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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 173(Pt A): 112988, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583250

RESUMEN

In recent years, dense Alexandrium ostenfeldii blooms have been reported in different coastal areas. In this study, we report for the first time the occurrence of A. ostenfeldii blooms associated with the detection of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in the Peruvian scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) from Paracas Bay. Alexandrium ostenfeldii blooms occurred at the end of summer and early fall, after the increase of riverine input and under stratified conditions following a decrease in wind velocity. The highest abundances occurred during warm sea surface temperatures (18-27 °C). High PST concentrations that exceed the maximum permissible level (800 µg STX eq. kg-1) occurred even under low A. ostenfeldii abundances (20 × 103 cells l-1). Our results contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of A. ostenfeldii in coastal systems influenced by riverine inputs and upwelling and can be used to improve monitoring programs and allow the implementation of mitigation measures along the Peruvian coast.

2.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 06 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207719

RESUMEN

The Peruvian sea is one of the most productive ecosystems in the world. Phytoplankton production provides food for fish, mammals, mollusks and birds. This trophic network is affected by the presence of toxic phytoplankton species. In July 2017, samples of phytoplankton were obtained from Paracas Bay, an important zone for scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) aquaculture in Peru. Morphological analysis revealed the presence of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia, which was isolated and cultivated in laboratory conditions. Subsequently, the monoclonal cultures were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and identified as P. multistriata, based on both the morphological characteristics, and internal transcribed spacers region (ITS2) sequence phylogenetic analysis. Toxin analysis using liquid chromatography (LC) with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) revealed the presence of domoic acid (DA) with an estimated amount of 0.004 to 0.010 pg cell-1. This is the first report of DA from the coastal waters of Peru and its detection in P. multistriata indicates that it is a potential risk. Based on our results, routine monitoring of this genus should be considered in order to ensure public health.

3.
PeerJ ; 9: e12669, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35036151

RESUMEN

Migratory birds are threatened by habitat loss and degradation, illegal killings, ineffective conservation policies, knowledge gaps and climate change. These threats are particularly troubling in the Procellariiformes (Aves), one of the most endangered bird groups. For "storm-petrels", their cryptic breeding behavior, asynchrony between populations, and light pollution pose additional threats that contribute to increased mortality.Markham's Storm-Petrel (Hydrobates markhami), a poorly known migratory species, is a pelagic bird that breeds in dispersed colonies in the Sechura and Atacama Deserts, with asynchronous reproduction between colonies, and is highly affected by artificial lights. Considering its complex conservation scenario and singular breeding, we expected to find narrow habitat distribution conditions, strong geographic genetic structure, and spatially differentiation related to human population activities (e.g., light pollution) and the climate global change. To evaluate these predictions, we analyzed the phylogeography, current and future potential distribution based on mitochondrial gene ND1 and geographic records.The phylogeographic analyses revealed three well-supported clades (i.e., Paracas, Arica, and Salar Grande), and the geographical distribution modeled using an intrinsic conditional model (iCAR) suggests a positive relationship with the mean temperature of the wettest quarter and of the driest quarter, solar radiation, and anthropogenic disturbance. The future predictions under moderate and severe scenarios of global change indicated a drastic distribution area reduction, especially in the southern zone around Tarapacá and Antofagasta in Chile. These suggest a potential loss of unique genetic diversity and the need for conservation actions particularly focused at the edges of the H. markhami distribution.

