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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246825, 2023. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285634

RESUMEN

Abstract A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Piper nigrum (black pepper) leaf extract on on the growth performance, proximate composition, hematological parameters, and immune response of Labeo rohita fingerlings with an average weight of 22.14 ± 0.98g. Aftrer acclimation for two weeks, fish (n=25) were randomly selected and placed in four glass aquaria (T0, T1, T2 and T3) at constant water temperature (30.0 ± 1.0 °C), pH (7.50 ± 0.5) and total hardness (200 ± 2.0 mgL,-1) for a period of 12 weeks, with three replicates each. Fish were fed with P. nigrum leaf extract supplemented feed @ 0.0%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% in T0, T1,T2 and T3, respectively. At the end of experiment, five fish were randomly selected from each aquaria for proximate composition, gut and skin microbial load, hematological parameters. Total proteins, albumins, and globulins were also recorded to evaluate immunological memory. The result revealed that fish in T2 showed better growth performance with an average weight gain of 56.11 ± 0.51 g. Thus, it had been concluded that Piper nigrum, a medicinal plant, can also be used to enhance the growth performance and immune response of Labeo rohita as attractive alternatives against antibiotics and vaccines and has shown no negative side effects on fish health as well as on its environment.


Resumo Um estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito do extrato da folha de Piper nigrum (pimenta-do-reino) sobre o desempenho de crescimento, composição centesimal, parâmetros hematológicos e resposta imune de alevinos de Labeo rohita com peso médio de 22,14 ± 0,98g. Após aclimatação por duas semanas, os peixes (n = 25) foram selecionados aleatoriamente e colocados em quatro aquários de vidro (T0, T1, T2 e T3) em temperatura constante da água (30,0 ± 1,0 °C), pH (7,50 ± 0,5) e dureza total (200 ± 2,0 mgL-1) por um período de 12 semanas, com três repetições cada. Os peixes foram alimentados com ração suplementada com extrato de folha de P. nigrum @ 0,0%, 1,0%, 2,0% e 3,0% em T0, T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, cinco peixes foram selecionados aleatoriamente de cada aquário para composição centesimal, carga microbiana intestinal e cutânea e parâmetros hematológicos. Proteínas totais, albuminas e globulinas também foram registradas para avaliar a memória imunológica. O resultado revelou que os peixes em T2 apresentaram melhor desempenho de crescimento com ganho de peso médio de 56,11 ± 0,51 g. Assim, concluiu-se que Piper nigrum, uma planta medicinal, também pode ser usado para melhorar o desempenho de crescimento e resposta imunológica de Labeo rohita como alternativas atraentes contra antibióticos e vacinas e não mostrou efeitos colaterais negativos na saúde dos peixes, bem como sobre seu ambiente.

2.
Infectio ; 25(4): 207-211, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286715

RESUMEN

Resumen Objetivo: Describir la proporción, características clínicas, demográficas y programáticas de casos fatales de coinfección TB/VIH de Cali-Colombia, en 2017. Material y Método: Estudio de corte transversal, con información de las bases de datos del programa de tuberculosis, las historias clínicas y unidades de análisis de mortalidad disponibles. Resultados: Se depuraron 257 casos fatales por TB, el 24,5% (63/257) falleció con coinfección TB/VIH. La mediana de edad fue 43 años (Rango Intercuartílico: 30-52), 73% (46/63) eran hombres, 76,2% (48/63) no pertenecían al régimen contributivo, 28,6% eran habitantes de calle. 81,2% (39/48) eran casos nuevos de TB, 76,6% (37/47), inició tratamiento; al 74,6% (47/63) se les realizó unidad de análisis de mortalidad. La presentación pulmonar fue frecuente (75,9%-44/58), en 60% de los registros se observó desnutrición (Índice de Masa Corporal <20), en 39,7% (25/63) dependencia al alcohol, tabaco o farmacodependencia. Conclusiones: La mortalidad asociada a TB/VIH es prevenible, pero en 2017 representó la cuarta parte de la mortalidad por TB en Cali. Hombres adultos con condiciones de vulnerabilidad social, diagnosticados en estados avanzados de enfermedad, fueron blanco de fatalidad. Mejorar los sistemas de información e integrar los programas de TB/VIH, deben ser estrategias prioritarias para la salud pública en Colombia.


