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Chemosphere ; 242: 125249, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896203


Machu Picchu is an archaeological Inca sanctuary from the 15th century, located 2430 m above the sea level in the Cusco Region, Peru. In 1983, it was declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The surroundings and soils from the entire archaeological site are carefully preserved together with its grass parks. Due to the importance of the archaeological city and its surroundings, the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco-PAN Machu Picchu decided to carry out a careful monitoring study in order to determine the ecological status of the soils. In this work, elemental and molecular characterization of 17 soils collected along the entire park was performed by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) after acidic digestion assisted by microwave energy. Thanks to the combination of these analytical techniques, it was possible to obtain the mineral composition and metal concentrations of all soils from these 17 sampling points. Finally, different statistical treatments were carried out in order to confirm the ecological status of the different sampling points from Machu Picchu archaeological site concluding that soils are not impacted.

Monitoreo del Ambiente , Metales/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Ciudades , Metales Pesados/análisis , Perú , Suelo/química , Difracción de Rayos X
Rev. peru. biol. (Impr.) ; 26(4): 503-508, Oct.-Dec 2019. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144916


Proctoporus machupicchu es una especie de lagartija semifosorial que fue descubierta en dos localidades dentro del Santuario Histórico de Machu Picchu (SHMP), Cusco, Perú. La serie tipo está conformada por dos hembras y un macho, sin embargo, el paratipo macho no posee poros femorales lo cual es incongruente con los machos mencionados en la literatura. En el presente trabajo, reportamos una nueva localidad fuera del SHMP y reexaminamos la serie tipo. Internamente, el paratipo macho no posee vestigios masculinos (testículos y conductos seminíferos) por lo que concluimos que hubo un error en el sexado. Además, reportamos una nueva localidad basado en un macho juvenil colectado en el área de Conservación Privada San Luis (ACP San Luis) de la provincia de La Convención. Este nuevo registro incrementa el rango de distribución de la especie en 20.9 km al noreste y su rango altitudinal de 2760 - 2800 a 2760 - 2966 m de altitud.

Proctoporus machupicchu is a semi-fossorial lizard, which was discovered in two locations in the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu (SHMP), Urubamba province, Cusco, Peru. The type series consists of two females and a male, however, the male paratype does not possess femoral pores which is incongruous with the males mentioned in the literature. In this paper, we report a new location outside the SHMP and re-examine the type series. Internally, the male paratype has no male vestiges (testicles and seminiferous ducts), so we conclude that there was an error in sexing. In addition, we report a new locality based on a juvenile male collected in the San Luis Private Conservation Area (ACP San Luis) of La Convención province. This new record increases the range of distribution of the species by 20.9km to the northeast and its altitudinal range from 2760 - 2800 to 2760 - 2966 m of altitude.

Sci Total Environ ; 692: 23-31, 2019 Nov 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336297


Machu Picchu citadel is the main archaeological Inca sanctuary widely known around the world, and a World Heritage Site of high cultural and natural value. For its construction a whitish granitic rock, extracted from the "Vilcapampa or Vilcabamba" batholith formation was used. During time, some of the granitic rocks from the natural stonewalls of the Meditation area of the Archaeological Park were restored. For the restoration works done in the 50s' a specific lime mortar called Clarobesa was used. After the inclusion of this joining mortar, many efflorescences are nowadays visible in the mortar itself and on the surface of the edges of the annexed rocks. To evaluate the possible impact of these salts crystallizations in the conservation state of these natural stonewalls, a multi-analytical methodology was designed and applied. With a combination of non-invasive and destructive techniques such as X-ray Diffraction, Raman microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscope coupled to an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer and ion chromatography, the mineralogical composition and the nature/concentration of the soluble salts present in the Clarobesa mortar was determined. The experimental results suggest that Clarobesa mortar is a hydraulic lime mortar. The study of salts crystallizations by Raman microscopy allowed identifying the presence of calcium sulfates with different hydration waters and also nitrates. In some samples, the concentration of sulfates was high, reaching values up to 10% w/w. Although the concentration of nitrates is not extremely high, a clear contribution of ammonium nitrates coming from the decomposition of the nearby vegetation was assessed. Since the Clarobesa mortar can be considered an important input of ions that can migrate to the joined granitic rocks, in the future, it will be recommendable to monitor possible changes in the conservation state of the joined rocks.