4.
Mov Ecol ; 8: 42, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117543

RESUMEN

Background: Age at maturity and the timing of first breeding are important life history traits. Most small shorebird species mature and breed as 'yearlings', but have lower reproductive success than adults. In some species, yearlings may defer northward migration and remain in non-breeding regions ('oversummering') until they reach 2 years of age. Some adults also oversummer. Oversummering would be favoured by natural selection if survival were as a result raised sufficiently to compensate for the missed breeding opportunity. Several thousand Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) spend the non-breeding period at Paracas, Perú, including individuals with long bills (likely from eastern Arctic breeding populations ~ 8000 km distant) and short bills (likely from western Arctic breeding populations, up to 11,000 km distant), with short-billed birds more likely to oversummer. We tested the prediction that oversummering birds have higher survival than migrants, and that the magnitude of this higher survival for oversummering birds is enough to compensate for their lost breeding season. Methods: We used a Multi-State Mark-Recapture model based on 5 years of encounter data (n = 1963 marked birds, and 3229 resightings) obtained year-round at Paracas, Perú, to estimate seasonal (i.e. breeding and non-breeding) survivorship for migrant and oversummering birds. We calculated the magnitude of the oversummering survival advantage required to compensate, for both yearlings and adults, based on published measures of annual survival and reproductive success. Using bill length as a proxy for migration distance, we investigated whether migratory survival is distance-dependent. Results: We estimate that 28% of yearlings and 19% of adults oversummer. Survival is higher for oversummering birds than for migrants, and the oversummering survival advantage is greater for adults (0.215) than for yearlings (0.140). The theoretical thresholds predicted by the size of the missed reproductive opportunity are 0.240 for adults and 0.134 for yearlings. Migratory survival decreases and the oversummering rate increases with migration distance, as assessed by culmen length. Conclusions: Our results support the life history hypothesis that oversummering raises survival enough to compensate for the loss of a breeding opportunity. Greater migration distance lowers survival and increases the probability of oversummering.

5.
Rev. peru. biol. (Impr.) ; 27(1): 61-66, ene.-mar 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144931

RESUMEN

Abstract In Peru, Caulerpa filiformis is a marine algae listed as an invasive species. For years, its distribution has been considered to be in the north coast (Isla Lobos de Afuera and Piura) until a recent report of its distribution in the central coast (Ancash, Lima, and Ica). The present investigation aims to determine the main groups of secondary metabolites, total phenol content, and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of C. filiformis from Sechura Bay (Piura) and Paracas Bay (Ica). The main chemical groups were determined through phytochemical screening, the content of phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and antioxidant activity by the ABTS method (2,2-azinobis-[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid]) and 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract of C. filiformis from Sechura Bay and Paracas Bay revealed the presence of carbohydrates, polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, lipids, alkaloids, steroids, and triterpenes for both extracts. The total phenol content of the extract of C. filiformis from Sechura Bay (39.31 ± 0.39 mg of AGE/g extract) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that from Paracas Bay (18.78 ± 0.31 mg of AGE/g extract). In the ABTS and DPPH assays, the antioxidant capacity of the Sechura C. filiformis extract (IC50 = 3.49 ± 0.01 and 2.18 ± 0.02 mg/mL) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of the Paracas C. filiformis extract (IC50 = 6.41 ± 0.02 and 2.42 ± 0.04 mg /mL). These findings suggest that the methanolic extract of C. filiformis is a source of secondary metabolites with an antioxidant potential.


Resumen En Perú, Caulerpa filiformis es una macroalga catalogada como especie invasora. Durante años, su distribución fue considerada en la costa norte (Isla Lobos de Afuera y Piura) hasta un informe reciente de su distribución en la costa central (Ancash, Lima e Ica). El objetivo de esta investigación es determinar los principales grupos de metabolitos secundarios, contenido total de fenol y actividad antioxidante del extracto metanólico de C. filiformis de Bahía de Sechura (Piura) y Bahía de Paracas (Ica). Los principales grupos químicos se determinaron mediante análisis fitoquímico, el contenido de fenoles mediante el método Folin-Ciocalteu y la actividad antioxidante mediante el método ABTS (ácido 2,2-azinobis- [3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfónico]) y 2, 2′-difenil-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). El examen fitoquímico del extracto metanólico de C. filiformis de ambas bahías revelaron la presencia de carbohidratos, polifenoles, taninos, flavonoides, lípidos, alcaloides, esteroides y triterpenos. El contenido total de fenol del extracto de C. filiformis de Bahía de Sechura (39.31 ± 0.39 mg de extracto de AGE / g) fue significativamente mayor (p <0.05) que el de Bahía de Paracas (18.78 ± 0.31 mg de extracto de AGE / g). En los ensayos ABTS y DPPH, la capacidad antioxidante del extracto de Sechura (IC50 = 3.49 ± 0.01 y 2.18 ± 0.02 mg / mL) fue significativamente mayor (p <0.05) que la del extracto de Paracas C. filiformis (IC50 = 6.41 ± 0.02 y 2.42 ± 0.04 mg / mL). Estos hallazgos sugieren que el extracto metanólico de C. filiformis es una fuente de metabolitos secundarios con potencial antioxidante.

