education innovations at their home institutions. METHODS: Chronological analysis of the evolution of 54 projects over the initial 16-18 months of the 2-year Fellowship was based on an iterative qualitative analysis of 324 reports and individual interview transcripts collected over 6 years. RESULTS: Useful skill areas for project implementation included educational methods, leadership and management, and relationships/collaboration. Common challenges included competing responsibilities, lack of protected time, and limited resources. Themes identified with the evolution and success of education innovation projects included leadership and organization, collaboration, personal professional growth, and awareness of the relevant societal context. CONCLUSIONS: Common challenges and success factors in project-based faculty development were identified. Twelve practical strategies to promote successful project-based faculty development emerged that can be generalized for faculty development.


Asunto(s)
Docentes Médicos/organización & administración , Cooperación Internacional , Desarrollo de Personal/organización & administración , Conducta Cooperativa , Curriculum , Docentes Médicos/normas , Humanos , Liderazgo , Modelos Educacionales , Estudios Retrospectivos
16.
Bot J Linn Soc ; 166(3): 233-39, 2011.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22059247

RESUMEN

The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) was the first such effort under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and had gone through a 3-year process to reach the level of maturity that enabled it to be approved by consensus by all Governments present at the key session in The Hague in April 2002. It provided a model for subsequent CBD workplans, with targets, and undoubtedly contributed to the 2010 target of reducing the rate of biodiversity loss. In the event, few of the targets were achieved, because of numerous constraints at both policy and implementation levels. Even so, the GSPC stands as an important milestone in the global effort to conserve biodiversity. However, few plant scientists can be satisfied that the essential steps are being taken to ensure the conservation of plants, although, of course, plant scientists are only one part of the complex effort that will be required. This paper offers some suggestions that might be worth consideration, building on the basic principle in politics that a strong constituency is necessary to victory. In other words, although plant scientists play a crucial role, plant conservation is too important to leave in their hands alone; far broader support is required, including from the private sector, agriculture, forestry, trade, economics, tourism and even the military. Although botanical science provides a solid foundation, other branches of science are also important, ranging from anthropology to zoology. The legal profession also has important contributions to make (as well as the ability to hamper progress ­ for example through using issues such as access and benefit sharing to limit the exchange of genetic materials for even noncommercial use). 2010 was the United Nations Year of Biodiversity, and the GSPC targets reached their due date. It therefore seems timely to add some additional perspectives to the effort to update the GSPC. This paper suggests ways to reach a far broader constituency, provides tools to those who are expected to achieve the targets, and suggests ways to build a strong international constituency to conserve the world's botanical wealth.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Salud Pública , Política Pública , Investigadores , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/economía , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/historia , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Gobierno/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Internacionalidad/historia , Internacionalidad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Disciplinas de las Ciencias Naturales/economía , Disciplinas de las Ciencias Naturales/educación , Disciplinas de las Ciencias Naturales/historia , Plantas , Salud Pública/economía , Salud Pública/educación , Salud Pública/historia , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política Pública/economía , Política Pública/historia , Política Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Asociación entre el Sector Público-Privado/economía , Asociación entre el Sector Público-Privado/historia , Asociación entre el Sector Público-Privado/legislación & jurisprudencia , Investigadores/economía , Investigadores/educación , Investigadores/historia , Investigadores/legislación & jurisprudencia , Investigadores/psicología
17.
Trials ; 12: 183, 2011 Jul 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21791064

RESUMEN

This article is part of a series of papers examining ethical issues in cluster randomized trials (CRTs) in health research. In the introductory paper in this series, we set out six areas of inquiry that must be addressed if the CRT is to be set on a firm ethical foundation. This paper addresses the first of the questions posed, namely, who is the research subject in a CRT in health research? The identification of human research subjects is logically prior to the application of protections as set out in research ethics and regulation. Aspects of CRT design, including the fact that in a single study the units of randomization, experimentation, and observation may differ, complicate the identification of human research subjects. But the proper identification of human research subjects is important if they are to be protected from harm and exploitation, and if research ethics committees are to review CRTs efficiently.We examine the research ethics literature and international regulations to identify the core features of human research subjects, and then unify these features under a single, comprehensive definition of human research subject. We define a human research subject as any person whose interests may be compromised as a result of interventions in a research study. Individuals are only human research subjects in CRTs if: (1) they are directly intervened upon by investigators; (2) they interact with investigators; (3) they are deliberately intervened upon via a manipulation of their environment that may compromise their interests; or (4) their identifiable private information is used to generate data. Individuals who are indirectly affected by CRT study interventions, including patients of healthcare providers participating in knowledge translation CRTs, are not human research subjects unless at least one of these conditions is met.