Sci Total Environ ; 654: 1379-1388, 2019 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527887


Machu Picchu Inca sanctuary (Cusco Region, Peru) was constructed on a granitic plateau, better known as Vilcabamba batholith. One of the most important carved granitic rocks from this archaeological site is the Sacred Rock, used by Inca citizens for religious rituals. Due to the location and climatic conditions, different rocks from this archaeological site are affected by biocolonizations. Concretely, the Sacred Rock shows flaking and delamination problems. In this work, a non-destructive multi analytical methodology has been applied to determine the possible role of the biodeteriogens, forming the biological patina on the Sacred Rock, in the previously mentioned conservation problems. Before characterizing the biological patina, a mineralogical characterization of the granitic substrate was conducted using X-ray Diffraction, Raman microscopy (RM) and micro energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. For the identification of the main biodeteriogens in the biofilm, Phase Contrast Microscopy was used. RM also allowed to determine the distribution (imaging) and the penetration (depth profiling) of the biogenic pigments present in the biopatina. Thanks to this study, it was possible to asses that some colonizers are growing on inner areas of the rock, reinforcing their possible assistance in the delamination. Moreover, the in-depth distribution of a wide variety of carotenoids in the patinas allowed to approach the penetration ability of the main biodeteriogens and the diffusion of these biogenic pigments to the inner areas of the rocky substrate.

Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Cianobacterias/fisiología , Líquenes/fisiología , Microalgas/fisiología , Arqueología , Cianobacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Líquenes/aislamiento & purificación , Microalgas/aislamiento & purificación , Microscopía Óptica no Lineal , Perú , Pigmentos Biológicos/clasificación , Dióxido de Silicio , Espectrometría por Rayos X , Espectrometría Raman , Difracción de Rayos X
Disabil Rehabil ; 37(26): 2393-2399, 2015 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25786475


BACKGROUND: People with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently complain of chronic or fluctuating fatigue, sometimes accompanied by pain. From a phenomenological point of view, both fatigue and pain are seen as aspects of suffering which adversely affect the physical, psychological, social and even existential dimensions of the individual life. OBJECTIVE: The present study discusses changes in identity and body awareness in people with MS who completed a 5-d trekking to Machu Picchu in Peru in 2012, after having completed a physical training schedule for several months. METHOD AND DESIGN: All nine participants took part in a focus group organized after the trip. The Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to gain insight in their experiences and to refine pre-existing theoretical understanding of body awareness and identity. RESULTS: Our phenomenological analysis clarified how aspects of the participants' identity and body experience before, during and after the journey influenced major daily themes as "body", "lived body", "behaviour" and "relationship" and how this contributed to a meaningful experience. When participants describe how they started looking at their own identity more consciously after being watched through the others' eyes, this resulted in a joyful transcending of their bodily power and endurance. In general, our data suggest that the more extreme, positive lived body experiences during the expedition were necessary for optimizing daily "routine" functioning. CONCLUSION: Participating in Machu Picchu expedition appeared to have a deep and profound effect on body awareness and identity. Participants experienced their body once again as theirs, owning it and above all, allowing it to be a source of strength, joy and meaningfulness. While MS determined their lives prior to the journey, they now could look at MS as a part of what they are, without totally being absorbed in it. So being a patient with MS before, resulted in merely having MS after the climb. Implications for Rehabilitation Patients experience illness as a disruption of their previous life. A phenomenological approach deals with the lived experience and the concept of body awareness, the meaningful experience of living in the world through the body. This approach complements biomedical viewpoints as providing different. Suffering from a chronic and unpredictable disease like multiple sclerosis (MS) can disturb the implicit and harmonious relation between the body, the mind and the world, already at an early stage. Factors including physical training, professional guidance, social support, becoming a role model and completing a unique expedition outside of national and natural comfort borders may contribute to changes in body and identity experience.

