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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770070

RESUMEN

Long-term cancer survivorship care is a crucial component of an efficient healthcare system. For numerous reasons, there has been an increase in the number of cancer survivors; therefore, healthcare decision-makers are tasked with balancing a finite budget with a strong demand for services. Decision-makers require clear and pragmatic interpretation of results to inform resource allocation decisions. For these reasons, the impact and importance of economic evidence are increasing. The aim of the current study was to conduct a systematic review of economic evaluations of long-term cancer survivorship care in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries and to assess the usefulness of economic evidence for decision-makers. A systematic review of electronic databases, including MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO and others, was conducted. The reporting quality of the included studies was appraised using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist. Each included study's usefulness for decision-makers was assessed using an adapted version of a previously published approach. Overall, 3597 studies were screened, and of the 235 studies assessed for eligibility, 34 satisfied the pre-determined inclusion criteria. We found that the majority of the included studies had limited value for informing healthcare decision-making and conclude that this represents an ongoing issue in the field. We recommend that authors explicitly include a policy statement as part of their presentation of results.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Toma de Decisiones , Atención a la Salud , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Supervivencia
2.
J Res Health Sci ; 21(3): e00527, 2021 Sep 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698661

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to measure the efficiency and productivity of tobacco control policies across 16 selected Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries from 2008 to 2014. STUDY DESIGN: A panel-data study. METHODS: Data envelopment analysis was used in this study. Taxation on tobacco products and pictorial warning labels were chosen as the inputs. Percentage of the population of daily smokers above 15 years old and the number of cigarettes used per smoker per day were output variables. Additionally, the Malmquist total factor productivity (TFP) was used to analyze the panel data and measure productivity change and technical efficiency changes over time. RESULTS: The highest technical efficiency score (1.05) was attributed to Norway, while the lowest (0.91) belonged to the UK. Technological change with a total mean of 1.06 implied that the technology and creativity have increased, while countries have been able to promote their creativity over the studied period. Norway with the TFP score of 1.15 was the most productive country, while the UK and Turkey with TFP scores of 0.95 and 0.98, respectively, were the least productive countries in terms of the implementation of the tobacco control policies. CONCLUSION: Most OECD countries have productively implemented tax and pictorial warning policies to reduce tobacco use. To achieve the optimum outcome of the tobacco control policies and overcome the challenges of smoking use, countries need to tackle the difficult underlying factors, i.e. tobacco industry opposition and lobbyists, smuggling, and low socioeconomic status.


Asunto(s)
Productos de Tabaco , Tabaco , Adolescente , Comercio , Humanos , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Impuestos , Uso de Tabaco
3.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9231

RESUMEN

La Semana de la Salud internacional se estructura en tres ejes de abordaje como punto de inicio y organización general, que a su vez dialogan con subejes y temas particulares: -Naciones, Estados y Pueblos unidos; -Política exterior y política doméstica: Argentinos y Argentinas en el frente exterior; -Geopolítica y diplomacia en salud. En la mesa de apertura dialogan el Ministro de Salud de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, Nicolás Kreplak, la Vicerrectora de la UNPaz.,Silvia Storino, el Director del Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud y el Deporte de la UNPaz, Leonel Tesler, y el Director de la Escuela de Gobierno en Salud Floreal Ferrara, Mario Rovere. La Semana de la Salud internacional se propone como un espacio de análisis, intervención e investigación que provea sentido a las prácticas de gobierno y permita analizar el lugar de la Provincia de Buenos Aires en el mundo y desde dónde la Provincia invita al mundo a pensar en clave de Salud Internacional. Es organizada por la Diplomatura en Salud Internacional, una herramienta para la soberanía sanitaria de la Universidad Nacional de José C. Paz y la Escuela de Gobierno en Salud Floreal Ferrara de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. En la mesa de apertura se incluye un homenaje a Juan César García, referente del movimiento de medicina social.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Política de Salud , Salud Pública , Argentina , Diplomacia en la Salud , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Medicina Social
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444832