Asunto(s)
Análisis por Conglomerados , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud/métodos , Selección de Paciente , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/métodos , Sujetos de Investigación/clasificación , Terminología como Asunto , Confidencialidad , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud/ética , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Derechos del Paciente , Selección de Paciente/ética , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/ética , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/legislación & jurisprudencia , Sujetos de Investigación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Medición de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento
18.
Front Med ; 5(2): 212-8, 2011 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21695628

RESUMEN

With the development of the knowledge economy, knowledge has become one of the most important resources for social progress and economic development. Some countries have proposed measures for the protection of their own traditional knowledge. Traditional Chinese medicine belongs to the category of intangible cultural heritage because it is an important part of Chinese cultural heritage. Today the value of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine has been widely recognized by the domestic and international public. This paper discusses the definition of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and its protection, and evaluates research on its classification. We review the present status of the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and tentatively put forward some possible ideas and methods for the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine. Our goal is to find a way to strengthen the vitality of traditional Chinese medicine and consolidate its foundation. We believe that if we could establish a suitable sui generis(sui generis is a Latin term meaning "of its own kind" and is often used in discussions about protecting the rights of indigenous peoples. Here we use it to emphasize the fact that protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine cannot be achieved through existing legal means of protection alone due to its unique characteristics) system for traditional knowledge, a more favorable environment for the preservation and development of traditional Chinese medicine will ultimately be created.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/normas , Evolución Cultural , Propiedad Intelectual , Medicina China Tradicional , Investigación Biomédica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Investigación Biomédica/métodos , China , Humanos , Difusión de la Información/legislación & jurisprudencia , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Conocimiento
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 747: 21-51, 2011.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21643903

RESUMEN

Food safety is essential to people's health and people's livelihood. To ensure that food safety is an important current strategy of the governments, both regulation and standardization are important support for implementing this strategic initiative effectively. The status and prospects of China's food laws, regulations, and standards system are introduced. China now has established a complete law regime providing a sound foundation and good environment for keeping the health of people, maintaining the order of social economy and promoting the international trade of food. At the same time, it is undoubtedly important to strengthen standardization and improve the food safety standards system. In the administration of food safety, mass spectrometry is becoming more and more important and many analytical methods developed in China are based on its application.


Asunto(s)
Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Espectrometría de Masas , China , Política Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia
20.
Clin Teach ; 8(1): 31-6, 2011 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21324070

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There has been a rapid growth of online teaching in the past few years, yet the implementation of role-play for formal educational activities in an online setting is growing more slowly. The use of online role-playing for the development of health professions educators is virtually un-documented in the literature. INNOVATION: In the project reported here we use role-playing as a method to motivate and increase active participation in an online web-based discussion on community-based medical education (CBME). The Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education & Research (FAIMER(®) ) Institute hosts virtual group discussions for fellows as part of its fellowship programmes, in order to deepen their knowledge base in health professions education and research. In June 2008, a group of seven FAIMER(®) fellows and faculty members moderated an online discussion on CBME using an online role-play exercise with other fellows and faculty members. RESULTS: Out of a total of 102 fellows, 36 (35.3%) participated actively, which exceeded the typical percentage of list server participation. In addition, a rich discussion resulted in a comprehensive report on the goals, challenges, logistical components, role of Health Ministry policy and the possible ethical mandate of CBME in developing countries. CONCLUSION: Online role-play encouraged distributed participation among a highly diverse international group of participants, supporting the conclusion that role-playing can be used effectively with mid-career health professional faculty members in the online environment.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica Continua/métodos , Docentes Médicos , Internet , Desempeño de Papel , Desarrollo de Personal/métodos , Enseñanza/métodos , Participación de la Comunidad/métodos , Curriculum , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Política de Salud , Humanos , Motivación , Philadelphia , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/métodos , Desarrollo de Programa , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud
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