Mult Scler Int ; 2014: 761210, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24967103


Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) are less physically active than nondiseased persons and often report low self-efficacy levels. In the context of an awareness project to promote physical activity and participation in MS, we addressed the impact of training for and participation in a unique expedition. Medical events, relapses, and self-reported neurological worsening were followed from 6 months before and up to 4 months afterwards. Validated patient-reported outcome measures were used to assess fatigue, self-efficacy in exercising, walking abilities, and illness perception. Nine participants completed the training, expedition, and observational study. Minor events, relapses, and/or neurological worsening were reported in six participants. The three participants with mild disability and no cardiovascular risk factors or comorbidities were free of medical and neurological events. We found a significant reduction of motor fatigue at last when compared with the first assessment. The reduction tended to be more evident in participants with mild disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) <4 at baseline). Cognitive fatigue, self-efficacy, and self-reported walking abilities did not change significantly. Illness perceptions tended to be reduced over time in the domains of consequences, identity, and concerns. Overall, no major adverse events occurred.

Toxicon ; 60(6): 1018-21, 2012 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22796381


Bothrops andianus is a venomous snake found in the area of Machu Picchu (Peru). Its venom is not included in the antigenic pool used for production of the Peruvian anti-bothropic anti-venom. B. andianus venom can elicit many biological effects such as hemorrhage, hemolysis, proteolytic activity and lethality. The Peruvian anti-bothropic anti-venom displays consistent cross-reactivity with B. andianus venom, by ELISA and Western Blotting and is also effective in neutralizing the venom's toxic activities.

Antivenenos/farmacología , Venenos de Serpiente/química , Animales , Western Blotting , Bothrops , Reacciones Cruzadas , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Hemólisis/efectos de los fármacos , Hemorragia/fisiopatología , Masculino , Ratones , Perú , Proteolisis/efectos de los fármacos
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 149(1): 71-83, 2012 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22639369


Pathological conditions in human skeletal remains provide a wealth of information about archaeological populations, but many are limited in their interpretive significance by their nonspecific etiologies. This study analyzes three common pathological conditions known to manifest in infancy and childhood in the skeletal population from Machu Picchu, Peru (N = 74) with published carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, strontium, and lead isotopic data (Turner et al.: J Archaeol Sci 36 (2009) 317-332; Turner et al.: Chungara: Revista de Antropología Chilena 42 (2010) 515-524) to distinguish early-life diet from residential origins as significantly associated with pathologies among the site's inhabitants. Analyses of variance indicate highly significant variation between enamel δ(18)O values, which serve as a rough proxy of local environment, and both cribra orbitalia (CO) and porotic hyperostosis (PH), generally understood to be markers of anemia. Results tentatively suggest that individuals manifesting these lesions may have lived closer to the arid coasts; however, no significant variation was found in parameters of diet (enamel δ(13) C(carbonate), dentin δ(13) C(collagen), dentin δ(15)N) by either CO or PH, suggesting that the primary factors causing anemia may have been more significantly related to residential origin rather than diet. Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) frequency significantly varied by both dietary and residential parameters, supporting models of LEH formation from a synergy of dietary and environmental factors. These results support previous research on the etiology of PH in the Andes; they also represent a useful approach to refining site-specific interpretations of pathological conditions in archaeological populations, and exploring etiological variation between populations.

Dieta , Emigración e Inmigración , Isótopos/análisis , Paleopatología , Diente/química , Adolescente , Análisis de Varianza , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Perú , Estadísticas no Paramétricas
Neurología (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 26(6): 337-342, jul.-ago. 2011. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-98401