Abstract Objective: To describe the proportion, clinical, demographic and programmatic characteristics of fatal cases of TB/HIV coinfection from Cali-Colombia, in 2017. Material and Method: Cross-sectional study, with information from the TB program databases, clinical records and mortality analysis units available. Results: 257 TB fatal cases were cleared in Cali in 2017, 24.5% (63/257) of these died with TB/HIV coinfection. The median age was 43 years (Interquartile Range: 30-52), 73% (46/63) were men, 76.2% (48/63) did not belong to the contributory health regimen, 28.6% were homeless. 81.2% (39/48) were new TB cases, 76.6% (37/47) started treatment; 74.6% (47/63) had mortality analysis register. Pulmonary presentation was frequent (75.9% -44 / 58), in 60% of the registries malnutrition was observed (Body Mass Index <20), in 39.7% (25/63), dependence on alcohol, tobacco or drug dependence was registered. Conclusions: Mortality associated with TB/HIV is preventable, but in 2017 it represented a quarter of the TB mortality in Cali. Adult men with conditions of social vulnerability, diagnosed in advanced stages of disease, were fatally targeted. Improving information systems and integrating TB/HIV programs should be priority strategies for public health in Colombia.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tuberculosis , VIH , Índice de Masa Corporal , Infecciones por VIH , Salud Pública , Estudios Transversales , Mortalidad , Estrategias de Salud , Colombia , Vulnerabilidad Social , Desnutrición
3.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-10-14.
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54997

RESUMEN

As of the end of the epidemiological week 37 (end date 18 September 2021), 228,068,334 confirmed cumulative cases of COVID-19 have been reported globally, including 4,685,658 deaths, for which the Region of the Americas contributed 38.6% of cases and 46.4% of deaths. The North America subregion accounted for the highest proportions of monthly cases (69%) and deaths (51%) in the month of August for the Region of the Americas. Although an overall decreasing trend in deaths is observed at the Regional level between July and August 2021, deaths have increased in all subregions except for South America, where a decline of 53% in deaths is noted. The North America and Caribbean subregions experienced the highest percent increases both in cases (172% and 54%, respectively) and deaths (205% and 61%, respectively) compared to those reported in July 2021.


Hasta el final de la semana epidemiológica 37 (terminando en el día 18 de septiembre 2021), fueron notificados 228.068.334 casos acumulados confirmados de COVID-19 a nivel global, incluyendo 4.685.658 defunciones. El 38,6% de los casos y 46,4% de las defunciones globales fueron aportadas por la región de las Américas. La subregión de América del Norte presentó las mayores proporciones de casos mensuales (69%) y de defunciones (51%) en el mes de agosto para la Región de las Américas. Aunque se observa una tendencia a la disminución de las defunciones a nivel regional entre julio y agosto de 2021, las defunciones han aumentado en todas las subregiones, excepto en América del Sur, donde se observa una disminución del 53% de las defunciones. Las subregiones de América del Norte y el Caribe tuvieron los mayores aumentos porcentuales tanto de casos (172% y 54%, respectivamente) como de defunciones (205% y 61%, respectivamente) en comparación con los notificados en julio de 2021.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Deltacoronavirus , Muerte , Mortalidad , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Vacunación , Salud Pública , Américas , Región del Caribe , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Muerte , Mortalidad , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Vacunación , Salud Pública , Américas , Región del Caribe
4.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-10-14.
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54995

RESUMEN

The acquisition of antimicrobials without a prescription is a global concern. This practice is thriving in countries that lack adequate legislation or where regulations are not properly enforced. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and its member states in the Region of the Americas approved the Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance, which recognizes antimicrobial resistance as a threat to global public health that requires a multisectoral response. To tackle antimicrobial resistance, a worldwide change in behavior is needed in terms of how these drugs are used and acquired. National approaches are required to address the indiscriminate use and over-prescription of antimicrobials, and to enforce regulations on prescription and acquisition practices. The objective of this communication handbook is to help communication professionals and health program officials develop strategies to raise awareness and promote the importance of the appropriate use of antimicrobials among different stakeholders; raise public awareness about the importance of obtaining antimicrobials with a prescription in order to achieve multisectoral collaboration to ensure compliance with laws and regulations on this issue; and promote a change in behavior regarding the appropriate use and acquisition of antimicrobials by everyone involved. The target audiences for this handbook are the general population (including adolescents, children, and child caregivers/parents of children), healthcare professionals (including pharmacists and pharmacy staff), and various stakeholders (government officials, professional societies, medical organizations, the private sector, local leaders, and health-influencers, among others).


