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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130541, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273855

RESUMEN

Penicillium oxalicum has been used as a biocontrol fungus in agriculture for many years, but the antimicrobial substances are still uncertain. Herein, we isolated a linear peptide named Sanxiapeptin in the culture broth of Penicillium oxalicum SG-4 collecting from the Three Gorges riparian zone. Sanxiapeptin exhibited potent inhibitory effect on citrus green mold Penicillium digitatum, the main fungi responsible for postharvest decay. Sanxiapeptin was elucidated as composing of five amino acids, which were ß-amino-α-methoxybutyric acid (Amoba), N-Me-l-Thr, d-Thr, N-Me-l-Val and l-Ser. By analyzing three chemically synthesized oligopeptides with similar structures, we found that the first amino acid of Amoba was crucial to the antifungal activity, as was the methylation of peptide bond. Sanxiapeptin may act as an antimicrobial agent by affecting the function of cell membranes or walls. The antimicrobial spectrum, safety and stability analysis supported that Sanxiapeptin was a promising antifungal agent for citrus preservation.


Asunto(s)
Citrus , Penicillium , Frutas , Enfermedades de las Plantas
2.
Food Chem ; 366: 130605, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311239

RESUMEN

The Citrus genus is a good source of dietary flavonoids, which have many health benefits. As a representative citrus fruit, the flavonoids composition in Shatianyu (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) pulp remains to be investigated. In the present study, 11 flavonoids were isolated and identified from Shatianyu pulp flavonoid extracts (SPFEs). Among them, 4 flavonoids were previously undescribed and 2 flavonoids were firstly isolated from pummelo. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of isolated compounds were evaluated. Naringin and rhoifolin showed the highest ORAC activity, and the presence of a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl or a 4'-glucose decreased the ORAC activity of flavonoids. The contribution of isolated flavonoids to the holistic antioxidant activity of SPFEs was determined by an online knockout method. Melitidin, bergamjuicin and naringin contributed most to ORAC activity, while bergamjuicin, melitidin and apigenin-4'-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 â†’ 2)-[6″-O-(3- hydroxy-3-methylgltaryl)]-ß-d-glucopyranoside contributed most to CAA activity.


Asunto(s)
Citrus , Antioxidantes , Flavonoides , Extractos Vegetales , Polifenoles
3.
Food Chem ; 367: 130635, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352690

RESUMEN

In this study, tailored-made citrus pectin-derived compounds were produced through controlled enzymatic and/or chemical modifications of commercial citrus pectin with different degrees of methylesterification (DM) and similar average molecular weight (MW). In the first treatment, degradation of the citrus pectin (CP) materials by endo-polygalacturonase (EPG) yielded pectins with average Mw's (between 2 and 60 kDa). Separation and identification of the oligosaccharide fraction present in these samples, revealed the presence of non-methylesterified galacturonic acid oligomers with degree of polymerization (DP) 1-5. In the second treatment, exploiting the combined effect of EPG and pectin lyase, compounds with MW between 2 and 21 kDa, containing methylesterified and non-methylesterified polygalacturonans (DP 1-6), were generated. Finally, CP was sequentially modified by chemical saponification and the action of EPG. A sample of DM 11% and MW 2.7 kDa, containing POS (DP 1-5), was produced. Diverse pectin-derived compounds were successfully generated for further studies exploring their functionality.


Asunto(s)
Citrus , Pectinas , Peso Molecular , Oligosacáridos , Poligalacturonasa/genética
5.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(10): e26164, 2021 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643538

