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1.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(5): 715-721, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633943

RESUMEN

There are few data regarding the repercussion in the pulmonary function of patients who had severe or critical COVID-19 pneumonia. The objective was to describe these patients' pulmonary function and establish an association with the severity of the disease (patients with severe or critical pneumonia), the presence of comorbidities, the tomographic involvement and the persistence of dyspnoea. Fifty-five patients were included, 40 (73%) male, media of age 54.9 (11.6) years old and body mass index (BMI) 33.1 (6.09) kg/ m2. Fifty (90%) had 1 comorbidity, obesity 67%, arterial hypertension 36%, and diabetes mellitus 35%. Twentyfive (45%) had critical pneumonia. Fifteen (27%) had a spirometric alteration that suggested restriction and 32 (58%) had gas exchange defect. The latter had forced volume capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO) values significantly lower. Ninety percent presented some degree of involvement in the chest CT scan, ground glass-opacities the most frequent finding. A moderate negative correlation was found between the severity of the tomographic involvement and the DLCO levels. Thirty patients (55%) referred some degree of dyspnoea. Patients with this symptom had DLCO and KCO values below those who did not have dyspnoea: 70.5 vs. 85.1 p = 0.02 and 88 vs. 104 p = 0.02. The presence of abnormal gas exchange is the main characteristic of patients with pulmonary sequelae due to COVID-19. Our study does not show either predictor of evolution towards pulmonary sequelae or an association with the severity of the disease.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Niño , Volumen Espiratorio Forzado , Humanos , Pulmón , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas de Función Respiratoria , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502454

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is a global threat that has spread since the end of 2019, causing severe clinical sequelae and deaths, in the context of a world pandemic. The infection of the highly pathogenetic and infectious SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has been proven to exert systemic effects impacting the metabolism. Yet, the metabolic pathways involved in the pathophysiology and progression of COVID-19 are still unclear. Here, we present the results of a mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomic analysis on a cohort of 52 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, classified according to disease severity as mild, moderate, and severe. Our analysis defines a clear signature of COVID-19 that includes increased serum levels of lactic acid in all the forms of the disease. Pathway analysis revealed dysregulation of energy production and amino acid metabolism. Globally, the variations found in the serum metabolome of COVID-19 patients may reflect a more complex systemic perturbation induced by SARS-CoV-2, possibly affecting carbon and nitrogen liver metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/sangre , Carbono/metabolismo , Hígado/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , COVID-19/sangre , COVID-19/patología , COVID-19/virología , Citocinas/sangre , Análisis Discriminante , Humanos , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Redes y Vías Metabólicas/genética , Metabolómica/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574634

RESUMEN

The experimental monitoring of carbon dioxide concentration was carried out in kindergartens in Slovenia, together with indoor air temperature and relative humidity, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the research was to estimate the practical impact of the pandemic on indoor air quality and thermal comfort. The case study sample included buildings with different architectural typology, which are predominantly present in the building stock of Slovenia. The monitoring process lasted for 125 days before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results have shown a better indoor air quality in kindergartens during the pandemic, mostly due to ventilation protocols and almost imperceptibly changed indoor air temperature. The COVID-19 pandemic affected air quality in kindergarten classrooms in Slovenia by reducing the average carbon dioxide concentration when children were present in classrooms by 30%.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , COVID-19 , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Niño , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Eslovenia , Temperatura , Ventilación
4.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 22(9): 701-717, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514751

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major public health event caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 has spread widely all over the world. A high proportion of patients become severely or critically ill, and suffer high mortality due to respiratory failure and multiple organ dysfunction. Therefore, providing timely and effective treatment for critically ill patients is essential to reduce overall mortality. Convalescent plasma therapy and pharmacological treatments, such as aerosol inhalation of interferon-α (IFN-α), corticosteroids, and tocilizumab, have all been applied in clinical practice; however, their effects remain controversial. Recent studies have shown that extracorporeal therapies might have a potential role in treating critically ill COVID-19 patients. In this review, we examine the application of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), hemoadsorption (HA), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) in critically ill COVID-19 patients to provide support for the further diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/terapia , Circulación Extracorporea/métodos , Oxigenación por Membrana Extracorpórea , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complicaciones , Dióxido de Carbono/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedad Crítica , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/terapia , Hemoperfusión , Humanos , Inmunización Pasiva , Intercambio Plasmático , Terapia de Reemplazo Renal
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1694, 2021 09 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530797