Asunto(s)
Resistencia a Medicamentos , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Medicina , Acceso a Medicamentos Esenciales y Tecnologías Sanitarias , Gestión de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación en Salud , Sistemas de Salud , Salud Pública , Programas Nacionales de Salud
5.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-10-14.
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54992

RESUMEN

La adquisición de antimicrobianos sin prescripción es una preocupación a nivel mundial. Esta práctica está prosperando en países que carecen de la legislación adecuada o en los que no se aplican las reglamentaciones correctamente. La Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) y los Estados Miembros de la Región de las Américas aprobaron el Plan de acción sobre resistencia a los antimicrobianos, que reconoce la resistencia a los antimicrobianos como una amenaza para la salud pública mundial que requiere una respuesta multisectorial. Para combatir la resistencia a los antimicrobianos, es necesario un cambio de comportamiento a nivel mundial sobre la forma en que se utilizan y se adquieren. Para abordar el uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos y su prescripción excesiva, y aplicar la reglamentación sobre prescripción y prácticas de adquisición, se requieren enfoques nacionales. En este contexto, el objetivo del presente manual de comunicación es apoyar a los profesionales de la comunicación y oficiales a cargo de programas de salud a elaborar estrategias para concientizar y promover la importancia del uso adecuado de antimicrobianos entre las diferentes partes interesadas; concientizar al público sobre la importancia de la adquisición de antimicrobianos con prescripción para lograr la colaboración multisectorial para el cumplimiento de las disposiciones legales y las reglamentaciones sobre este tema, y promover un cambio de comportamiento sobre el uso y la adquisición adecuados de antimicrobianos de todas las partes involucradas.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Farmacología Clínica , Medicamentos sin Prescripción , Prescripciones de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Salud , Sistemas Públicos de Salud , Salud Pública
6.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-10-14.
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54991

RESUMEN

The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) have produced this second joint report to update the situation on the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic and its implications for health, society and the economy. This report defines potential scenarios for control of the pandemic in the short term as well as long-term action recommended to strengthen the response capacity of countries with regard to the health needs of their populations and determinants in the context of a transformative recovery.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Salud Pública , Economía , Economía y Organizaciones para la Atención de la Salud , Problemas Sociales , Bienestar Social , Capital Social
7.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-10-14.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54990

RESUMEN

Más de un año después del inicio de la pandemia de COVID-19, América Latina y el Caribe acumula un número desproporcionado de casos y muertes respecto de otras regiones del mundo y sufre la mayor contracción económica de los últimos 120 años. En este segundo informe conjunto de la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud se actualizan la situación de la evolución de la pandemia y sus implicaciones sociales, económicas y para la salud. Para ello se abordan los principales impactos económicos y sociales de la pandemia en la región, junto con el papel central de la protección social y el Estado, y la necesidad de incrementar la inversión pública en salud y fortalecer la institucionalidad del sector de la salud. Por último, se analizan los posibles escenarios de supresión de la pandemia en el corto plazo y un conjunto de condiciones contextuales que inciden de forma directa en este objetivo. El informe se cierra con un apartado de recomendaciones que enfatizan la importancia de adoptar un abordaje integral para poner fin a la crisis de salud en el corto plazo, avanzar hacia una recuperación económica sostenible y con igualdad, y promover la salud universal mediante sistemas de salud resilientes.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Sistemas de Salud , Salud Pública , Economía , Economía y Organizaciones para la Atención de la Salud , Problemas Sociales , Bienestar Social , Capital Social
8.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54989