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mobile health interventions provide significant strategies for improving access to health services, offering a potential solution to reduce the mental health treatment gap. Economic evaluation of this intervention is needed to help inform local mental health policy and program development. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents the protocol for an economic evaluation conducted alongside 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a psychological intervention delivered through a technological platform (CONEMO) to treat depressive symptoms in people with diabetes, hypertension, or both. METHODS: The economic evaluation uses a within-trial analysis to evaluate the incremental costs and health outcomes of CONEMO plus enhanced usual care in comparison with enhanced usual care from public health care system and societal perspectives. Participants are patients of the public health care services for hypertension, diabetes, or both conditions in São Paulo, Brazil (n=880) and Lima, Peru (n=432). Clinical effectiveness will be measured by reduction in depressive symptoms and gains in health-related quality of life. We will conduct cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses, providing estimates of the cost per at least 50% reduction in 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire scores, and cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. The measurement of clinical effectiveness and resource use will take place over baseline, 3-month follow-up, and 6-month follow-up in the intervention and control groups. We will use a mixed costing methodology (ie, a combination of top-down and bottom-up approaches) considering 4 cost categories: intervention (CONEMO related) costs, health care costs, patient and family costs, and productivity costs. We will collect unit costs from the RCTs and national administrative databases. The multinational economic evaluations will be fully split analyses with a multicountry costing approach. We will calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and present 95% CIs from nonparametric bootstrapping (1000 replicates). We will perform deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Finally, we will present cost-effectiveness acceptability curves to compare a range of possible cost-effectiveness thresholds. RESULTS: The economic evaluation project had its project charter in June 2018 and is expected to be completed in September 2021. The final results will be available in the second half of 2021. CONCLUSIONS: We expect to assess whether CONEMO plus enhanced usual care is a cost-effective strategy to improve depressive symptoms in this population compared with enhanced usual care. This study will contribute to the evidence base for health managers and policy makers in allocating additional resources for mental health initiatives. It also will provide a basis for further research on how this emerging technology and enhanced usual care can improve mental health and well-being in low- and middle-income countries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT12345678 (Brazil) and NCT03026426 (Peru); https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02846662 and https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03026426. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/26164.

6.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1814, 2021 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625043

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization published updated Environmental Noise Guidelines in 2018. Included are recommended limit values for environmental noise exposure based on systematic reviews for a range of health outcomes, including cognitive impairment. There is emerging evidence in the literature that chronic exposure to road traffic noise may affect cognitive function in older adults, but this relationship is not well established. This study spatially linked nationally representative health microdata from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing to building-level modelled noise data for two cities in the Republic of Ireland. This was used to investigate associations between exposure to road traffic noise and cognitive function in a sample of older adults, independent of a range of socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, as well as exposure to air pollution. METHODS: We used the Predictor-LimA Advanced V2019.02 software package to estimate noise originating from road traffic for the cities of Dublin and Cork in Ireland according to the new common noise assessment methodology for the European Union (CNOSSOS-EU). Noise exposure values were calculated for each building and spatially linked with geo-coded TILDA microdata for 1706 individuals aged 54 and over in the two cities. Ordinary least squares linear regression models were estimated for eight standardised cognitive tests including noise exposure as an independent variable, with standard errors clustered at the household level. Models were adjusted for individual sociodemographic, behavioural and environmental characteristics. RESULTS: We find some evidence that road traffic noise exposure is negatively associated with executive function, as measured by the Animal Naming Test, among our sample of older adults. This association appears to be accounted for by exposure to air pollution when focusing on a sub-sample. We do not find evidence of an association between noise exposure and memory or processing speed. CONCLUSIONS: Long term exposure to road traffic noise may be negatively associated with executive function among older adults.

7.
Appetite ; : 105738, 2021 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634374

RESUMEN

Foodscapes are the sum of all places where food and eating are actualized, as well as the institutional arrangements, discourses, cultural practices, trends and meanings that shape the relationship between individuals and food. However, limited research is available on how the different elements of foodscapes (physical, social, institutional) interact to influence children's and adolescents' eating behaviors. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the factors influencing Peruvian children's and adolescents' practices around food, focusing on the systemic and complex nature of eating. We conducted non-participant observations inside and around two schools-one public and one private-located in Lima, Peru, for an entire school-week, and interviewed 44 parents/caregivers of children and adolescents, ages 6-16. Qualitative content analysis was developed, as its iterative and reflective nature allowed for evolving understandings of the data. Results showed that individual attributes (SES, age and gender) interact with individual agency, the physical environment, parental and peer influence, to determine differentiated food-related outcomes of children and adolescents. Moreover, the state-wide law aiming to protect children's and adolescents' health and nutrition seemed to partially influence the eating practices of parents and children at school and at home. This study is unique in its kind, as existent research has mainly focused on the effects of foodscapes on children and adolescents in Western countries, while research in the Global South, such as Peru, remains mostly underdeveloped. Moreover, this study, unlike previous ones, intends to systematically understand how foodscapes shape children's and adolescents' eating practices.