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for the betterment of health status, while also considering health expenditure, energy, and environmental issues. This paper examines the nexus between health status and health expenditure (both public and private), energy consumption and environmental pollution in the SAARC-BIMSTEC region. METHODS: We utilized the panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, the heterogeneous panel causality test, the cross sectional dependence test, the cointegration test and the Pesaran cross sectional dependent (CADF) unit root test for obtaining estimated results from data over 16 years (2002-2017). RESULTS: Our results authorize the cointegration among the variables used, where the coefficients of energy consumption, public and private health expenditures, and economic growth are 0.027, 0.014, 0.030, and 0.029, respectively, and indicating positive and statistically significant effects. The coefficient of environmental pollution is - 0.085, implying significant negative effect on the health status of these regions in the long-run. However, no panel wise significant impact is found in the short-run. Bidirectional and unidirectional causal links between the studied variables and the health status are also identified.. CONCLUSIONS: The improved health status in the SAARC-BIMSTEC region needs to be protected by articulating the effective policies. The attained results are theoretically and empirically consistent, and have important policy implications in the health sector.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Gastos en Salud , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Estudios Transversales , Desarrollo Económico , Metabolismo Energético , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574661

RESUMEN

Lockdown measures to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted in the plummeting of China's overall electric-power demand and production. To date, power generation remains one of the largest carbon dioxide (CO2) emitting sectors of China on account of its high carbon intensity. Within this context, our study seeks to measure the impacts of COVID-19 lockdown on the electricity-power related carbon footprints on both generation and consumption sides. Built on statistical data of electricity generation and consumption released by the National Bureau of Statistics of China (NBSC), we calculate he nationwide electricity related CO2 emission changes in regional, economic-sectoral and technological dimensions during January-April 2020, when the strictest lock-down measures were taken in China and compare the results with the same months of the year prior. Our results show that both east and central China power grids witnessed drastic reduction (15.0% and 13.8%) in electricity-generation caused CO2 emissions; and the biggest falls of provincial-scale electricity-generation CO2 emission took place in Hubei (27.3%). Among China's electricity production mix, coal remains the biggest CO2 emitter and contributed 95.7% of the overall nationwide reduction. The most significant decline of the nationwide consumptive-electricity carbon footprint was by 10.1% in February, with the secondary economic sector the biggest contributor.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , China , Carbón Mineral , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Electricidad , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577411

RESUMEN

The use of cloth face coverings and face masks has become widespread in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper presents a method of using low cost wirelessly connected carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors to measure the effects of properly and improperly worn face masks on the concentration distribution of exhaled breath around the face. Four types of face masks are used in two indoor environment scenarios. CO2 as a proxy for exhaled breath is being measured with the Sensirion SCD30 CO2 sensor, and data are being transferred wirelessly to a base station. The exhaled CO2 is measured in four directions at various distances from the head of the subject, and interpolated to create spatial heat maps of CO2 concentration. Statistical analysis using the Friedman's analysis of variance (ANOVA) test is carried out to determine the validity of the null hypotheses (i.e., distribution of the CO2 is same) between different experiment conditions. Results suggest CO2 concentrations vary little with the type of mask used; however, improper use of the face mask results in statistically different CO2 spatial distribution of concentration. The use of low cost sensors with a visual interpolation tool could provide an effective method of demonstrating the importance of proper mask wearing to the public.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Máscaras , Dióxido de Carbono , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 129: 112356, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579878

RESUMEN

Recent COVID-19 pandemic has claimed millions of lives due to lack of a rapid diagnostic tool. Global scientific community is now making joint efforts on developing rapid and accurate diagnostic tools for early detection of viral infections to preventing future outbreaks. Conventional diagnostic methods for virus detection are expensive and time consuming. There is an immediate requirement for a sensitive, reliable, rapid and easy-to-use Point-of-Care (PoC) diagnostic technology. Electrochemical biosensors have the potential to fulfill these requirements, but they are less sensitive for sensing viruses/viral infections. However, sensitivity and performance of these electrochemical platforms can be improved by integrating carbon nanostructure, such as graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). These nanostructures offer excellent electrical property, biocompatibility, chemical stability, mechanical strength and, large surface area that are most desired in developing PoC diagnostic tools for detecting viral infections with speed, sensitivity, and cost-effectiveness. This review summarizes recent advancements made toward integrating graphene/CNTs nanostructures and their surface modifications useful for developing new generation of electrochemical nanobiosensors for detecting viral infections. The review also provides prospects and considerations for extending the graphene/CNTs based electrochemical transducers into portable and wearable PoC tools that can be useful in preventing future outbreaks and pandemics.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles , COVID-19 , Grafito , Nanotubos de Carbono , Virus , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4675, 2021 08 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344875