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. The objective of this study was to estimate trends in alcohol per capita consumption from 1990 to 2016 in the Region of the Americas, covering 35 Member States. Data from the WHO Global Information System on Alcohol and Health were used to calculate the annual percent change of alcohol per capita consumption in each of the 35 countries of the Americas. The Americas as a whole showed no change in the total period, with a slight decrease in the period 2010–2016. From 1990 to 2016, all the countries that presented a trend of annual increase in annual percent change of alcohol per capita consumption were in the Caribbean and Central America. Large increases were found in the recent years in Cuba, Colombia, Uruguay, El Salvador, and several countries of the Non-Latin Caribbean. In conclusion, alcohol use remains a significant obstacle to the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal 3.5. To date, the policy response has been inadequate in protecting the people in the Americas from alcohol-attributable harms. Improving country capacity to collect and analyze data on alcohol per capita consumption is urgently needed to monitor progress on the Sustainable Development Goals and to serve to promote proven alcohol policies for reducing the harmful use of alcohol.


[RESUMEN]. El objetivo de este estudio es estimar las tendencias en el consumo per cápita de alcohol desde 1990 hasta el 2016 en 35 Estados Miembros de la Región de las Américas. Se emplearon datos del Sistema Mundial de Información sobre el Alcohol y la Salud de la OMS para calcular la variación porcentual por año del consumo per cápita de alcohol en cada uno de los 35 países de la Región. En general, la Región no mostró cambio en todo el período, salvo una disminución leve entre el 2010 y el 2016. De 1990 al 2016, todos los países que registraron una tendencia al alza en la variación anual porcentual del consumo per cápita de alcohol se encontraban en el Caribe y Centroamérica. En los últimos años se observó un aumento importante en Cuba, Colombia, Uruguay, El Salvador y varios países del Caribe no latino. En conclusión, el consumo de alcohol sigue siendo un obstáculo significativo para lograr el Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible 3.5. Hasta la fecha, la respuesta de las políticas ha sido inadecuada para proteger a la población de la Región de los daños atribuibles al alcohol. Es necesario mejorar de manera urgente la capacidad a nivel de país para recopilar y analizar datos sobre el consumo per cápita de alcohol a fin de monitorear el progreso de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible y promover políticas relativas al alcohol cuya eficacia en cuanto a la reducción del consumo nocivo ha sido comprobada.


[RESUMO]. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar as tendências do consumo de álcool per capita de 1990 a 2016 na Região das Américas, cobrindo os 35 Estados Membros. Dados do Sistema Mundial de Informação sobre Álcool e Saúde da OMS foram usados para calcular a mudança percentual anual do consumo de álcool per capita de cada um dos 35 países das Américas. As Américas, como um todo, não mostraram mudança alguma no período total, com uma diminuição leve no período entre 2010 e 2016. De 1990 a 2016, todos os países que apresentaram uma tendência de aumento anual na mudança percentual anual do consumo de álcool per capita estão no Caribe e na América Central. Um grande aumento foi encontrado nos anos recentes em Cuba, Colômbia, Uruguai, El Salvador e vários países não latinos do Caribe. Em conclusão, o consumo de álcool continua sendo um obstáculo significativo para o cumprimento do Objetivo de Desenvolvimento Sustentável 3.5. Até o momento, a resposta política foi inadequada para proteger a população nas Américas dos danos atribuíveis ao álcool. Melhorar a capacidade dos países de coletar e analisar dados sobre o consumo de álcool per capita é urgentemente necessário para monitorar o progresso dos Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável e para promover políticas comprovadas de redução do consumo nocivo de álcool.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Alcoholismo , Desarrollo Sostenible , Salud Pública , Américas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Alcoholismo , Desarrollo Sostenible , Salud Pública , Américas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Alcoholismo , Desarrollo Sostenible , Salud Pública , Américas
9.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54981