Objetivos: Evaluar las propiedades métricas de la versión española del Cuestionario de Mal de Altura del Lago Louise (CMALL) autoaplicado de 5 ítems. Métodos: Tras el curso-seminario «Neurociencia en las culturas andinas precolombinas» (Perú, 2009), se entregó una encuesta a los participantes que incluía el CMALL. Se evaluó la aceptabilidad de los ítems (puntuaciones observadas vs valores posibles, efectos techo y suelo), asunciones escalares (correlación ítem-total > 0,30), consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach), precisión (error estándar de la medida) y validez de convergencia y discriminante. Esta última se evaluó calculando el valor medio del CMALL entre aquellos neurólogos que creían haber presentado mal de altura frente a quienes no lo habían presentado. Resultados: Estancia por días en altura: Cuzco 3.400 m sobre el nivel del mar (msnm), Valle Sagrado (2.850 msnm) y Machu Picchu (2.450 msnm). Se incluyeron 70 sujetos (60% varones, edad media 50±8 años, 88,6% neurólogos). El valor medio del CMALL fue 3,36±2,02 (mediana 3, asimetría 0,61). Los efectos techo y suelo fueron 7,3 y 1,4%. El alfa de Cronbach fue 0,61 y el error estándar de la medida 1,26. El CMALL se correlacionó significativamente (r=0,41, p=0,002) con los ítems de exploración física (ataxia, disnea, temblor, síntomas mentales). Las puntuaciones del CMALL fueron significativamente mayores (peores) en quienes presentaron mal de altura (5,8 vs 3,0; Mann-Whitney, p<0,0001). Conclusiones: Las propiedades métricas de la versión española del CMALL parecen ser adecuadas. Este cuestionario puede ser útil en la detección precoz del mal de altura (AU)

Abstract: Objectives: To assess the metric properties of the Lake Louise Acute Mountain Sickness (LLAMSQ) five-item questionnaire. Methods: At the end of the course ‘‘Neuroscience in pre-Columbian Andean cultures’’ (Peru, 2009), the participants answered the self-reported version of the LLAMSQ. The following psychometric attributes were explored: acceptability (observed versus possible scores; floor and ceiling effects), scaling assumptions (item-total correlation > 0.30), internal consistency (Cronbach ˇıs alpha), precision (standard error of measurement), and convergent and discriminative validity. Differences in mean score of LLAMSQ between symptomatic acute mountain sickness subjects and asymptomatic ones were calculated. Results: The participants stayed for days at Cuzco (3,400 meters above sea level, MASL), Sacred valley (2,850 MASL) and Machu Picchu (2,450 MASL). Seventy people (60% males; mean age 50±8 years; 88.6% neurologists) were included in the study. LLAMSQ mean score was 3.36±2.02 (median 3; skewness 0.61). Ceiling and floor effects were 7.3% and 1.4%, respectively. Cronbachˇıs alpha was 0.61, and standard error of measurement 1.26. LLAMSQ mean score significantly correlated (r = 0.41, P = .002) with physical items (ataxia, dyspnoea, tremor, mental symptoms). LLAMSQ mean scores were significantly higher (worse) in those subjects who presented with acute sickness mountain (5.8 vs 3.0; Mann-Whitney, P < .0001). Conclusions: Metric properties of the LLASMQ Spanish version are adequate. This questionnaire seems to be useful in the early detection of high-altitude illness (AU)

Humanos , Mal de Altura/diagnóstico , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
Neurologia ; 26(6): 337-42, 2011.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21354668


OBJECTIVES: To assess the metric properties of the Lake Louise Acute Mountain Sickness (LLAMSQ) five-item questionnaire. METHODS: At the end of the course "Neuroscience in pre-Columbian Andean cultures" (Peru, 2009), the participants answered the self-reported version of the LLAMSQ. The following psychometric attributes were explored: acceptability (observed versus possible scores; floor and ceiling effects), scaling assumptions (item-total correlation > 0.30), internal consistency (Cronbach́s alpha), precision (standard error of measurement), and convergent and discriminative validity. Differences in mean score of LLAMSQ between symptomatic acute mountain sickness subjects and asymptomatic ones were calculated. RESULTS: The participants stayed for days at Cuzco (3,400 meters above sea level, MASL), Sacred valley (2,850 MASL) and Machu Picchu (2,450 MASL). Seventy people (60% males; mean age 50±8 years; 88.6% neurologists) were included in the study. LLAMSQ mean score was 3.36±2.02 (median 3; skewness 0.61). Ceiling and floor effects were 7.3% and 1.4%, respectively. Cronbach́s alpha was 0.61, and standard error of measurement 1.26. LLAMSQ mean score significantly correlated (r=0.41, P=.002) with physical items (ataxia, dyspnoea, tremor, mental symptoms). LLAMSQ mean scores were significantly higher (worse) in those subjects who presented with acute sickness mountain (5.8 vs 3.0; Mann-Whitney, P<.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Metric properties of the LLASMQ Spanish version are adequate. This questionnaire seems to be useful in the early detection of high-altitude illness.