RESUMEN

Recent studies conclude that the global coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic decreased power sector CO2 emissions globally and in the United States. In this paper, we analyze the statistical significance of CO2 emissions reductions in the U.S. power sector from March through December 2020. We use Gaussian process (GP) regression to assess whether CO2 emissions reductions would have occurred with reasonable probability in the absence of COVID-19 considering uncertainty due to factors unrelated to the pandemic and adjusting for weather, seasonality, and recent emissions trends. We find that monthly CO2 emissions reductions are only statistically significant in April and May 2020 considering hypothesis tests at 5% significance levels. Separately, we consider the potential impact of COVID-19 on coal-fired power plant retirements through 2022. We find that only a small percentage of U.S. coal power plants are at risk of retirement due to a possible COVID-19-related sustained reduction in electricity demand and prices. We observe and anticipate a return to pre-COVID-19 CO2 emissions in the U.S. power sector.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Centrales Eléctricas/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Clima , Carbón Mineral/análisis , Carbón Mineral/economía , Electricidad , Combustibles Fósiles/análisis , Humanos , Centrales Eléctricas/economía , Centrales Eléctricas/tendencias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148226, 2021 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412400

RESUMEN

Absorbing carbonaceous aerosols, i.e. black and brown carbon (BC and BrC), affected heavily on climate change, regional air quality and human health. The nationwide lockdown measures in 2020 were performed to against the COVID-19 outbreak, which could provide an important opportunity to understand their variations on light absorption, concentrations, sources and formation mechanism of carbonaceous aerosols. The BC concentration in Wuhan megacity (WH) was 1.9 µg m-3 during lockdown, which was 24% lower than those in the medium-sized cities and 26% higher than those in small city; in addition, 39% and 16-23% reductions occurred compared with the same periods in 2019 in WH and other cities, respectively. Fossil fuels from vehicles and industries were the major contributors to BC; and compared with other periods, minimum contribution (64-86%) mainly from fossil fuel to BC occurred during the lockdown in all cities. Secondary BrC (BrCsec) played a major role in the BrC light absorption, accounting for 65-77% in WH during different periods. BrCsec was promoted under high humidity, and decreased through the photobleaching of chromophores under higher Ox. Generally, the lockdown measures reduced the BC concentrations significantly; however, the variation of BrCsec was slight.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Hollín/análisis , Carbono/análisis , China , Ciudades , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Comput Biol Med ; 136: 104692, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333227

RESUMEN

COVID-19, a newly discovered type of coronavirus, is the cause of the pandemic infection that was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. One of the most critical problems in this regard is to identify innovative drugs that may reduce or manage this global health concern. Nanoparticles have shown a pivotal role in drug delivery systems in recent decades. The surface of nanoparticles could be covered by a layer composed of different biomolecules (e.g., proteins and macromolecules) following the incubation with a biological fluid. This protein-rich layer is called "Protein Corona." In this study, an all-atom molecular dynamics simulation was used for investigating the monomeric B domain of the spike glycoprotein due to its role in the accessibility of the spike glycoprotein to single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The interaction energy values between the carbon nanotube and B domain of the viral spike glycoprotein were evaluated. The obtained results, based on Lennard-Jones potentials, demonstrated that SWCNTs had an affinity to the B domain of the S1 subunit in the spike glycoprotein. The adsorption of SWCNTs on the B domain surface led to a significant change in solvent-accessible surface, internal hydrogen bonds, and finally in the tertiary structure, which could provide a reasonable method to impede the interaction between the angiotensin-converting enzyme II and SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. A decrease in the mean square displacement of the B domain was shown after the adsorption of SWCNTs as a result of increasing the hydrophobic-hydrophilic properties of the B domain. The arrangement of SWCNTs on the B domain surface and their interaction using the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-ß-d-glucopyranose group (988, 991, and 992) demonstrated that a change in the affinity of the S1 subunit could be used as a barrier to viral replication. The analysis of the SWCNT-B domain complex indicated that the presence of SWCNTs is able to cause alterations in the S1 subunit of the spike protein, and these nanotubes could be employed for further in-vitro and in-vivo antiviral studies. Also, SWCNTs are able to be utilized in drug delivery systems.