6.
Int J Paleopathol ; 29: 141-149, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866247

RESUMEN

Because of a rich cultural history and excellent preservation of archaeological materials the south coast of the Central Andes is a region where many anthropological questions can be explored, using the latest methods and techniques. Over the last 20 years, multidisciplinary paleopathological studies have revealed interesting and unanticipated perspectives regarding the lives and cultures of the peoples who inhabited this region in pre-Hispanic times. This paper presents a panorama of these recent investigations, beginning with a review of the data sources - the collections of human remains - available for study, their numbers, preservation, accessibility, strengths and weaknesses. Then follows a revision of recent investigations, presenting new knowledge about temporal trends in human health in the region, including mortality curves, stature achieved in adulthood, porotic hyperososis, cribra orbitalia, linear enamel hypoplasias, dental caries, biochemical analysis, trauma, and violence. This review shows how the knowledge of the history of this region has increased but also the many new questions that have emerged. Hopefully this paper will encourage more investigation, as the collections of human remains from this region are abundant, well documented and well preserved.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad/historia , Paleopatología/tendencias , Proyectos de Investigación/tendencias , Características Culturales , Difusión de Innovaciones , Enfermedad/etnología , Predicción , Estado de Salud , Historia Antigua , Humanos , América del Sur
7.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124767, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518925

RESUMEN

The present study analyzed the Peruvian scallop Argopecten purpuratus and its food sources for metal and fatty acid concentrations in order to determine spatial and temporal differences. Metals such as copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in gills and iron (Fe) and Zn in sediments were the most significant explaining factors for spatial differentiations (degree of contamination), while for fatty acids, it was C14:0, C15:0, C16:0 and C18:0 in A. purpuratus' muscle and in its food sources, which explained more temporal differences (El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effect). Gills, digestive gland and intestine were the tissues where metal accumulation was the highest in A. purpuratus. Cd in digestive gland was always high, up to ∼250-fold higher than in other tissues, as previously reported in other bioindicator species for metal pollution. Fatty acids were good biomarkers when annual comparisons were performed, while metals when locations were compared. ENSO 2017 played an important role to disentangle A. purpuratus' biological conditions and food sources. A. purpuratus from Paracas locations mostly showed higher metal concentrations in gills and digestive glands, and lower fatty acid concentrations in muscle than those from Sechura and Illescas Reserved Zone.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/análisis , Pectinidae/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Animales , Acuicultura , Cobre/análisis , Cobre/farmacocinética , Biomarcadores Ambientales , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Branquias/química , Hierro/análisis , Hierro/farmacocinética , Manganeso/análisis , Manganeso/farmacocinética , Músculos/química , Pectinidae/metabolismo , Perú , Mariscos/análisis , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Distribución Tisular , Zinc/análisis , Zinc/farmacocinética
8.
Rev. Fac. Med. Hum ; 19(1): 108-111, Jan.-Mar. 2019.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049859

RESUMEN

La Cirugía ha marcado un hito en la historia, desde sus orígenes y durante muchos siglos, esta especialidad estaba en estrecha relación con la curación de heridos en combate, una gran evidencia se denota en el caso presentado durante los inicios de la Cirugía Abierta, con las intervenciones llamadas Trepanaciones Craneanas que fueron realizadas en los años 700 a.C. ­ 200 d.C. por la Cultura Paracas en el Perú; con el transcurso del tiempo se fueron perfeccionando diversas técnicas que se complementaron con el uso de nuevos instrumentos y el desarrollo de la tecnología dando lugar a una revolución en las diversas especialidades quirúrgicas.