RESUMEN

The purpose of this cross-cultural study was to determine the association between the sociodemographic background of a child's parents (i.e., their socioeconomic level, marital status, and educational level) with the child's lifestyle (i.e., Mediterranean diet (MD), physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST)), and health markers. Material: This cross-sectional study included 1273 children, from Chile (n = 496), Colombia (n = 340), and Spain (n = 437). The sociodemographic information together with the lifestyle and health markers of the children were measured. There was an inverse association between a low or medium-low socioeconomic level for the parents of Chilean children and handgrip strength (ß -0.61, p < 0.001); meanwhile, for Spanish children, an inverse association between a low or medium-low socioeconomic level and PA after school (ß -0.58, p = 0.016), lifestyle (ß -0.74, p = 0.015), and with MD adherence (ß -0.86, p = 0.004) was found. The risk (i.e., by odd ratios (OR)) of being divorced/separated parents marital status showed an inverse association with abdominal obesity (OR 0.21, p = 0.045) in Spanish children; however, the parent's marital status and a low educational level were risk factors for the suffering of a low nutritional level in Colombian children (OR 2.02, p = 0.048; OR 2.49, p < 0.001, respectively). On the other hand, a low educational level for parents reported for Chilean children had a positive association with ST of ≥4 h per day (OR 1.82, p = 0.020). In conclusion, in Spanish-speaking children, the lifestyle and health markers of the children are affected by the sociodemographic background of their parents; however, these effects could be moderated by the socio-cultural and economic status of their countries as members of the OCDE; therefore, it is essential to develop policies that decrease these gaps, so that children who are under-resourced can reach their full potential.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Estilo de Vida , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Aptitud Física , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , Chile , Colombia , Estudios Transversales , Dieta Mediterránea , Escolaridad , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Fuerza de la Mano , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad , Padres , Instituciones Académicas , Tiempo de Pantalla , Factores Socioeconómicos , España
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 872, 2021 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445957

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Respiratory diseases are a major reason for refugees and other immigrants seeking health care in countries of arrival. The burden of respiratory diseases in refugees is exacerbated by sometimes poor living conditions characterised by crowding in mass accommodations and basic living portals. The lack of synthesised evidence and guideline-relevant information to reduce morbidity and mortality from respiratory infections endangers this population. METHODS: A systematic review of all controlled and observational studies assessing interventions targeting the treatment, diagnosis and management of respiratory infections in refugees and immigrants in OECD, EU, EEA and EU-applicant countries published between 2000 and 2019 in MEDLINE, CINAHL, PSYNDEX and the Web of Science. RESULTS: Nine of 5779 identified unique records met our eligibility criteria. Seven studies reported an increase in vaccine coverage from 2 to 52% after educational multilingual interventions for respiratory-related childhood diseases (4 studies) and for influenza (5 studies). There was limited evidence in one study that hand sanitiser reduced rates of upper respiratory infections and when provided together with face masks also the rates of influenza-like-illness in a hard to reach migrant neighbourhood. In outbreak situations of vaccine-preventable diseases, secondary cases and outbreak hazards were reduced by general vaccination strategies early after arrival but not by serological testing after exposure (1 study). We identified evidence gaps regarding interventions assessing housing standards, reducing burden of bacterial pneumonia and implementation of operational standards in refugee care and reception centres. CONCLUSIONS: Multilingual health literacy interventions should be considered to increase uptake of vaccinations in refugees and immigrants. Immediate vaccinations upon arrival at refugee housings may reduce secondary infections and outbreaks. Well-designed controlled studies on housing and operational standards in refugee and immigrant populations early after arrival as well as adequate ways to gain informed consent for early vaccinations in mass housings is required to inform guidelines.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Refugiados , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Migrantes , Niño , Humanos , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112585, 2021 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365212

