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PLoS One ; 18(3): e0281303, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36893093


The main objective of this paper is to study the impact of the Ambient Air Quality Standard (2012) on the green innovation of Chinese firms in polluting industries. The analysis features "leverage effect" of Porter Hypothesis imposed by environmental regulations and exploits exogenous variations caused by the promulgation of the new policy. Based on the exogenous variations, this paper uses the time varying PSM-DID method. The findings of this study suggest that the implementation of the new policy improves firms' green innovation. Increments in R&D investment and environmental protection investment are channels through which the new standard positively affects firms' green innovation. The cross-sectional heterogeneity analysis exhibits that the effect of this environmental regulation is stronger for firms with bigger size and lower financial constraints. The contribution and significance of this study are as follows: our study enriches understanding of the impact of environmental regulation on firms' green innovation by empirically confirming the influencing channels of the impact of environmental regulations on green innovation. In addition, this paper contributes to the firms' green innovation literature by empirically validating the role of corporate characteristics in moderating the effect of environmental regulations.

Contaminación Ambiental , Industrias , China , Estudios Transversales , Política Ambiental , Industrias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Inversiones en Salud , Contaminación Ambiental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Contaminación Ambiental/prevención & control
Terminología | DeCS - Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud | ID: 017549


Trata da preservação ambiental, e de ações preventivas que visam diminuir os impactos ambientais que muitas atividades humanas possam causar sobre o meio ambiente. A proteção ambiental dispõe sobre o reconhecimento do direito a um meio ambiente sadio como uma extensão ao direito à vida, seja pelo aspecto da própria existência física e saúde dos seres humanos, seja quanto à dignidade desta existência, medida pela qualidade de vida. Este reconhecimento impõe ao Poder Público e à coletividade a responsabilidade pela proteção ambiental. (Adaptado de

Terminología | DeCS - Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud | ID: 051798


Environmental management tool comprising a systematic, regular, documented and objective performance of an activity or installation to ensure protection of the environment and monitor legislation compliance.

Instrumento de gestión ambiental que comprende una evaluación sistemática, periódica, documentada y objetiva del funcionamiento de determinada actividad o instalación para asegurar la protección del ambiente y vigilar la conformidad con la legislación.

Ferramenta de gestão ambiental que compreende uma atuação sistemática, regular, documentada e objetiva de uma atividade ou instalação para garantir a proteção do meio ambiente e fiscalizar o cumprimento da legislação.

Conserv Biol ; : e14052, 2023 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36661057


The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the European Union's main instrument for agricultural planning, with a new reform approved for 2023-2027. The CAP intends to align with the European Green Deal (EGD), a set of policy initiatives underpinning sustainable development and climate neutrality in the European Union (EU), but several flaws cast doubts about the compatibility of the objectives of these 2 policies. We reviewed recent literature on the potential of CAP environmental objectives for integration with the EGD: protection of biodiversity, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and sustainable management of natural resources. The CAP lacks appropriate planning measures, furthering instead risks to biodiversity and ecosystem services driven by landscape and biotic homogenization. Funding allocation mechanisms are not tailored to mitigate agricultural emissions, decreasing the efficiency of climate mitigation actions. The legislation subsidies farmers making extensive use of synthetic inputs without adequately supporting organic production, hindering the transition toward sustainable practices. We recommend proper control mechanisms be introduced in CAP Strategic Plans from each member state to ensure the EU is set on a sustainable production and consumption path. These include proportional assignment of funds to each CAP objective, quantitative targets to set goals and evidence-based interventions, and relevant indicators to facilitate effective monitoring of environmental performance. Both the CAP and the EGD should maintain ambitious environmental commitments in the face of crisis to avoid further degradation of the natural resources on which production systems stand.

Oportunidades y retos para la reforma a la Política Agrícola Común que respalden el Pacto Verde Europeo Resumen La Política Agrícola Común (PAC) es el principal instrumento de planificación agraria de la Unión Europea, con una nueva reforma aprobada para 2023-2027. La PAC pretende alinearse con el Pacto Verde Europeo (PVE), un conjunto de iniciativas políticas que apuntan al desarrollo sostenible y la neutralidad climática en la UE, aunque varias fallas han arrojado dudas sobre la compatibilidad de los objetivos de estas dos políticas. Revisamos la bibliografía reciente sobre el potencial de integración de los objetivos medioambientales de la PAC con el PVE en tres categorías: protección de la biodiversidad; mitigación del cambio climático y adaptación al mismo y, gestión sostenible de los recursos naturales. Encontramos que la PAC carece de medidas de planificación adecuadas, lo que agrava los riesgos para la biodiversidad y los servicios ambientales derivados de la homogeneización biótica y paisajística. Los mecanismos de asignación de fondos no están adaptados para mitigar las emisiones agrícolas, lo que disminuye la eficiencia de las acciones de mitigación del cambio climático. La legislación subsidia a los agricultores que hacen un uso extensivo de insumos sintéticos sin apoyar adecuadamente la producción ecológica, obstaculizando la transición hacia prácticas sostenibles. Recomendamos que se introduzcan mecanismos de control adecuados en los Planes Estratégicos de la PAC de cada Estado miembro para garantizar que la UE se encamina hacia una producción y un consumo sostenibles. Estos mecanismos incluyen la asignación proporcional de fondos a cada objetivo de la PAC, objetivos cuantitativos para fijar metas e intervenciones basadas en pruebas, e indicadores pertinentes para facilitar un seguimiento eficaz de los resultados medioambientales. Tanto la PAC como el PVE deben mantener compromisos medioambientales ambiciosos frente a la crisis para evitar una mayor degradación de los recursos naturales sobre los que se asientan los sistemas de producción.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(1): e0010460, 2023 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634153


Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus that has profound impact on domestic ruminants and can also be transmitted to humans via infected animal secretions. Urban areas in endemic regions across Africa have susceptible animal and human hosts, dense vector distributions, and source livestock (often from high risk locations to meet the demand for animal protein). Yet, there has never been a documented urban outbreak of RVF. To understand the likely risk of RVFV introduction to urban communities from their perspective and guide future initiatives, we conducted focus group discussions with slaughterhouse workers, slaughterhouse animal product traders, and livestock owners in Kisumu City and Ukunda Town in Kenya. For added perspective and data triangulation, in-depth interviews were conducted one-on-one with meat inspector veterinarians from selected slaughterhouses. A theoretical framework relevant to introduction, transmission, and potential persistence of RVF in urban areas is presented here. Urban livestock were primarily mentioned as business opportunities, but also had personal sentiment. In addition to slaughtering risks, perceived risk factors included consumption of fresh milk. High risk groups' knowledge and experience with RVFV and other zoonotic diseases impacted their consideration of personal risk, with consensus towards lower risk in the urban setting compared to rural areas as determination of health risk was said to primarily rely on hygiene practices rather than the slaughtering process. Groups relied heavily on veterinarians to confirm animal health and meat safety, yet veterinarians reported difficulty in accessing RVFV diagnostics. We also identified vulnerable public health regulations including corruption in meat certification outside of the slaughterhouse system, and blood collected during slaughter being used for food and medicine, which could provide a means for direct RVFV community transmission. These factors, when compounded by diverse urban vector breeding habitats and dense human and animal populations, could create suitable conditions for RVFV to arrive an urban center via a viremic imported animal, transmit to locally owned animals and humans, and potentially adapt to secondary vectors and persist in the urban setting. This explorative qualitative study proposes risk pathways and provides initial insight towards determining how urban areas could adapt control measures and plan future initiatives to better understand urban RVF potential.

Fiebre del Valle del Rift , Virus de la Fiebre del Valle del Rift , Animales , Humanos , Kenia/epidemiología , Ganado/virología , Carne , Fiebre del Valle del Rift/prevención & control , Fiebre del Valle del Rift/transmisión , Rumiantes/virología , Zoonosis/prevención & control , Zoonosis/transmisión , Factores de Riesgo , Población Urbana , Mataderos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Mataderos/normas , Inocuidad de los Alimentos
JAMA ; 329(5): 365-366, 2023 02 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36622690


This Viewpoint discusses how some pulse oximeters can provide incorrect oxygen saturation data for dark-skinned patients compared with light-skinned patients, describes the reasons that biased oximeters remained in use, and highlights why a rule recently proposed by the US Department of Health and Human Services may bring about needed change in the use of pulse oximetry for patients with dark skin.

Derechos Humanos , Oximetría , Discriminación Social , Oximetría/instrumentación , Oximetría/normas , Discriminación Social/legislación & jurisprudencia , Discriminación Social/prevención & control , Estados Unidos , Gobierno Federal , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos Humanos/normas
Ambio ; 52(3): 598-615, 2023 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2175225


Conservationists speculated on potential benefits to wildlife of lockdown restrictions because of the COVID-19 pandemic but voiced concern that restrictions impeded nature conservation. We assessed the effects of lockdown restrictions on biodiversity conservation in South Africa, a biodiverse country with economic inequality and reliance on wildlife resources. We solicited expert opinion using the IUCN's Threats Classification Scheme to structure a questionnaire and illustrated responses with individual case studies from government parastatal and non-governmental conservation organisations. The most highly reported threats were biological resource use, residential/commercial developments, invasive species, and human intrusions. The trends reported by 90 survey respondents were supported by case studies using environmental compliance data from parastatal conservation organisations. Lack of tourism revenue and funding were cited as hindrances to conservation. Mechanisms to prevent environmental degradation in the face of global emergencies must be implemented and 'ring-fenced' to ensure conservation is not a casualty during future global crises.

COVID-19 , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Animales , Humanos , Animales Salvajes , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/legislación & jurisprudencia , COVID-19/prevención & control , Sudáfrica , Encuestas y Cuestionarios