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. Con millones de personas en el mundo en situación de distanciamiento físico por el COVID-19, las tecnologías de la información y comunicaciones (TICs) se han posicionado como uno de los medios principales de interacción y colaboración. Ya al inicio de este milenio se empezaban a mencionar las siguientes ventajas: mayor acceso a la información y a la prestación de servicios; fortalecimiento educativo; control de calidad de los programas de detección y reducción de los costos de la atención de en salud. Sin embargo, entre las principales barreras de adopción de la telemedicina se encuentran las de índole: tecnológicas; humanas y sociales; psicosociales y antropológicas; de Gobernanza y económicas. En estos 20 años se logró un aumento en los recursos y capacidad técnica, una mejora en la educación digital, un empoderamiento del paciente en su tratamiento y un mayor interés público en esta área. En especial se considera exitosa la conformación de equipos interdisciplinarios, las redes académicas y profesionales y las consultas médicas virtuales. Después de revisar el estado de la telemedicina en la Región de las Américas, los autores recomiendan adoptar medidas urgentes para poner en práctica políticas y programas nacionales de telemedicina, incluyendo el marco normativo y presupuesto necesario, cuya implementación se realice de manera integral e interoperable y que se sustente de redes académicas, de colaboración e instituciones especializadas. Dichas políticas deben generar un contexto habilitante que den sostenibilidad al avance logrado, considerando los aspectos mencionados en las posibles barreras.


[ABSTRACT]. With millions of people in the world in situations of physical distancing because of COVID-19, information and communication technology (ICT) has become as one of the principal means of interaction and collaboration. The following advantages of ICT have been cited since the start of the new millennium: increased access to information and service delivery, educational strengthening, quality control of screening programs, and reduction of health care costs. In the case of telemedicine, however, a number of barriers—especially technological, human and social, psychosocial, anthropological, economic, and governance-related—have stood in the way of its adoption. The past 20 years have seen an increase in the availability of resources and technical capacity, improvements in digital education, empowerment of patients regarding their treatment, and increased public interest in this area. Successes have included the use of interdisciplinary teams, academic and professional networking, and virtual medical consultations. After reviewing the state of telemedicine in the Region of the Americas, the authors recommend the urgent adoption of measures aimed at implementing national telemedicine policies and programs, including a regulatory framework and adequate funding. Implementation of the measures should be integrated and interoperable and include the support of academic networks and the collaboration of specialized institutions. The policies should generate an enabling context that ensures sustainability of the progress achieved, bearing in mind the possible barriers mentioned.


[RESUMO]. Com milhões de pessoas no mundo em situação de distanciamento físico devido à COVID-19, as tecnologias da informação e comunicação (TICs) se enquadraram como um dos meios principais de interação e colaboração. Já no início deste milênio, começaram a ser mencionadas as seguintes vantagens: maior acesso à informação e à prestação de serviços; fortalecimento da educação; controle de qualidade dos programas de detecção e redução dos custos na atenção à saúde. No entanto, entre as principais barreiras de adoção da telemedicina se encontram as de caráter: tecnológico; humano e social; psicossocial e antropológico; de governança e econômico. Nestes 20 anos, houve um aumento nos recursos e na capacidade técnica, uma melhora na educação digital, um empoderamento do paciente em seu tratamento e um maior interesse público nessa área. Em especial, são consideradas bem-sucedidas a constituição de equipes interdisciplinares e as redes acadêmicas e profissionais, e as consultas médicas virtuais. Após revisar o estado da telemedicina na Região das Américas, os autores recomendam a adoção de medidas urgentes para implementar políticas e programas nacionais de telemedicina, incluindo o marco normativo e o orçamento necessário. Essa implementação deve ser realizada de maneira integral e interoperável e sustentada por redes acadêmicas, de parceria e instituições especializadas. Tais políticas devem gerar um contexto favorável, dando sustentabilidade ao avanço obtido e considerando os aspectos mencionados nas possíveis barreiras.