Surgery has marked a milestone in history, from its origins and for many centuries, this specialty a close relationship with the healing of wounded in combat case presented during the beginning of Open Surgery, with the so-called Trepanaciones Craniaas that were made in the 700 a.C. - 200 AD for the Paracas Culture in Peru; with the During the time the techniques that were complemented with the use were perfected of new instruments and the development of technology leading to a revolution in the various Surgical specialties

9.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180728, 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055382

RESUMEN

Abstract The biological assimilation of the sugars present in lignocellulosic residues has gained prominence since these residues are the most abundant and economic residues in nature. Thus, the objective of this work was to determine whether the use of D-xylose and L-arabinose as sources of carbon in Synechococcus nidulans and Spirulina paracas cultures affects the growth and production of proteins and carbohydrates. Kinetic growth parameters, pentose consumption, protein content and carbohydrates were evaluated. Synechococcus nidulans and Spirulina paracas consumed all concentrations of pentose used. The highest cellular concentration (1.37 g.L-1) and the highest protein productivity (54 mg.L-1.d-1) were obtained for Spirulina paracas, which was submitted to the addition of 38.33 mg.L-1 D-xylose and 1.79 mg.L-1 L-arabinose. The use of pentose promoted the accumulation of proteins for the studied microalgae. This is one of the first works to report protein bioaccumulation as a result of pentose addition.


Asunto(s)
Arabinosa/administración & dosificación , Xilosa/administración & dosificación , Carbohidratos , Proteínas/efectos de los fármacos , Synechococcus
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(29): E6716-E6721, 2018 07 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967147

RESUMEN

Recent theoretical innovations in cultural evolutionary theory emphasize the role of cooperative social organizations that unite diverse groups as a key step in the evolution of social complexity. A principal mechanism identified by this theory is feasting, a strategy that reinforces norms of cooperation. Feasts occur throughout the premodern world, and the intensification of feasting is empirically correlated to increased social complexity. A critical factor in assessing the evolutionary significance of this practice is the scale and range of the feast from that focused on a single community to ones that draw from a large region or catchment zone. This work addresses the degree to which hosts draw on a local area vs. a regional one in initial prehistoric feasting. We report on excavations at a locus of intensive feasting-a ceremonial sunken court-in a fifth- to third-century BCE Paracas site on the south coast of Peru. We selected 39 organic objects from the court placed as offerings during major feasting episodes. We analyzed the radiogenic strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) values to determine the geographical origin of each object. The 87Sr/86Sr data plus additional archaeological data support a hypothesis that the catchment of the court was quite extensive. The initial strategy of political and economic alliance building was macroregional in scope. These data indicate that the most effective initial strategy in early state formation in this case study was to build wide alliances at the outset, as opposed to first consolidating local ones that subsequently expand.