RESUMEN

The fish acute toxicity test (TG203; OECD, 2019) is frequently used and highly embedded in hazard and risk assessment globally. The test estimates the concentration of a chemical that kills 50% of the fish (LC50) over a 96 h exposure and is considered one of the most severe scientific procedures undertaken. Over the years, discussions at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have resulted in changes to the test which reduce the number of fish used, as well as the development of a (potential) replacement test (TG236, OECD, 2013). However, refinement of the mortality endpoint with an earlier (moribundity) endpoint was not considered feasible during the Test Guideline's (TG) last update in 2019. Several stakeholders met at a UK-based workshop to discuss how TG203 can be refined, and identified two key opportunities to reduce fish suffering: (1) application of clinical signs that predict mortality and (2) shortening the test duration. However, several aspects need to be addressed before these refinements can be adopted. TG203 has required recording of major categories of sublethal clinical signs since its conception, with the option to record more detailed signs introduced in the 2019 update. However, in the absence of guidance, differences in identification, recording and reporting of clinical signs between technicians and laboratories is likely to have generated piecemeal data of varying quality. Harmonisation of reporting templates, and training in clinical sign recognition and recording are needed to standardise clinical sign data. This is critical to enable robust data-driven detection of clinical signs that predict mortality. Discussions suggested that the 96 h duration of TG203 cannot stand up to scientific scrutiny. Feedback and data from UK contract research organisations (CROs) conducting the test were that a substantial proportion of mortalities occur in the first 24 h. Refinement of TG203 by shortening the test duration would reduce suffering (and test failure rate) but requires a mechanism to correct new results to previous 96 h LC50 data. The actions needed to implement both refinement opportunities are summarised here within a roadmap. A shift in regulatory assessment, where the 96 h LC50 is a familiar base for decisions, will also be critical.


Asunto(s)
Peces , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Animales , Humanos , Dosificación Letal Mediana , Medición de Riesgo , Pruebas de Toxicidad Aguda
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444037

RESUMEN

Health services provided through the telecommunications system aim to improve the population's health and well-being. This research aims to explore what digital, economic, and health factors are associated with the provision of telehealth services, especially in ageing communities. Applying Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries' experiences, this research tries to construct a logistic regression model between adopting a telehealth system or not, a binary outcome variable, and a group of potentially explanatory variables. Estimation results showed that there were thresholds for telehealth provision: The demand for telehealth service usually began when the provision of telecommunication accessibility reached 50%, the proportion of elders exceeded 10%, or the proportion of health spending occupied more than 3-5% of the gross domestic product (GDP); the slope of each variable seemed to correspond with an increase in demand for such a provision. A growing number of individuals in OECD countries are now readily served by telehealth systems under the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings could be regarded as a model for other countries for implementing the necessary infrastructure early on when any of these parameters reaches its threshold. Moreover, telehealth applied in developing countries could be elevated for wider populations to access basic health services and for the remote delivery of health care. A rational decision could be made to appropriately use additional resources in telehealth provision. With accessible e-health services, the population's health could be improved, which in turn would possibly increase productivity and social welfare.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicina , Anciano , Humanos , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
8.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 35(8): 288-307, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375137

RESUMEN

Migrants in countries affiliated with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have a higher risk of acquiring HIV, experience delayed HIV diagnosis, and have variable levels of engagement with HIV care and treatment when compared to native-born populations. A systematic mixed studies review was conducted to generate a multilevel understanding of the barriers and facilitators affecting HIV Care Cascade steps for migrant people living with HIV (MLWH) in OECD countries. Medline, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library were searched on March 25, 2020. Screening, critical appraisal, and analysis were conducted independently by two authors. We used qualitative content analysis and the five-level Socio-Ecological Model (i.e., individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy) to categorize barriers and facilitators. Fifty-nine studies from 17 OECD countries were included. MLWH faced similar barriers and facilitators regardless of their host country, ethnic and geographic origins, or legal status. Most barriers and facilitators were associated with the individual and organizational levels and centered around retention in HIV care and treatment. Adapting clinical environments to better address MLWH's competing needs via multidisciplinary models would address retention issues across OECD countries.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Migrantes , Grupos Étnicos , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico
9.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 148, 2021 Jul 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246286