8.
Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol (Engl Ed) ; 96(10): 515-520, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620481

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In recent decades, several studies have found a strong association between prolonged use of video display terminals and ophthalmological symptoms encompassed in the so-called computer visual syndrome (CVS). Few studies have addressed this syndrome in graduate students. METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional descriptive study. A total of 106 postgraduate students were surveyed without ophthalmological pathologies. The diagnosis of CVS was made by means of the questionnaire of Seguí et al. validated in Spanish, which evaluates the frequency and intensity of 16 ocular symptoms. RESULTS: The prevalence of CVS among graduate university students was 62.3% (95% CI: 52.3-71.5). It was found that the highest proportion of students with the syndrome was in the group of older than 40 years old (88.2%) and in the group 21-30 years old (70.0%), showing statistically significant differences (p = 0.004). According to the device and its time of use, students who used the mobile phone for 7-10 h a day showed a higher prevalence of CVS compared to those who used the device for less time (p = 0.030). The business School had the highest prevalence (75.0%). CONCLUSION: Three out of every five graduate students presented CVS with this prevalence being like reported in other populations. There is a need to investigate possible interventions that can help reduce this entity.

9.
Arch Sex Behav ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617189

RESUMEN

While transgender women have been identified as a global priority population for HIV prevention and treatment, little is known about the cisgender male partners of transgender women, including their sexual behavior and HIV prevalence. Previous research has suggested that these male partners have varied identities and sexual behavior, which make identifying and engaging them in research difficult. This paper describes interviews conducted with fifteen cisgender men who reported recent sexual activity with transgender women in Lima, Peru. The purpose of this research was to explore how these men reported their identities and sexual behavior, to better understand how they would interact with HIV outreach, research, and care. The major themes were sexual orientation and identity; view of transgender partners; social ties to transgender women and other men with transgender women partners; disclosure of relationships; HIV knowledge and risk perception; and attitudes toward interventions. We found that language used to assess sexual orientation was problematic in this population, due to lack of consistency between orientation and reported behavior, and unfamiliarity with terms used to describe sexual orientation. In addition, stigma, lack of knowledge of HIV prevention methods, and fear of disclosure of sexual behavior were identified as barriers that could impact engagement in HIV research, prevention, and care. However, participants reported social relationships with both transgender women and other men who have transgender partners, presenting possible avenues for recruitment into HIV research and healthcare services.

10.
J Mycol Med ; 32(1): 101202, 2021 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598108

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To provide original data on Pneumocystis primary infection in non-immunosuppressed infants from Peru. METHODS: A cross sectional study was performed. Infants less than seven months old, without any underlying medical conditions attending the "well baby" outpatient clinic at one hospital in Lima, Peru were prospectively enrolled during a 15-month period from November 2016 to February 2018. All had a nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) for detection of P. jirovecii DNA using a PCR assay, regardless of respiratory symptoms. P. jirovecii DNA detection was considered to represent pulmonary colonization contemporaneous with Pneumocystis primary infection. Associations between infants' clinical and demographic characteristics and results of P. jirovecii DNA detection were analyzed. RESULTS: P. jirovecii DNA was detected in 45 of 146 infants (30.8%) and detection was not associated with concurrent respiratory symptoms in 40 of 45 infants. Infants with P. jirovecii had a lower mean age when compared to infants not colonized (p <0.05). The highest frequency of P. jirovecii was observed in 2-3-month-old infants (p < 0.01) and in the cooler winter and spring seasons (p <0.01). Multivariable analysis showed that infants living in a home with ≤ 1 bedroom were more likely to be colonized; Odds Ratio =3.03 (95%CI 1.31-7.00; p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Pneumocystis primary infection in this single site in Lima, Peru, was most frequently observed in 2-3-month-old infants, in winter and spring seasons, and with higher detection rates being associated with household conditions favoring close inter-individual contacts and potential transmission of P. jirovecii.