Asunto(s)
Nanotubos de Carbono , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/química , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular , Unión Proteica , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(7): 074101, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340456

RESUMEN

A fluid mechanics model of inhaled air gases, nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) gases, and exhaled gas components (CO2 and water vapor particles) through a facial mask (membrane) to shield the COVID-19 virus is established. The model was developed based on several gas flux contributions that normally take place through membranes. Semiempirical solutions of the mathematical model were predicted for the N95 facial mask accounting on several parameters, such as a range of porosity size (i.e., 1-30 nm), void fraction (i.e., 10-3%-0.3%), and thickness of the membrane (i.e., 10-40 µm) in comparison to the size of the COVID-19 virus. A unitless number (Nr) was introduced for the first time to describe semiempirical solutions of O2, N2, and CO2 gases through the porous membrane. An optimum Nr of expressing the flow of the inhaled air gases, O2 and N2, through the porous membrane was determined (NO2 = NN2 = -4.4) when an N95 facial mask of specifications of a = 20 nm, l = 30 µm, and ε = 30% was used as a personal protection equipment (PPE). The concept of the optimum number Nr can be standardized not only for testing commercially available facial masks as PPEs but also for designing new masks for protecting humans from the COVID-19 virus.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Máscaras , SARS-CoV-2 , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Dióxido de Carbono , Diseño de Equipo , Espiración , Gases , Humanos , Hidrodinámica , Inhalación , Conceptos Matemáticos , Membranas Artificiales , Modelos Teóricos , Respiradores N95 , Nitrógeno , Oxígeno , Equipo de Protección Personal , Porosidad , Vapor
15.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113513, 2021 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403918

RESUMEN

Mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions has become an utmost important global agenda, keeping into consideration the associated environmental hardships. As a result, it is important to unearth the factors which can neutralize carbon emissions to transform the world economy into a low-carbon one. Against this backdrop, this study explores the carbon dioxide neutralizing effects of economic growth, international tourism, clean energy promotion, and technological innovation in the context of five European Union (EU-5) nations during the 1990-2015 period. This study's main contribution is in terms of its approach to test the interaction effect between foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows and energy innovation on carbon dioxide emissions. The econometric analysis chronologically involves the employment of unit root, cointegration, causality, and regression methods. Overall, the findings support the inverted-U-shaped economic growth-carbon dioxide emissions nexus to verify the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. Besides, the Pollution Haven Hypothesis in the context of the selected panel is also verified as higher FDI inflows are seen to boost the carbon dioxide emission levels. The results also confirm that energy innovation moderates the harmful effect of air transport (a proxy for international tourism) on carbon dioxide emissions during the developing stage of the tourism industry. On the other hand, renewable energy promotion is found to curb carbon dioxide emissions. These findings suggest that the European governments need to enhance investments in their respective renewable energy sectors and simultaneously ensure the development of clean industries, which can collectively help these nations become carbon-neutral in the future.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Turismo , Desarrollo Económico , Unión Europea , Inversiones en Salud , Energía Renovable
17.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200418

RESUMEN

This paper reports the synthesis of branched alkylene guanidines using microfluidic technologies. We describe the preparation of guanidine derivatives at lower temperatures, and with significantly less time than that required in the previously applicable method. Furthermore, the use of microfluidics allows the attainment of high-purity products with a low residual monomer content, which can expand the range of applications of this class of compounds. For all the samples obtained, the molecular-weight characteristics are calculated, based on which the optimal condensation conditions are established. Additionally, in this work, the antiviral activity of the alkylene guanidine salt against the SARS-CoV-2 virus is confirmed.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/síntesis química , Antivirales/farmacología , Guanidinas/síntesis química , Guanidinas/farmacología , Microfluídica/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , COVID-19 , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética con Carbono-13 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Concentración 50 Inhibidora , Espectrometría de Masa por Ionización de Electrospray , Células Vero
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207010