Asunto(s)
Acceso a la Información , Comunicación , Práctica de Salud Pública , Salud Pública , Planificación en Salud , Telemedicina , Acceso a la Información , Comunicación , Salud Pública , Práctica de Salud Pública , Planificación en Salud , Telemedicina , Acceso a la Información , Comunicación , Salud Pública , Práctica de Salud Pública , Planificación en Salud
10.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-10-12.
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54979

RESUMEN

This publication presents a comprehensive methodology to support the Member States of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in preparing for and responding to heat-health risks in the Region of the Americas. It builds on World Health Organization and the World Meteorological Organization global documents, as well as on the disaster preparedness methodologies employed throughout the countries of the Region. This publication is part of an effort coordinated by PAHO to support Member States in multihazard preparedness, and includes: early warning system strengthening; threat characterization; activation and deactivation procedure definition; and institutional coordination. It engages different disciplines and recognizes the importance of intersectoral collaboration to respond to heat-health risks. It aims to bring awareness of the impacts of heat on the health of people of the Americas to public health decisionmakers, and thereby strengthen health service provision.


Asunto(s)
Preparación , Calefacción , Ola de Calor , Cambio Climático , Salud Pública , Medición de Riesgo , Toma de Decisiones , Efectos del Clima , Calentamiento Global
11.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-10-12.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54978

RESUMEN

Nos enfrentamos a una importante amenaza para la salud pública mundial derivada del aumento de la resistencia a los antimicrobianos. El abuso y uso indebido de los antimicrobianos está acrecentando los niveles de resistencia, y no tenemos datos útiles para el rastreo y el seguimiento de los niveles de consumo que nos permitan mejorar a escala mundial nuestros conocimientos y nos ayuden a elaborar estrategias e intervenciones eficaces. El objetivo de esta guía es ayudar a los países a establecer mecanismos que permitan el seguimiento sistemático del consumo de antimicrobianos, sobre todo en los entornos con escasos recursos, con el fin de generar datos para lograr un mayor entendimiento sobre cómo se están usando y consumiendo los antimicrobianos en los hospitales a nivel local, nacional y regional.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Antiinfecciosos , Salud Pública , Sistemas Nacionales de Salud , Hospitales
12.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2021-10-06.
No convencional en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54963

RESUMEN

A carga global de doenças associadas à exposição à poluição do ar tem um impacto enorme na saúde humana em todo o mundo: estima-se que a exposição à poluição do ar cause milhões de mortes e anos perdidos de vida saudável anualmente. Estima-se que a carga de doenças atribuíveis à poluição do ar já seja comparável a de outros importantes riscos globais à saúde, como alimentação não saudável e tabagismo, e reconhece-se que a poluição do ar é agora a maior ameaça ambiental à saúde humana. O principal objetivo dessas diretrizes globais atualizadas é oferecer padrões de qualidade do ar pensados para a saúde, expressos como concentrações a longo ou curto prazo, para seis importantes poluentes atmosféricos: MP2,5, MP10, ozônio, dióxido de nitrogênio, dióxido de enxofre e monóxido de carbono. Além disso, as diretrizes fornecem metas intermediárias para orientar os esforços de redução desses poluentes, bem como declarações de boas práticas para o gerenciamento de certos tipos de MP (carbono negro/carbono elementar, partículas ultrafinas e partículas originadas de tempestades de areia e poeira) . Essas diretrizes não são uma norma juridicamente vinculativa; no entanto, fornecem aos Estados Membros da OMS uma ferramenta baseada em evidências que podem usar para subsidiar legislação e políticas. Em última análise, o objetivo dessas diretrizes é ajudar a reduzir os níveis de poluentes atmosféricos a fim de diminuir a enorme carga de morbidade resultante da exposição à poluição atmosférica em todo o mundo.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Carbono , Monóxido de Carbono , Dióxido de Azufre , Ozono , Dióxido de Nitrógeno , Ambiente , Contaminantes Ambientales , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminación Ambiental
13.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-10-01. (PAHO/NMH/MH/21-0020).
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54948

RESUMEN

This fact sheet briefly describes hepatitis C and the risks related to the hepatitis C virus (HCV), principally liver cirrhosis. It then summarizes the negative impacts of alcohol consumption on HCV and liver cirrhosis. It goes on to suggest what drinkers with hepatitis C can do, and concludes with some recommendations for healthcare professionals and policymakers. The fact sheet also provides a list of references.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis C , Hepatopatías , Hepatitis Alcohólica , Virus de Hepatitis , Hígado Graso Alcohólico , Bebidas Alcohólicas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Hepatitis Viral Humana , Hepatitis C Crónica , Hepatitis Crónica , Formulación de Políticas , Salud Pública , Sistemas de Salud , Sistemas Públicos de Salud , Planes de Sistemas de Salud , Servicios de Salud
14.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-10-01.
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54947