11.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-7, 2021 Oct 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612182

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the FAST (Find cases Actively, Separate safely, Treat effectively) strategy on time to tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment for patients at a general hospital in a tuberculosis-endemic setting. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with historical controls. PARTICIPANTS: Patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis during hospitalization at Hospital Nacional Hipolito Unanue in Lima, Peru. METHODS: The FAST strategy was implemented from July 24, 2016, to December 31, 2019. We compared the proportion of patients with drug susceptibility testing and tuberculosis treatment during FAST to the 6-month period prior to FAST. Times to diagnosis and tuberculosis treatment were also compared using Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regressions. RESULTS: We analyzed 75 patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis through FAST. The historical cohort comprised 76 patients. More FAST patients underwent drug susceptibility testing (98.7% vs 57.8%; OR, 53.8; P < .001), which led to the diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis in 18 (24.3%) of 74 of the prospective cohort and 4 (9%) of 44 of the historical cohort (OR, 3.2; P = .03). Overall, 55 FAST patients (73.3%) started tuberculosis treatment during hospitalization compared to 39 (51.3%) controls (OR, 2.44; P = .012). FAST reduced the time from hospital admission to the start of TB treatment (HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.39-3.21; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Using the FAST strategy improved the diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis and the likelihood and speed of starting treatment among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis at a general hospital in a tuberculosis-endemic setting. In these settings, the FAST strategy should be considered to reduce tuberculosis transmission while simultaneously improving the quality of care.

12.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647634

RESUMEN

The Lambda VOI (C37/GR/452Q.V1/21G) was initially reported in Lima, Peru but has gained rapid dissemination through other Latin American countries. Nevertheless, the dissemination and molecular epidemiology of the Lambda VOI in Brazil is unknown apart from a single case report. In this respect, we characterized the circulation of the SARS-CoV-2 Lambda VOI (C37/GR/452Q.V1/21G) in the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. From March to June, 2021 we identified seven Lambda isolates in a set of ~8,000 newly sequenced genomes of the Network for Pandemic Alert of Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants from Sao Paulo State. Interestingly, in three of the positive patients the Lambda VOI infection was probably related to a contact transmission. These individuals were fully vaccinated to COVID-19 and presented mild symptoms. The remaining positive for Lambda VOI individuals showed different levels of COVID-19 symptoms and one of them needed hospitalization (score 5, WHO). In our study, we present low level of Lambda VOI circulation in the Sao Paulo State. This reinforces the essential role of molecular surveillance for the effective SARS-CoV-2 pandemic response, especially in regards to circulating variants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521140

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Revascularization strategies might be limited in patients with lack of sufficient bypass graft material and increased risk of wound healing disturbances. In this regard, we present first results of patients treated with left internal mammary artery (LIMA) as T-graft with itself due to left-sided double-vessel disease, elevated risk of wound healing infection, and lack of graft material. METHODS: Eighteen patients were retrospectively analyzed in this study. All patients received LIMA grafting, and additional T-graft with itself during off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. The investigation was focused on intraoperative and postoperative outcomes. RESULTS: LIMA-LIMA T-graft was performed in a total of 18 patients. Mean Fowler score accounted for 18.2 ± 2.9. Severe vein varicosis was present in 9 patients, and 38.9% of patients had lacking venous graft material due to prior vein stripping. A total of 2.5 ± 0.5 distal anastomoses were performed. Mean flow of LIMA-left anterior descending anastomosis was 41.72 ± 12.11 mL/min with a mean pulsatility index (PI) of 1.01 ± 0.21. Mean flow of subsequent T-graft accounted for 26.31 ± 4.22 mL/min with a mean PI of 1.59 ± 0.47. Median hospital stay was 7(6.75;8) days. No incidence of postoperative wound healing disorders was observed and all patients were discharged off hospital. CONCLUSIONS: LIMA as T-graft with itself to treat left-sided double-vessel disease is feasible and safe in patients with missing bypass graft material and increased risk of deep sternal wound infection. Further prospective studies are necessary to confirm our results.

15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 455, 2021 09 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530803