11.
Mar Drugs ; 15(10)2017 Oct 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29023396

RESUMEN

The microbiome of three different sites at the Peruvian Pacific coast was analyzed, revealing a lower bacterial biodiversity at Isla Foca than at Paracas and Manglares, with 89 bacterial genera identified, as compared to 195 and 173 genera, respectively. Only 47 of the bacterial genera identified were common to all three sites. In order to obtain promising strains for the putative production of novel antimicrobials, predatory bacteria were isolated from these sampling sites, using two different bait organisms. Even though the proportion of predatory bacteria was only around 0.5% in the here investigated environmental microbiomes, by this approach in total 138 bacterial strains were isolated as axenic culture. 25% of strains showed antibacterial activity, thereby nine revealed activity against clinically relevant methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and three against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains. Phylogeny and physiological characteristics of the active strains were investigated. First insights into the chemical basis of the antibacterial activity indicated the biosynthetic production of the known compounds ariakemicin, kocurin, naphthyridinomycin, pumilacidins, resistomycin, and surfactin. However, most compounds remained elusive until now. Hence, the obtained results implicate that the microbiome present at the various habitats at the Peruvian coastline is a promising source for heterotrophic bacterial strains showing high potential for the biotechnological production of antibiotics.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias/metabolismo , Productos Biológicos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Biodiversidad , Productos Biológicos/aislamiento & purificación , Biotecnología , Escherichia coli Enterohemorrágica/efectos de los fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/efectos de los fármacos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Microbiota , Perú , Filogenia
12.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 163(10): 1409-1414, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28942758

RESUMEN

The antibiotically bioactive thiopeptide compound kocurin was identified in extracts from a newly isolated Kocuria rosea strain. The axenic strain was retrieved from a soil sample of the intertidal area at the Paracas National Park, Peru. The genetic basis of this promising natural product with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains was revealed by comparative genome analysis of this new isolate and other reported thiopeptide producer strains. The functionality of the predicted gene locus was experimentally proven by heterologous expression in Streptomyces coelicolor M1146. Expression of the gene cluster under the control of a constitutive promoter enabled the transgenic strain to produce kocurin in selected media. The kocurin biosynthetic gene cluster comprises nine open reading frames and spans around 12 kbp of the genome.

13.
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0153465, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27144824

RESUMEN

This article describes and analyzes a highly significant archaeological context discovered in a late Paracas (400-200 BCE) sunken patio in the monumental platform mound of Cerro Gentil, located in the Chincha Valley, Peru. This patio area was used for several centuries for ritual activities, including large-scale feasting and other public gatherings. At one point late in this historical sequence people deposited a great deal of objects in what is demonstrably a single historical event. This was quickly followed by a series of minor events stratigraphically immediately above this larger event. This entire ritual process included the consumption of liquids and food, and involved the offering of whole pottery, pottery fragments, botanical remains, bone, lithics, baskets, pyro-engraved gourds, mummies, and other objects. We interpret these events as an "abandonment ceremony" or "termination ritual" during the late Paracas period, one that may have lasted for weeks or even months. The subsequent Topará occupation at the site (ca. 200 BCE- AD 100) involved the architectural enhancement of the mound area, but the pattern of use of the patio itself ended. Such a termination ritual signals a reorganization in the regional political structure of Paracas society.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología/métodos , Conducta Ceremonial , Mariscos , Animales , Artefactos , Geografía , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Perú , Datación Radiométrica
14.
Int J Paleopathol ; 9: 20-27, 2015 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29539437

RESUMEN

This paper presents three trepanned skulls from the Copacabana Peninsula in the Titicaca Basin, dating from 800 BC to AD 1000. Trepanation has been practiced for two millennia in the Andes, with the earliest specimens coming from the coastal Paracas culture (circa 400 BC). Trepanned skulls have been found throughout the Andes, displaying a variety of techniques. This modification was practiced as surgical intervention after injury and treatment for headaches and other ailments, among other reasons (Verano, 2003: 234). With the exception of four examples from the Island of the Sun, few early cases of trepanation have been found in the Titicaca Basin of Peru and Bolivia. The three skulls presented here are important for several reasons: (1) they originate from a region under-represented in the literature on Andean trepanation, (2) they represent a variety of trepanation techniques, and (3) they confirm the practice of trepanation in the lake basin during the Early Horizon.