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Women living with HIV (WLH) lack evidence-based information about reproductive options while managing pressures from family, clinicians, and communities to give up the idea of having children. As the reproduction intentions of WLH are not well understood, stigmatizing behaviors force them to hide their disease to avoid rejection by their family, partner, and social networks. Compliance with social norms, fear of stigma, and discrimination influence their experience. Current research is individual qualitative studies lacking the synthesis perspective necessary to guide intervention development. The purpose of this study was to synthesize the evidence to explain the reproductive decision-making process for WLH in developed countries. METHODS: A systematic review with qualitative research synthesis was conducted through searches in 10 electronic databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus, Social Science Citation Index, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Cuidatge, Cuiden Enfispo, and SciELO). Studies published in journals from 1995 to 2019 with qualitative data about reproductive decision-making among WLH in developed countries were eligible for inclusion. Developed country was operationalized by membership in the OECD for comparative conditions of social wellbeing and economic stability. The CASP and JBI checklists for qualitative research were used to assess study quality and methodological integrity. Thematic analysis and qualitative meta-summary techniques were used for the synthesis. RESULTS: Twenty studies from 12 developed countries were included in the synthesis. Findings were organized into 3 meta-themes from 15 themes and 45 subthemes, including: (1) Shattered identity, (2) Barriers, inequities, and misinformation, (3) Coping, resiliency, and support. Reproductive decision-making was perceived as a complex process influenced by facilitators and barriers. The facilitators helped WLH cope with their new situation to become more resilient, while the barriers made their situation more difficult to manage. CONCLUSION: WLH encounter reproductive decision-making with knowledge deficits and limited social support. An integrated approach to holistic care with comprehensive multidisciplinary counseling is needed to support WLH. Clinicians could benefit from professional development to learn how to be authentically present for WLH, including engaging in conversations, demonstrating compassion, and understanding situations. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines need to be tailored for the family planning and sexual health needs of WLH.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Niño , Países Desarrollados , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa
10.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(7): e13496, 2021 07 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255708

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Globally, 71% of deaths occur due to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Poor diet quality and physical activity have a significant impact on NCDs. At present, behavior change interventions using smartphone apps have rapidly increased worldwide to prevent NCDs. However, most previous studies on the use and effectiveness of apps have been conducted in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. As such, relevant research in low-income countries is scarce. OBJECTIVE: This retrospective cohort study aims to investigate the characteristics of adherence to the use of the Noom app. We also aim to compare the effects of using the app on body weight changes over time according to adherence to the use of the app between users in low-income and OECD countries. In addition, the differences in weight loss are compared among users who use the free and paid versions of the app. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was conducted using repeated measures. The data were collected from users in low-income countries (n=312) and OECD countries (n=8041) who used the app for 12 months. The app provided programs for the self-monitoring of physical activity, dietary intake, and body weight. Descriptive statistics, independent two-tailed t tests, chi-square tests, and linear mixed models were used for the analysis. RESULTS: During the first 3 months of using the Noom app, users from OECD countries entered data into the app more frequently; however, users in low-income countries entered data more frequently from 3 months to 12 months. Users in OECD countries consumed significantly more calories than those in low-income countries for 12 months. The body weight of all users significantly decreased over time (-1.8 kg; P<.001); however, no statistically significant differences in the change in body weight for 12 months were observed between users from low-income and OECD countries (ß=-.2; P=.19). The users who frequently monitored their lunch (ß=-.1; P<.001), dinner (ß=-.1; P<.001), body weight (ß=-.1; P<.001), evening snack (ß=-.1; P<.001), and exercise (ß=-.03; P<.001) exhibited significant weight loss over time. We found no significant differences in the body weight changes between users who used the free and paid versions of the app (ß=-.2; P=.19). CONCLUSIONS: This study found that using the app has a significant effect on weight loss regardless of users' country of residence. The results of this study suggest that the frequency of monitoring health-related behaviors by entering data into the app plays a pivotal role in losing weight. In conclusion, regardless of where users live and what versions of the app they use, it is important to monitor health-related behaviors by frequently entering data into the app to efficiently lose weight.