Mal de Altura/diagnóstico , Lenguaje , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neurociencias , Médicos , Psicometría/métodos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , España
Antoniano ; 21(117): 158-170, 2011. ilus
Artículo en Español | LIPECS | ID: biblio-1106194
Antoniano ; 21(117): 178-194, 2011. ilus, map
Artículo en Español | LIPECS | ID: biblio-1106196


We estimate that the tree and woody flora of the Machu Picchu Historical Sanctuary has more than 550 species: in the core area and buffer zone. Field work and the density of such collections are all studying the Andean forests, except that in this investigation, increases the number of species. The Torontoy Canyon which crosses the Sanctuary boundaries from southeast to northwest between Chillca and Collpani and the presence of the Urubamba and Vilcabamba mountain ranges with is complex of glaciers in the area are the determining factors for high tree diversity. The study results reported over 550 tree species distributed in 74 families and 192 genera. The lack of interest in long-term research affects the risk of misuse and little knowledge of the tree flota that applies to biological convervation in the country.

Estimamos que la flora arbórea y leñosa del Santuario Histórico de Machu Picchu tiene más de 550 especies: en el área núcleo y la Zona de Amortiguamiento. El trabajo de campo y la densidad de colecciones son semejantes a todos los que estudian las selvas andinas, execpto que en esta investigación, se incementa el número de especies. El Cañon del Torontoy que atraviesa el Santuario de sus límites sureste a noreste entre Chillca a Collpani y la presencia de las Cordilleras de Urubamba y Vilcabamba con su complejo de glaciares en el área son los factores determinantes para la alta diversidad de árboles. Los resultados del estudio reportan sobre 550 especies arbóreas distribuidas en 74 familias y 192 géneros. La escasez de interés en investigar a largo plazo afecta el mal uso y peligro de no conocer bien la flora arbórea que se aplica a la conservación biológica del país.

Biodiversidad , Cycadopsida , Ecosistema Andino , Helechos , Magnoliopsida , Árboles
Cult Health Sex ; 10(6): 611-24, 2008 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18649199


Sexual and romantic relationships between local people and tourists have long taken place. Such encounters are not a modern phenomenon, but the potential of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, warrants greater research into the issue. This paper analyses local people's views of local-tourist relationships in Cuzco/Peru. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews, participant and non-participant observation and informal discussions. Attraction based on physical difference was reportedly the main trigger for such relationships. Emerging themes discussed include issues of self-esteem, strategies of approach, tourists' motives, emotional involvement and expectations from such encounters. Levels of unprotected sexual behaviour and lack of STI awareness are of sufficient concern to recommend urgent action. Suggestions for sexual health education are made with particular emphasis on targeting local people involved in the tourism and hospitality industries.

Países en Desarrollo , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Conducta Sexual , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión , Viaje/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Perú , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/psicología , Sexo Inseguro/psicología
Rev. peru. biol. (Impr.) ; 14(2): 169-180, dic. 2007. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | LIPECS | ID: biblio-1111203


El presente trabajo documenta la diversidad de los mamíferos de la cuenca del río Apurímac, uno de los vacíos de información más importantes del Perú, en base a una evaluación de cinco lugares de muestreo en los departamentos de Apurímac (Cconoc, Velavelayoc), Ayacucho (Yanamonte, Ccentabamba) y Cusco (Catarata). El esfuerzo de captura fue de 1280 trampas noche y 41 redes noche. Se registraron 60 especies en el área de estudio; incluyendo 15 especies bajo alguna categoría de conservación y cuatro endémicas a nivel del país. Como era de esperarse, los murciélagos y los roedores fueron los órdenes más diversos (66,7 por ciento). La diversidad de especies en los sitios de muestreo decrece significativamente con la elevación desde los puntos de muestreo más bajos (Ccentabamba y Catarata) hasta el más alto (Velavelayoc). El marsupial Monodelphis peruviana y el venado enano Mazama chunyi son primeros registros para el departamento de Ayacucho. Los murciélagos Artibeus planirostris y Myotis keaysi así como la nutria Lontra longicaudis son primeros registros para el departamento de Apurímac. La abundancia relativa presentó una correlación negativa significativa con la elevación para los murciélagos pero no fue significativa para los mamíferos pequeños terrestres. Las especies de Sturnira, Akodon y Thomasomys fueron las que obtuvieron una mayor abundancia relativa. Los índices de diversidad de Shannon-Wiener y Simpson mostraron también una correlación negativa significativa con la elevación. Se estima que la cuenca del río Apurímac alberga al menos 97 especies de mamíferos lo que resulta de compilar nuestros resultados con publicaciones previas. Se recomienda establecer áreas de conservación en Huanipaca, Yanamonte y Catarata e incrementar el área del Santuario Histórico Machu Picchu hasta incluir la zona del complejo arqueológico Choquequirao.