15.
PLoS One ; 9(11): e113068, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25409240

RESUMEN

In order to enhance protection and conservation strategies for endangered green turtles (Chelonia mydas), the identification of neritic habitats where this species aggregates is mandatory. Herein, we present new information about the population parameters and residence time of two neritic aggregations from 2010 to 2013; one in an upwelling dominated site (Paracas ∼14°S) and the other in an ecotone zone from upwelling to warm equatorial conditions (El Ñuro ∼4°S) in the Southeast Pacific. We predicted proportionally more adult individuals would occur in the ecotone site; whereas in the site dominated by an upwelling juvenile individuals would predominate. At El Ñuro, the population was composed by (15.3%) of juveniles, (74.9%) sub-adults, and (9.8%) adults, with an adult sex ratio of 1.16 males per female. Times of residence in the area ranged between a minimum of 121 and a maximum of 1015 days (mean 331.1 days). At Paracas the population was composed by (72%) of juveniles and (28%) sub-adults, no adults were recorded, thus supporting the development habitat hypothesis stating that throughout the neritic distribution there are sites exclusively occupied by juveniles. Residence time ranged between a minimum of 65 days and a maximum of 680 days (mean 236.1). High growth rates and body condition index values were estimated suggesting healthy individuals at both study sites. The population traits recorded at both sites suggested that conditions found in Peruvian neritic waters may contribute to the recovery of South Pacific green turtles. However, both aggregations are still at jeopardy due to pollution, bycatch and illegal catch and thus require immediate enforcing of conservation measurements.


Asunto(s)
Tortugas/fisiología , Animales , Seguimiento de Parámetros Ecológicos , Ecosistema , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Femenino , Masculino , Océano Pacífico , Perú , Densidad de Población , Crecimiento Demográfico , Razón de Masculinidad , Tortugas/clasificación
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(20): 7218-23, 2014 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24799703

RESUMEN

Recent archaeological research on the south coast of Peru discovered a Late Paracas (ca. 400-100 BCE) mound and geoglyph complex in the middle Chincha Valley. This complex consists of linear geoglyphs, circular rock features, ceremonial mounds, and settlements spread over a 40-km(2) area. A striking feature of this culturally modified landscape is that the geoglyph lines converge on mounds and habitation sites to form discrete clusters. Likewise, these clusters contain a number of paired line segments and at least two U-shaped structures that marked the setting sun of the June solstice in antiquity. Excavations in three mounds confirm that they were built in Late Paracas times. The Chincha complex therefore predates the better-known Nasca lines to the south by several centuries and provides insight into the development and use of geoglyphs and platform mounds in Paracas society. The data presented here indicate that Paracas peoples engineered a carefully structured, ritualized landscape to demarcate areas and times for key ritual and social activities.

17.
Mar Genomics ; 9: 1-8, 2013 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23904058

RESUMEN

The population genetic structure of the Peruvian scallop Argopecten purpuratus from three different wild populations along the Peruvian coast was analyzed using nine microsatellite loci and a partial region (530bp) of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. A total of 19 polymorphic sites in the 16S rRNA gene defined 18 unique haplotypes. High genetic diversity was presented in all populations. Statistical analysis of mitochondrial DNA revealed no significant genetic structure (ΦST=0.00511, P=0.32149) among the three localities. However, microsatellite analysis showed low (2.86%) but highly significant (P=0.0001) genetic differentiation among populations, most of the variation was found in Independencia Bay population, which is located in the Peruvian National Reserve of Paracas. Neutrality tests based on mitochondrial haplotypes were performed to assess signatures of recent historical demographic events. Overall results from Tajima's D and Fu's FS tests indicated significant deviations from neutrality. To our knowledge, this study constitutes the first investigation based on mitochondrial and microsatellite markers on the genetic structure of A. purpuratus.