Asunto(s)
Aplicaciones Móviles , Pérdida de Peso , Humanos , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Teléfono Inteligente
11.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 109(2): 258-266, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285668

RESUMEN

Objective: There are no existing validated search filters for the group of 37 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. This study describes how information specialists from the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) developed and evaluated novel OECD countries' geographic search filters for MEDLINE and Embase (Ovid) to improve literature search effectiveness for evidence about OECD countries. Methods: We created the draft filters using an alternative approach to standard filter construction. They are composed entirely of geographic subject headings and are designed to retain OECD country evidence by excluding non-OECD country evidence using the NOT Boolean operator. To evaluate the draft filters' effectiveness, we used MEDLINE and Embase literature searches for three NICE guidelines that retrieved >5,000 search results. A 10% sample of the excluded references was screened to check that OECD country evidence was not inadvertently excluded. Results: The draft MEDLINE filter reduced results for each NICE guideline by 9.5% to 12.9%. In Embase, search results were reduced by 10.7% to 14%. Of the sample references, 7 of 910 (0.8%) were excluded inadvertently. These references were from a guideline about looked-after minors that concerns both OECD and non-OECD countries. Conclusion: The draft filters look promising-they reduced search result volumes while retaining most OECD country evidence from MEDLINE and Embase. However, we advise caution when using them in topics about both non-OECD and OECD countries. We have created final versions of the search filters and will validate them in a future study.


Asunto(s)
Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Publicaciones , Bases de Datos Bibliográficas , MEDLINE
12.
Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care ; 26(5): 429-438, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126834

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Review evidence is lacking about how contraception is affected by severe social disruption, such as that caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this scoping review was to explore the impact of natural and man-made disasters on contraception in OECD member countries. METHODS: Manual searches and systematic searches in six electronic databases were conducted with no language restrictions. All articles were screened by at least two researchers. The data were analysed thematically. RESULTS: 108 articles were included. Most focussed on the Zika virus outbreak (n = 50) and the COVID-19 pandemic (n = 28). Four key themes were identified: importance of contraception during disasters, impact of disasters on contraceptive behaviour, barriers to contraception during disasters and ways of improving use of contraception during disasters. Despite efforts to increase access to contraception including by transforming ways of delivery, barriers to use meant that unmet need persisted. CONCLUSIONS: To prevent adverse health outcomes and reduce health costs as a result of failure to have access to contraception during disasters, there is a need to intensify efforts to remove barriers to use. This should include increasing access and information on methods of contraception and their side effects (e.g., menstrual suppression) and making contraception freely available.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Anticoncepción/estadística & datos numéricos , Desastres , Servicios de Planificación Familiar/organización & administración , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Infección por el Virus Zika/prevención & control , COVID-19/epidemiología , Humanos , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Zika , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología
13.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(6): 629-640, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114189

RESUMEN

We estimated the impact of a comprehensive set of non-pharmeceutical interventions on the COVID-19 epidemic growth rate across the 37 member states of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic and between October and December 2020. For this task, we conducted a data-driven, longitudinal analysis using a multilevel modelling approach with both maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation. We found that during the early phase of the epidemic: implementing restrictions on gatherings of more than 100 people, between 11 and 100 people, and 10 people or less was associated with a respective average reduction of 2.58%, 2.78% and 2.81% in the daily growth rate in weekly confirmed cases; requiring closing for some sectors or for all but essential workplaces with an average reduction of 1.51% and 1.78%; requiring closing of some school levels or all school levels with an average reduction of 1.12% or 1.65%; recommending mask wearing with an average reduction of 0.45%, requiring mask wearing country-wide in specific public spaces or in specific geographical areas within the country with an average reduction of 0.44%, requiring mask-wearing country-wide in all public places or all public places where social distancing is not possible with an average reduction of 0.96%; and number of tests per thousand population with an average reduction of 0.02% per unit increase. Between October and December 2020 work closing requirements and testing policy were significant predictors of the epidemic growth rate. These findings provide evidence to support policy decision-making regarding which NPIs to implement to control the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Máscaras/estadística & datos numéricos , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Distanciamiento Físico , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , Asia/epidemiología , Australasia/epidemiología , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , América del Norte/epidemiología , Pandemias , Cuarentena/métodos , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 793: 148390, 2021 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171806