RESUMEN

La hoja de ruta para las enfermedades tropicales desatendidas, publicada por la OMS en el 2012, estableció dos metas para el control de las geohelmintiasis para el 2020, a saber: suministrar tratamiento regular a 75% de los niños en edad preescolar y escolar que lo requirieran y lograr la cobertura de 75% con la quimioterapia preventiva en los niños en edad preescolar y escolar en 100% de los países. En el 2017, los datos recopilados de los 103 países donde las geohelmintiasis son endémicas mostraban que era factible alcanzar esas dos metas. En octubre del 2018, un grupo de representantes de esos países, junto con asociados de otras instituciones que apoyan las actividades de control, se reunió en Basilea para proponer nuevas metas que orientaran la quimioterapia preventiva y otras actividades de control una vez alcanzadas las metas para el 2020. Los indicadores establecidos por el grupo de trabajo y que se presentan en esta publicación pueden considerarse recomendaciones de los expertos dirigidas al Departamento de la OMS de Control de Enfermedades Tropicales Desatendidas, para distribuir a su vez a las oficinas regionales y en los países de la OMS, los funcionarios del ministerio de salud y los responsables de los programas en los países con endemicidad, a fin de sustentar la lista definitiva de los indicadores en materia de geohelmintiasis que deberán alcanzarse para el 2030.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis , Enfermedades Desatendidas , Salud del Niño , Lactante , Quimioterapia , Enfermedades Endémicas , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Desarrollo Sostenible , Cambio Climático , Medio Ambiente y Salud Pública
15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(9): 1033-1036, 2021 Sep 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619918

RESUMEN

On December 26, 2020, 38 experts from professional public health institutions, universities, scientific research institutes, medical institutions, medical journals, and societies had an in-depth discussion on "Innovating Cooperation Mechanism, Strategy and Implementation on Clinical Medicine and Public Health", and put forward expert consensus on innovative cooperation mechanism: (1) setting up a perfect security system of investment for cooperation mechanism on clinical service and public health service; (2) improving the resource sharing mechanism; (3) perfecting the uniform cooperation mechanism; (4) reforming the training mechanism of medical professionals; (5) innovating the financing and payment mechanism of health insurance; (6) constructing a scientific performance evaluation system. At the same time, 13 specific suggestions were also put forward.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Salud Pública , Consenso , Humanos
16.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 783-788, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622593

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand the basic public health service (BPHS) tasks and workload of the township hospitals in Sichuan Province and to provide empirical evidence for improving the allocation of human resources (HR) and the quality of BPHS in township hospitals. Methods: Retrospective survey was conducted to collect information regarding the actual working hours per unit time of service of BPHS. Information on the service volume and unit service time of BPHS tasks for 2018 was collected in 7 township hospitals in an economically developed area and an area of moderate economic development. Estimated HR required to cover the BPHS tasks was calculated based on the survey data of actual work time. Results: The time required for the basic units of various BPHS tasks varied greatly. The top four most time-consuming services showing consistent results in the the two regions were health education, health supervision and coordination, management of children aged 0-6 and maternal care management. Institutions in the area of moderate economic development reported higher per capita service volume in the registration of children for vaccination, management of hypertension, and health supervision and coordination than those in the economically developed area, but lower service volume for other services. There is a shortage of full-time staffs in both areas. Conclusion: Differences in the service volume of BPHS exist in regions of different levels of economic development. The shortage in HR could be related to the lower quality and volume of the service. Comprehensive exploration of policies to recruit and retain competent personnel, the strengthening of grassroots professional training, and optimization of information technology will help improve the competence and quality of grassroots services.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales , Salud Pública , Recursos Humanos , Carga de Trabajo , Niño , China , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos
17.
Am J Mens Health ; 15(5): 15579883211050523, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622705