Asunto(s)
ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Variación Genética/genética , Pectinidae/genética , Animales , Haplotipos , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22755529

RESUMEN

The inappropriate discharge of wastewater containing high concentrations of toxic metals is a serious threat to the environment. Given that the microalga Spirulina platensis has demonstrated a capacity for chromium VI (Cr (VI) biosorption, we assessed the ideal concentration of chromium-containing wastewater required for maximum removal of Cr (VI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the environment by using this microalga. The Paracas and Leb-52 strains of S. platensis, with initial wastewater concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, were cultured in Zarrouk medium diluted to 50% under controlled air, temperature, and lighting conditions. The cultures were maintained for 28 days, and pH, biomass growth, COD, and Cr (VI) were assessed. The wastewater concentration influenced microalgal growth, especially at high concentrations. Removal of 82.19% COD and 60.92% Cr (VI) was obtained, but the COD removal was greater than the Cr (VI) removal in both strains of S. platensis.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de la Demanda Biológica de Oxígeno/métodos , Cromo/metabolismo , Cianobacterias/metabolismo , Biodegradación Ambiental
19.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 55(2): 111-120, 16 jul., 2012. ilus
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-101776

RESUMEN

Introducción. El culto a los cráneos es una tradición cultural que se remonta, al menos, al Neolítico. Sus principales manifestaciones son las cabezas trofeo, las máscaras cráneo, los cráneos moldeados y la reducción de cabezas. Se revisa desde una perspectiva neuroantropológica el culto a los cráneos en la América precolombina y en el presente etnográfico. Desarrollo. La tradición de moldear y pintar los cráneos de los antepasados se remonta al Neolítico indoeuropeo (cultura natufiense y Gobekli Tepe). En Mesoamérica, la decapitación post mortem era el primer paso de un tratamiento mortuorio que daba lugar a una cabeza trofeo, un cráneo del tzompantli o una máscara cráneo. La tecnología lítica empleada en las culturas mesoamericanas hacía necesario que la desarticulación se realizase en varias etapas. El tzompantli es un término que se refiere tanto a una construcción donde se colocaban las cabezas de las víctimas como a los cráneos mismos. Las máscaras cráneo son cráneos modificados artificialmente para separar y decorar su porción facial, y se han encontrado en el templo Mayor de Tenochtitlán. La existencia de cabezas trofeo se ha documentado iconográficamente en cerámicas y textiles de las culturas paracas, nazca y huari de Perú. Los indios mundurucú de Brasil y los shuar o jíbaros de la Amazonia ecuatoriana han mantenido esta costumbre. Los shuar, además, reducen las cabezas (tzantzas) en un proceso ritual. Cronistas españoles como Fray Toribio de Benavente ‘Motolinía’ y Gaspar de Carvajal relataron estas prácticas. Conclusión. En la América precolombina se desarrolló profusamente la tradición de la decapitación para obtener cabezas trofeo de guerreros (AU)


Introduction. The skull cult is a cultural tradition that dates back to at least Neolithic times. Its main manifestations are trophy heads, skull masks, moulded skulls and shrunken heads. The article reviews the skull cult in both pre-Columbian America and the ethnographic present from a neuro-anthropological perspective. Development. The tradition of shaping and painting the skulls of ancestors goes back to the Indo-European Neolithic period (Natufian culture and Göbekli Tepe). In Mesoamerica, post-mortem decapitation was the first step of a mortuary treatment that resulted in a trophy head, a skull for the tzompantli or a skull mask. The lithic technology utilised by the Mesoamerican cultures meant that disarticulation had to be performed in several stages. Tzompantli is a term that refers both to a construction where the heads of victims were kept and to the actual skulls themselves. Skull masks are skulls that have been artificially modified in order to separate and decorate the facial part; they have been found in the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan. The existence of trophy heads is well documented by means of iconographic representations on ceramic ware and textiles belonging to the Paraca, Nazca and Huari cultures of Peru. The Mundurucu Indians of Brazil and the Shuar or Jivaroan peoples of Amazonian Ecuador have maintained this custom down to the present day. The Shuar also shrink heads (tzantzas) in a ritual process. Spanish chroniclers such as Fray Toribio de Benavente ‘Motolinía’ and Gaspar de Carvajal spoke of these practices. Conclusions. In pre-Columbian America, the tradition of decapitating warriors in order to obtain trophy heads was a widespread and highly developed practice (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Cráneo , Conducta Ceremonial , 50227 , Decapitación/etnología
20.
Rev. peru. biol. (Impr.) ; 18(2): 217-223, ago. 2011. map, tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LIPECS | ID: biblio-1111397