RESUMEN

Decoupling economic growth from emissions is vital to achieve the environmental targets postulated by the Paris agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals. This paper analyzes a set of factors that have the potential to increase the rate of emissions decoupling in 35 OECD countries 1994-2016. It takes on an encompassing approach focusing on emissions decoupling from two pollutant types carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) as well as emissions decoupling from both production-and consumption-based CO2 emissions. Drawing on existing research six key driving factors of emissions decoupling are derived and empirically tested. The paper contributes theoretically by widening the understanding of potential drivers of decoupling, as the six derived factors are not generally analyzed in conjunction. The paper is methodologically innovative in its use of event history models to analyze the significance of the explanatory factors in increasing the rate of emissions decoupling. The paper results in three main findings. One the paper provide empirical evidence of emissions decoupling across all analyzed countries and across all pollutant measures. Two, the paper shows that countries experience recurring instances of decoupling. Third, factors related to green technologies can increase the rate of decoupling both for different emission types and for emissions accounted for as production-and consumption-based.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , China , Desarrollo Económico , Desarrollo Sostenible , Tecnología
15.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; 66: 103080, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059412

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To review the studies, which calculated the total intensive care unit costs and indicated the main cost drivers in the intensive care by using either top-down, bottom-up approach or the combination of them. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY/DESIGNS: A systematic review of papers published until October 2020 was conducted. Search was performed on PubMed, Medline, Scopus and Science Direct databases. SETTING: This review i examined costs in adult intensive care units, in countries belonging to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (medical, surgical or general adult , paediatric and neonatal were not included). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Eighteen articles were included in the review. RESULTS: Eight of the studies used the top-down costing methodology, six of them used the bottom-up approach and four of them used both of them. The mean total patient cost per day ranged from €200.75 to €4321.91 (all costs are presented in 2020 values for euro). Human resources were identified as the largest proportion of total costs. Length of stay, mechanical ventilation, continuous haemodialysis and severe illness are the main cost drivers of intensive care unit total costs. CONCLUSION: There are a variety of methods and study designs used to calculate costs of an intensive care unit stay.t It is necessary to evolve standardised costing methods in order to make comparisons and succeed in cost-effective management.


Asunto(s)
Costos de la Atención en Salud , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Adulto , Niño , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Proyectos de Investigación
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(43): 61096-61114, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165750

RESUMEN

The inclusion of an index, which can be the representative of environmental quality from different aspects, seems to be of paramount significance. This issue is a major challenging one in the economic-environmental literature. This study investigates the role of financial development in economic growth effect on the composite environmental quality index (CEQI) in two groups of selected Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. In this regard, System Generalized Method of Moment (SYS-GMM) is applied to fit the research models. According to the findings, in the selected OPEC countries, financial development reinforces negative impacts of economic growth on environmental quality. In the selected OECD countries, economic growth has negative effect on the environmental quality and financial development weakens this effect. The effect of financial development on the CEQI is respectively negative and positive in OPEC and OECD countries. Moreover, in both groups of selected countries, energy consumption and economic growth have a negative impact on the CEQI; nonetheless, trade openness has a positive effect. Accordingly, some policy suggestions and new recommendations are presented for future studies, which would contribute to the better implementation of economic-environmental policies. Graphical abstract.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Petróleo , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Política Ambiental , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico
17.
J Environ Manage ; 295: 113038, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153584

RESUMEN

Achieving carbon neutrality targets is a major challenge for Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries that experience mounting ecological degradation over the last few decades. To deal with this situation, the trading of green products may play a crucial role. However, previous studies have not captured the net impact of green trading, and also the international trade basket used in these studies is proxied by the trade openness index including both environment-friendly and not-so-friendly goods. To provide a solution, this research intends to capture the net effects of green goods on the environment over the period 2003 to 2016 in 35 OECD countries. This study extends the literature by computing a new Green Openness Index based on the OECD Combined List of Environmental Goods (CLEG) basket that consists of 255 products. After this, an empirical model based on the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis is developed to test the role of the Green Openness Index in environmental sustainability using methodology robust against heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence. The outcomes unfolded the validity of the EKC hypothesis in 35 OECD countries. Empirical estimates confirmed that the Green Openness Index, which considers traditional environment-friendly goods as well as environmentally preferable goods, stimulates environmental sustainability. Finally, numerous policies are directed to accomplish carbon neutrality targets.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Dióxido de Carbono , Comercio , Estudios Transversales , Internacionalidad
18.
Health Policy ; 125(8): 1002-1012, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162489