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study has two aims. First, determine the fit of the fear model to COVID-19, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress in the general population and health-care workers. Second, determine which model best explains the relationship between depression and the triad of fear, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress in both groups. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-reported questionnaires for anxiety, fear of COVID-19, depression, and post-traumatic stress. Information was collected from adults living in Lima, the capital and the most populous city in Peru. The explanatory models were evaluated using a structural equation model. RESULTS: A total of 830 participants were included, including general population (n = 640) and health-care workers (n = 190). A high overall prevalence of depressive symptoms (16%), anxiety (11.7%), and post-traumatic stress (14.9%) were identified. A higher prevalence of depressive, anxious, or stress symptoms was identified in the general population (28.6%) compared to health-care workers (17.9%). The triad model of fear of COVID-19, anxiety, and stress presented adequate goodness-of-fit indices for both groups. A model was identified that manages to explain depressive symptoms in more than 70% of the general population and health-care workers, based on the variables of the triad (CFI = 0.94; TLI = 0.94; RMSEA = 0.06; SRMR = 0.06). In the general population post-traumatic stress mediated the relationship between anxiety and depression (ß = 0.12; 95%CI = 0.06 to 0.18) which was significant, but the indirect effect of post-traumatic stress was not significant in health care workers (ß = 0.03; 95%CI = - 0.11 to 0.19). LIMITATIONS: The prevalence estimates relied on self-reported information. Other variables of interest, such as intolerance to uncertainty or income level, could not be evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Our study proposes and tests one model that explains more than 70% of depressive symptoms. This explanatory model can be used in health contexts and populations to determine how emotional factors can affect depressive symptoms.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Miedo , Humanos , Perú/epidemiología , Prevalencia , SARS-CoV-2 , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(37): 10869-10884, 2021 Sep 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499509

RESUMEN

Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas), is a devastating citrus disease worldwide. While all citrus are affected by HLB, some cultivars display greater tolerance; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, volatile changes in HLB-tolerant LB8-9 Sugar Belle (SB) and HLB-sensitive Murcott mandarins after CaLas infection were comprehensively compared to determine if specific volatiles are associated with HLB responses and to discern the underlying tolerance mechanisms. These cultivars emitted qualitatively and quantitatively different volatiles in response to HLB induced by artificial graft or natural psyllid inoculation. Increasing amounts of total volatiles and de novo-synthesized new volatiles were two key responses to HLB of both cultivars. Markers potentially associated with HLB and host susceptibility were identified. Terpenoid biosynthetic pathway, green leaf volatile, and thymol metabolic pathways responsive to CaLas infection were dramatically altered. SB mandarin allows simultaneous defense and growth, contributing to its greater HLB tolerance.


Asunto(s)
Citrus , Hemípteros , Rhizobiaceae , Animales , Liberibacter , Enfermedades de las Plantas , Hojas de la Planta
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(37): 10807-10818, 2021 Sep 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505777

RESUMEN

A multifunctional surface, subsurface and systemic therapeutic (MS3T) formulation comprised of two bactericides, both didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) and a zinc (Zn)-chelate, was developed as an alternative to copper pesticides for crop protection. Agricultural grade chemicals were used to prepare MS3T formulations. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined to be tested in vitro against Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis (herein called Xa), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Pseudomonas syringae (Ps). Assessment of the phytotoxic potential was carried out on tomato under greenhouse conditions. Moreover, field trials were conducted during three consecutive years on grapefruit (Chrysopelea paradise) groves to evaluate efficacy against citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri), scab (Elsinoe fawcetti), and melanose (Diaporthe citri). In addition to disease control, improvements to both fruit yield and quality were observed likely due to the nutritional activity of MS3T via the sustained release of plant nutrients (Zn and nitrogen). Zn residues of leaf tissues were analyzed via atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) at various time points before and after MS3T foliar applications throughout the duration of the 2018 field trial. Field trial results demonstrated MS3T to be an effective alternative to copper (Cu)-based formulations for the control of citrus canker.


Asunto(s)
Citrus , Xanthomonas , Ascomicetos , Escherichia coli , Enfermedades de las Plantas/prevención & control
18.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 677, 2021 Sep 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544390

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is one the causative agents of greening disease in citrus, an unccurable, devastating disease of citrus worldwide. CLas is vectored by Diaphorina citri, and the understanding of the molecular interplay between vector and pathogen will provide additional basis for the development and implementation of successful management strategies. We focused in the molecular interplay occurring in the gut of the vector, a major barrier for CLas invasion and colonization. RESULTS: We investigated the differential expression of vector and CLas genes by analyzing a de novo reference metatranscriptome of the gut of adult psyllids fed of CLas-infected and healthy citrus plants for 1-2, 3-4 and 5-6 days. CLas regulates the immune response of the vector affecting the production of reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen, and the production of antimicrobial peptides. Moreover, CLas overexpressed peroxiredoxin, probably in a protective manner. The major transcript involved in immune expression was related to melanization, a CLIP-domain serine protease we believe participates in the wounding of epithelial cells damaged during infection, which is supported by the down-regulation of pangolin. We also detected that CLas modulates the gut peristalsis of psyllids through the down-regulation of titin, reducing the elimination of CLas with faeces. The up-regulation of the neuromodulator arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase implies CLas also interferes with the double brain-gut communication circuitry of the vector. CLas colonizes the gut by expressing two Type IVb pilin flp genes and several chaperones that can also function as adhesins. We hypothesized biofilm formation occurs by the expression of the cold shock protein of CLas. CONCLUSIONS: The thorough detailed analysis of the transcritome of Ca. L. asiaticus and of D. citri at different time points of their interaction in the gut tissues of the host led to the identification of several host genes targeted for regulation by L. asiaticus, but also bacterial genes coding for potential effector proteins. The identified targets and effector proteins are potential targets for the development of new management strategies directed to interfere with the successful utilization of the psyllid vector by this pathogen.