RESUMEN

The main objective of the presented study was to examine the associations between the use of renewable energy sources in selected sectors (transport, electricity, heating, and cooling) and the prevalence of selected groups of diseases in the European Union, with an emphasis on the application of statistical methods considering the structure of data. The analyses included data on 27 countries of the European Union from 2010 to 2019 published in the Eurostat database and the Global Burden of Disease Study. Panel regression models (pooling model, fixed (within) effects model, random effects model) were primarily used in analytical procedures, in which a panel variable was represented by countries. In most cases, positive and significant associations between the use of renewable energy sources and the prevalence of diseases were confirmed. The results of panel regression models could be generally interpreted as meaning that renewable energy sources are associated with the prevalence of diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and kidney diseases, digestive diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, neoplasms, sense organ diseases, and skin and subcutaneous diseases at a significance level (α) of 0.05 and lower. These findings could be explained by the awareness of the health problem and the response in the form of preference for renewable energy sources. Regarding statistical methods used for country data or for data with a specific structure, it is recommended to use the methods that take this structure into account. The absence of these methods could lead to misleading conclusions.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Desarrollo Económico , Unión Europea , Morbilidad , Prevalencia , Energía Renovable
19.
Analyst ; 146(16): 5055-5060, 2021 Aug 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282816

RESUMEN

It is imminent to develop a new type of rapid COVID-19 detection method with high sensitivity. Here, we used novel red emission-enhanced carbon dot (CD)-based silica (RCS) spheres as the signals of lateral flow immunochromatography (LFI) to ultrasensitively detect novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 nucleocapsid proteins (SARS-CoV-2 NPs). The red emission of CDs can be enhanced and enriched in silica spheres by a simple way. The amino ends of the N-ß-(aminoethyl)-γ-aminopropyltrimethoxy anchor carboxyl-rich CDs and enhance the red emission, while the other end is embedded in the silica carrier. Then, the composite silica spheres werecoated with 3-(triethylsilyl) propylamine to protect the CDs, promote bioconjugation and obtain RCS spheres. The optimal emission peaks of the aqueous solution and the solid state of RCS spheres were at 634 nm and 638 nm, respectively, with quantum yields (QYs) of 48.5% and 35.7%, respectively. Their red emission has a wide excitation range (from the ultraviolet region to the red region), and the best excitation wavelength is about 580 nm. Two fluorescence detection modes of the RCS-LFI technology for the SARS-CoV-2 NP assay are available: the simple mode of observation under ultraviolet light has a sensitivity of 100 pg mL-1; the advanced mode of detection under a fluorescence microscope has a sensitivity of 10 pg mL-1. This assay also exhibits the advantages of fast detection speed, high specificity, and simple operation. In addition, the feasibility of this method in actual sample detection was verified in human serum by the standard-addition method, and the results show that the method has excellent practicability. We believe that this method will be a valuable supplement for the diagnosis of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Carbono , Humanos , Inmunoensayo , Proteínas de la Nucleocápside , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Dióxido de Silicio
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148770, 2021 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225159

RESUMEN

Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are the main cause of global climate change. The COVID-19 pandemic has been one of the worst of its kind in the last century with regard to global deaths and, in the absence of any effective treatment, it led to governments worldwide mandating lock-down measures, as well as citizens voluntarily reducing non-essential trips and activities. In this study, the influence of decreased activity on CO2 emissions and on the economy was assessed. The US, EU-28, China and India, representing almost 60% of anthropogenic carbon emissions, were considered as reference entities and the trends were extrapolated to estimate the global impact. This study aimed to deduce initial estimates of anthropogenic CO2 emissions based on the available economic and industrial outputs and activity data, as they could not be directly measured. Sector-wise variations in emissions were modeled by assuming proportionality of the outputs/activities and the resulting emissions. A decline in road traffic was seen up to March 2020 and then a steady growth was observed, with the exception of China where road traffic started to recover by the end of January. The vast majority of passenger flights were grounded and, therefore, global air traffic plummeted by 43.7% from January to May 2020. A considerable drop in coal power production and the annual industrial growth rate was also observed. The overall economic decline led to a drop of 4.9% in annual global gross domestic product (GDP) for Q2 2020. The total global CO2 emissions reduction for January through April 2020 compared to the year before was estimated to be 1749 Mt. CO2 (14.3%) with a maximum contribution from the transportation sector (58.3% among total emissions by sector). Like other previous crises, if the economy rebounds as expected the reductions will be temporary. Long-term impacts can be minimized considering the business as well as lifestyle changes for travel, utilizing virtual structures created during this crisis, and switching to sustainable transportation.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , COVID-19 , Dióxido de Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Humanos , Pandemias
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