RESUMEN

This paper is a direct response to Smith et al.'s (2020) call for more insight into health equity concerns pertaining to COVID-19 outcomes. The goal of this discussion is to offer the field with an evidence-informed 'avatar' representing the most-impacted group as it pertains to COVID-19 mortality and morbidity. Policy and practice implications are offered as a call to action for public health professionals to support these most impacted and highest risk communities.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Equidad en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 226, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630838

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel coronavirus, has affected many lives, health systems and economies across the globe. Countries in both resource-rich and poor have equally been affected. In Ghana, COVID-19 has caused morbidity and mortality among the populace. The first two cases of COVID-19 were reported in Ghana in March 2020. At the onset of the pandemic in Ghana, there were challenges in securing isolation centers and quarantine facilities. Nonetheless, the government of Ghana put in place a number of measures in line with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, to halt the spread of the virus. Some measures taken by the government included partial lockdown of areas deemed hotspots for the spread of the virus. In April 2020, Ghana was ranked number one among African countries in administering tests per million people, because of the effective "trace and test" approach. The government of Ghana also encouraged local manufacturing of personal protective equipment, antivirals and hand sanitizers to help meet the demand of the nation. There were also restrictions on public gathering within the early parts of 2020, and these were eased with time. In February 2021, Ghana became the first country to receive vaccines through the COVAX initiative with a delivery of 600,000 doses of Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines. The efforts by Ghana to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic have been commendable. Not withstanding, the adverse impact of the COVID-19 on public health in Ghana has been significant, and there is still a lot to learn from other countries in the sub-region, and the world as whole.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , COVID-19/epidemiología , Salud Pública , Antivirales/administración & dosificación , COVID-19/prevención & control , Ghana/epidemiología , Humanos , Equipo de Protección Personal , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Cuarentena
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639254

RESUMEN

Social work and public health have always shared a common mission and vision in promoting human health. However, existing research tends to view social work and public health as two separate fields at both practice and policy levels, and these studies have largely neglected the consideration of how to integrate public health and social work. In the context of the COVID-19 epidemic, the link between the two has been strengthened and health social work has been given more importance. The question addressed in this article is through what mechanisms or practices the social work profession can strengthen its professional status and engage in interprofessional collaboration. Based on key informant interviews and case studies (one community and two cabin Hospitals), this study points out that three legitimacy mechanisms are needed: operationalizing policy, extending value, and completing justification. Furthermore, the future and possible limitations in relation to the development of health social work in China are discussed and specific recommendations are provided. Health social work needs to conduct practices and summarize its experiences and methods, to create a more friendly political environment by translating its results into policies that are conducive to the development of health social work through a political agenda. It needs to improve upon its practical abilities and methodologies, as well as professional education relating to professional values and ethics, in addition to identifying the deeper social needs of residents and discovering new, undeveloped areas of service. Moreover, because long-term change is difficult to justify due to China's policy agendas, the question of whether the professional status of health social work in the post-epidemic context can be improved is something that needs to be further explored in future studies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Pública , China , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Servicio Social
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639553

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Public health emergencies require rapid responses from experts. Differing viewpoints are common in science, however, "mixed messaging" of varied perspectives can undermine credibility of experts; reduce trust in guidance; and act as a barrier to changing public health behaviours. Collation of a unified voice for effective knowledge creation and translation can be challenging. This work aimed to create a method for rapid psychologically-informed expert guidance during the COVID-19 response. METHOD: TRICE (Template for Rapid Iterative Consensus of Experts) brings structure, peer-review and consensus to the rapid generation of expert advice. It was developed and trialled with 15 core members of the British Psychological Society COVID-19 Behavioural Science and Disease Prevention Taskforce. RESULTS: Using TRICE; we have produced 18 peer-reviewed COVID-19 guidance documents; based on rapid systematic reviews; co-created by experts in behavioural science and public health; taking 4-156 days to produce; with approximately 18 experts and a median of 7 drafts per output. We provide worked-examples and key considerations; including a shared ethos and theoretical/methodological framework; in this case; the Behaviour Change Wheel and COM-B. CONCLUSION: TRICE extends existing consensus methodologies and has supported public health collaboration; co-creation of guidance and translation of behavioural science to practice through explicit processes in generating expert advice for public health emergencies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Consenso , Atención a la Salud , Humanos , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2
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