RESUMEN

Actualmente se desconocen muchos aspectos de la ecología de Phyllodactylus angustidigitus (Dixon & Huey 1970) y P. gerrhopygus (Weigmann, 1834). En el presente trabajo investigamos algunos aspectos del nicho de P. angustidigitus y P. gerrhopygus en la Reserva Nacional de Paracas (RNP). Se evaluó y comparó la distribución, uso de hábitats (nicho espacial), horarios de actividad (nicho temporal) y dieta (nicho trófico) de estas dos especies de gecónidos. Adicionalmente, se estimó la oferta de recursos alimentarios mediante el uso de trampas pit-fall. Phyllodactylus angustidigitus estuvo presente en la mayoría de las localidades evaluadas, y fue registrado en los hábitats de desierto y lomas. Phyllodactylus gerrhopygus fue registrado únicamente en la Península de Paracas y en el oasis de Sta. Cruz, en los hábitats de desierto, lomas y oasis. Ambas especies fueron registradas en actividad sólo en horarios nocturnos. La dieta de P. angustidigitus y P. gerrhopygus estuvo caracterizada principalmente por el consumo de insectos. Ambas especies presentaron dietas de tipo generalistas, debido a la amplitud del nicho trófico, y oportunistas, debido a la semejanza en la composición de sus dietas con la oferta estimada de recursos alimentarios en el medio ambiente. Las dietas de ambas especies fueron semejantes. Adicionalmente, la cercanía filogenética entre P. angustidigitus y P. gerrhopygus producen semejanzas en el nicho espacial (uso de hábitats), temporal (horarios de actividad), y en sus dietas. Estas importantes similitudes en el uso de los recursos del medio, pueden derivar en una potencial competencia por los recursos de su medio ambiente entre estos gecónidos simpátricos. La información proporcionada en este trabajo demuestra la necesidad de diseñar una adecuada estrategia para garantizar el estado de conservación de P. angustidigitus.


Until now, ecology of Phyllodactylus angustidigitus and P. gerrhopygus are unknown. In this work, we researched some aspects of P. angustidigitus and P. gerrhopygus niches at National Reserve of Paracas (RNP). We evaluated and compared: distribution, habitat use (spatial niche), activity patterns (temporal niche) and diet (trophic niche), all these aspects in both geckonids species. We estimated resource supply through pitfall traps. Paracas geckonid, P. angustidigitus, has been present in most of the RNP evaluated locations, and it was reported in desert and hills habitats. Southern geckonid, P. gerrhopygus, was reported only in Paracas peninsula and Sta. Cruz, in desert, hills and oasis habitats. Both species were founded in activity at night time. P. angustidigitus and P. gerrhopygus diet consisted in insects. The diet of these species shows a generalist behavior, caused by the trophic niche amplitude, and an opportunistic behavior, explained with similarity between diet composition and environment resource supply. Diet of both species was similar. Additionally the phylogenetic proximity between P. angustidigitus y P. gerrhopygus produces spatial niche similarities (habitat use) and temporal niche similarities (activity patterns) and trophic niche (diet). These important similarities in resources use can be derived in a potential competition of environmental resources between these simpatric geckonids. The information provided in this paper shows the need to design an appropriate strategy to ensure the conservation status of P. angustidigitus.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Ecología , Alimentación Animal , Reptiles , Reptiles/crecimiento & desarrollo
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