Asunto(s)
Citrus , Hemípteros , Rhizobiaceae , Animales , Expresión Génica , Hemípteros/genética , Insectos Vectores/genética , Liberibacter , Enfermedades de las Plantas , Rhizobiaceae/genética
19.
Heart Surg Forum ; 24(4): E631-E636, 2021 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473041

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Left internal mammary artery (LIMA) grafts should be used in patients undergoing CABG. No other procedure results in patency equivalent to that of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD)-LIMA bypass graft. The CHA2DS2-Vasc-HS scoring system can be used to successfully predict CAD severity in stable CAD patients. We aimed to investigate the relationship between LIMA flow and the CHA2DS2-Vasc-HS score. METHODS: A total of 684 patients, who underwent CABG surgery, were included in this study. Previous history of bypass surgery, emergency operations, patients with Leriche syndrome and patients with severe obstructive pulmonary and subclavian artery disease were excluded from our study. Patients with a LIMA flow that was suitable for bypass grafting, as determined during the intraoperative evaluation, were included in the low LIMA flow group, and the CHA2DS2-Vasc-HS score was calculated for all patients. RESULTS: Patients in the low LIMA flow group (Group 1) were older. The CHA2DS2-Vasc-HS score (P < 0.001), presence of mild or moderate COPD (P = 0.022), number of severely diseased vessels (P = 0.036), and BMI (P < 0.001) were independent predictors of poor LIMA flow. The cutoff value of the CHA2DS2-VASc-HS score for the prediction of poor LIMA flow was >5.5, with a sensitivity of 92.9% and specificity of 83.4% (AUC: 0.938, 95% Cl: 0.906 - 0.970, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: A preoperative high CHA2DS2-Vasc-HS score can be used to predict low intraoperative LIMA flow. The CHA2DS2-Vasc-HS score is an easy-to-use and reliable estimation method and can be used as an additional preoperative of LIMA flow in patients undergoing CABG due to severe CAD.

20.
Sex Med ; 9(5): 100435, 2021 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509752

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The G-spot, a putative erogenous area in the anterior vaginal wall, is a widely accepted concept in the mainstream media, but controversial in medical literature. AIM: Review of the scientific data concerning the existence, location, and size of the G-spot. METHODS: Search on Pubmed, Pubmed Central, Cochrane, clinicaltrials.gov and Google Scholar from inception to November 2020 of studies on G-spot's existence, location and nature. Surveys, clinical, physiological, imaging, histological and anatomic studies were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Existence, location, and nature of the G-spot. RESULTS: In total, 31 eligible studies were identified: 6 surveys, 5 clinical, 1 neurophysiological, 9 imaging, 8 histological/anatomical, and 2 combined clinical and histological. Most women (62.9%) reported having a G-spot and it was identified in most clinical studies (55.4% of women); in 2 studies it was not identified in any women. Imaging studies had contradictory results in terms of its existence and nature. Some showed a descending of the anterior vaginal wall, that led to the concept of clitourethrovaginal complex. In anatomic studies, one author could systematically identify the G-spot, while another group did not find it. Studies on innervation of the vaginal walls did not systematically identify an area with richer innervation. CONCLUSION: The different studies did systematically agree on the existence of the G-spot. Among the studies in which it was considered to exist, there was no agreement on its location, size, or nature. The existence of this structure remains unproved. Vieira-Baptista P, Lima-Silva J, Preti M, et al. G-spot: Fact or Fiction?: A Systematic Review. Sex Med 2021;XX:XXXXXX.

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