The present work documents the diversity of mammals in the headwaters of the Apurímac river, one of the most important information gaps in Peru, based on an evaluation of five sampling areas in the departments of Apurímac (Cconoc, Velavelayoc), Ayacucho (Yanamonte, Ccentabamba) and Cuzco (Catarata). Capture's effort was 1280 trap-nights and 41 mistnet-nights. Sixty species were recorded in the study area and included 15 threatened species and four species endemic to Perú. As expected, bats and rodents were the most diverse orders (66,7 per cent). The species diversity in the sites sampled declines significantly with elevation from the lowest elevation sites (Ccentabamba and Catarata) to the highest (Velavelayoc). The marsupial Monodelphis peruviana and the Dwarf Brocket deer Mazama chunyi are first records for the department of Ayacucho. The bats Artibeus planirostris and Myotis keaysi, and the river otter Lontra longicaudis are first records for the department of Apurímac. For bats, the relative abundance showed a significant negative correlation with elevation, but was not significant for small terrestrial mammals. The species of Sturnira, Akodon and Thomasomys had the highest values of relative abundance. The diversity indices (Shannon-Wiener and Simpson) also showed also a significant negative correlation with elevation. The Apurímac river headwater is estimated to have at least 97 mammals species. We recommend creating conservation areas in Huanipaca, Yanamonte and Catarata, and enlarging the area of the Santuario Histórico Machu Picchu to include the archaeological site of Choquequirao.

Animales , Animales Salvajes/clasificación , Animales Salvajes/crecimiento & desarrollo , Mamíferos/clasificación , Mamíferos/crecimiento & desarrollo
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 134(1): 36-49, 2007 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17503449


Living humans from the highland Andes exhibit antero-posteriorly and medio-laterally enlarged chests in response to high-altitude hypoxia. This study hypothesizes that morphological responses to high-altitude hypoxia should also be evident in pre-Contact Andean groups. Thoracic skeletal morphology in four groups of human skeletons (N = 347) are compared: two groups from coastal regions (Ancón, Peru, n = 79 and Arica, Chile, n = 123) and two groups from high altitudes (San Pedro de Atacama, Chile, n = 102 and Machu Picchu and Cuzco, Peru, n = 43). Osteometric variables that represent proportions of chest width and depth include sternal and clavicular lengths and breadths and rib length, curvature, and area. Each variable was measured relative to body size, transformed into logarithmic indices, and compared across sex-specific groups using ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests. Atacama highlanders have the largest sternal and clavicular proportions and ribs with the greatest area and least amount of curvature, features that suggest an antero-posteriorly deep and mediolaterally wide thoracic skeleton. Ancón lowlanders exhibit proportions indicating narrower and shallower chests. Machu Picchu and Cuzco males cluster with the other highland group in rib curvature and area at the superior levels of the thorax, whereas chest proportions in Machu Picchu and Cuzco females resemble those of lowlanders. The variation in Machu Picchu and Cuzco males and females is interpreted as the result of population migrations. The presence of morphological traits indicative of enlarged chests in some highland individuals suggests that high-altitude hypoxia was an environmental stressor shaping the biology of highland Andean groups during the pre-Contact period.

Aclimatación , Altitud , Clavícula/anatomía & histología , Hipoxia , Tórax/anatomía & histología , Evolución Biológica , Pesos y Medidas Corporales , Chile , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Perú