RESUMEN

We present findings from a review of published literature and administrative documentation on waiting time and waiting list reporting models for elective treatment in a sample of international jurisdictions (a subset of OECD countries, with regional reporting regimes treated as distinct jurisdictions). In this paper we identified common patterns in the measurement and reporting of waiting time and waiting list information for elective treatment. We mapped the waiting time, waiting list, and key performance indicator statistics reported by 15 English-speaking international jurisdictions. Three distinct patterns of maximum waiting time target measures for elective treatment were identified amongst our international sample following our patient pathway event time-point analysis: (i) full-pathway maximum wait time targets; (ii) separate wait time targets for "time-to-diagnosis" and "time-to-treatment"; and (iii) "Time-to-Treatment" waiting time target only. Our review also revealed common patterns in the reporting of waiting time and waiting list statistics as well as KPI measures amongst a sub-sample of English-speaking jurisdictions. These common patterns provide a starting point towards more standardised measurement and reporting of waiting time and waiting list statistics in benchmarking access to elective care internationally.


Asunto(s)
Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Listas de Espera , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Electivos , Humanos , Tiempo de Tratamiento
19.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(7): 779-789, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030549

RESUMEN

AIMS: This paper highlights how the novel coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has amplified economic instability and health risks for disconnected youth and young adults (YYA). We offer a brief review of governmental policy responses in four OECD countries and how they may impact the disconnect YYA within those countries. METHODS: Literature was reviewed utilizing Cochrane Library, ERIC, PsychINFO, PubMed/MEDLINE and Web of Science to outline existing inequities among disconnected YYA and COVID-19 economic and health impacts. Government responses to COVID-19 from four OECD countries were reviewed. Using the social protection model, we highlighted significant policy changes and developments that influence the protection of vulnerable populations and evaluated the potential effect of long-term economic dislocations prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Disconnected YYA suffered significant financial and health burdens with no social protection floor in place. Lessons learned prior to and during the pandemic indicate that initiatives aimed at improving health and well-being among vulnerable YYA and their communities must be adequately funded, flexible, and comprehensive. Attempts to connect or reconnect YYA who were disconnected prior to the COVID-19 pandemic will require a re-envisioning of policy. CONCLUSIONS: Globally, governments must invest in social safety net programs that focus on supporting those most at-risk. A concentrated focus on job creation, education and training, and paid work experience, investments in early childhood care and education, housing, health and mental health care is necessary to not only offset the pandemic's effects but also support thriving in the future for YYA.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Preescolar , Humanos , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , SARS-CoV-2 , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Adulto Joven
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(37): 52295-52305, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008064

RESUMEN

In this paper, we investigate the impact of energy use and economic policy uncertainties on the environment. To achieve this objective, we use the pooled mean group-autoregressive distributed lag methodology (PMG-ARDL) and Dumitrescu and Hurlin causality test on 22 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 1985 and 2017. The PMG-ARDL estimation shows that energy use and economic policy uncertainties have a positive relationship with carbon dioxide emission (CO2) emission, while a negative relationship is confirmed between renewable and CO2 emissions in the long run. The short-run estimation shows a positive relationship between energy use, real gross domestic product, and per capita on CO2 emissions. The Dumitrescu and Hurlin causality results highlight a unidirectional running from real GDP and GDP per capita square to CO2 emissions. Furthermore, one-way causality exists between CO2 emissions to economic policy uncertainties. These results have policy implications on the macroeconomy which are discussed in detail in the concluding section.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Dióxido de Carbono , Producto Interno Bruto , Energía Renovable , Incertidumbre
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