Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.845
Filtrar
1.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-01-11.
en Inglés, Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55594

RESUMEN

[WEEKLY SUMMARY]. North America: Overall, influenza activity remained low but increasing. In Canada, influenza A and B virus co-circulated with influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 among samples where subtyping was performed; SARS-CoV-2 activity slightly increased. In Mexico, influenza A(H3N2) prevailed, with B co-circulating and SARS-CoV-2 activity increased. In the United States, influenza A(H3N2) predominated, with SARS-CoV-2 activity increasing, hospitalizations and deaths remained elevated. Respiratory syncytial virus activity remained high in Canada. Caribbean: Influenza remained at low activity levels. Haiti reported a few detections in recent weeks with the predominance of influenza B/Victoria and A(H1N1)pdm09. In Suriname, SARS-CoV-2 and SARI activity decreased to low levels. Central America: Influenza activity continued low and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased to low levels overall. In Guatemala, influenza activity decreased with the predominance of influenza A(H3N2) in the previous week, while influenza A(H3N2) circulation increased in Honduras with low SARI and ILI activity. Andean: Overall, influenza activity remained low; however, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru reported increased influenza activity associated with A(H3N2) detections. SARS-CoV-2 activity stands elevated in Bolivia and Ecuador; and in Bolivia, SARI activity continued at extraordinary levels. Brazil and Southern Cone: Influenza activity increased to pre-pandemic levels, and SARS-CoV-2 activity continues at low levels, except in Argentina. Influenza A(H3N2) detections continue to rise in Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Most activity and increasing A(H3N2) detections are recorded in Brazil and Uruguay. Global: In the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, influenza activity, although still low, appeared to increase in some countries with detections of mainly influenza A(H3N2) and B Victoria lineage (mainly in China). In Europe, influenza activity continued to increase. Influenza A(H3N2) predominated. In East Asia, influenza activity continued rising in China, while influenza illness indicators and activity remained low in the rest of the subregion. Influenza B/Victoria viruses predominated. In tropical Africa, overall influenza activity continued decreasing, with both influenza A and B detected. In Southern Asia, influenza virus detections of predominately influenza A(H3N2) increased overall, although reducing in a few countries. In South-East Asia, sporadic influenza detections were reported in the Philippines. However, in the temperate zones of the southern hemisphere, influenza activity remained low overall. SARS-CoV-2 percent positivity from sentinel surveillance increased to approximately 30%. Activity remained under 10% positivity in the Eastern Mediterranean, South-East Asian and Western Pacific Regions of WHO. In the other WHO Regions, an increasing trend in positivity was observed in recent weeks. Overall positivity from non-sentinel sites also increased and was at 25%.


[RESUMEN SEMANAL] América del Norte: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja pero en aumento. En Canadá, el virus de la influenza A y B circularon concurrentemente con los virus influenza A(H3N2) y A(H1N1)pdm09 en las muestras a las que se les determinó el subtipo; la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó ligeramente. En México, predominó el virus influenza A(H3N2), con la circulación concurrente de B, y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó. En los Estados Unidos, predominó la influenza A(H3N2), con un aumento de la actividad del SARS-CoV-2, las hospitalizaciones y muertes se mantuvieron elevadas. La actividad del virus respiratorio sincitial se mantuvo alta en Canadá. Caribe: la influenza se mantuvo en niveles bajos de actividad. Haití reportó algunas detecciones en las últimas semanas con predominio de influenza B/Victoria y A(H1N1)pdm09. En Surinam, la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 e IRAG disminuyó a niveles bajos. América Central: la actividad de la influenza continuó baja y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó a niveles bajos en general. En Guatemala, la actividad de la influenza disminuyó con el predominio de la influenza A(H3N2) en semanas previa, mientras que la circulación de la influenza A(H3N2) aumentó en Honduras con baja actividad de IRAG y ETI. Andina: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja; sin embargo, Bolivia, Ecuador y Perú informaron un aumento de la actividad de la influenza asociada con las detecciones de A(H3N2). La actividad de SARS-CoV-2 se mantiene elevada en Bolivia y Ecuador; y en Bolivia, la actividad de la IRAG continuó en niveles extraordinarios. Brasil y Cono Sur: la actividad de la influenza aumentó a niveles prepandémicos y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continúa en niveles bajos, excepto en Argentina. Las detecciones de influenza A(H3N2) continúan aumentando en Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay. La mayor parte de la actividad y las detecciones crecientes de A(H3N2) se registran en Brasil y en Uruguay. Global: en las zonas templadas del hemisferio norte, la actividad de la influenza, aunque todavía baja, pareció aumentar en algunos países con detecciones de influenza principalmente A(H3N2) y B linaje Victoria (principalmente en China). En Europa, la actividad gripal siguió aumentando. Predominó influenza A(H3N2). En el este de Asia, la actividad de la influenza siguió aumentando en China, mientras que los indicadores y la actividad de la enfermedad por influenza se mantuvieron bajos en el resto de la subregión. Predominaron los virus influenza B linaje Victoria. En África tropical, la actividad general de la influenza continuó disminuyendo y se detectaron tanto la influenza A como la B. En el sur de Asia, en general, las detecciones de los virus de la influenza predominantemente A(H3N2) aumentaron, aunque disminuyeron en algunos países. En el sudeste asiático, en Filipinas se informaron detecciones esporádicas de influenza. Sin embargo, en las zonas templadas del hemisferio sur, la actividad de influenza se mantuvo baja en general. El porcentaje de positividad de SARS-CoV-2 de la vigilancia centinela aumentó a aproximadamente el 30%. La actividad se mantuvo por debajo del 10 % de positividad en las Regiones del Mediterráneo Oriental, Asia Sudoriental y el Pacífico Occidental. En las otras Regiones, se observó una tendencia creciente en la positividad en las últimas semanas. La positividad general de los sitios no centinela también aumentó y fue del 25%.


Asunto(s)
Gripe Humana , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Betacoronavirus , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Urgencias Médicas , Américas , Región del Caribe , Gripe Humana , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Urgencias Médicas , Américas , Región del Caribe
2.
Trends Organ Crime ; : 1-23, 2022 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35002209

RESUMEN

This article presents the results of an exploratory study aimed to analyze the contexts in which the use of Non-Traditional ports of cocaine departure and counter-intuitive routes is prioritized, based on the experience of Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay. Moreover, we show that criminal organizations prioritize the Ports of Buenos Aires, San Antonio and Montevideo, and the counter-intuitive routes that lead to them, because they are spaces that generate incentives linked to the porosity of borders, the lack of control at the ports, and the possibility of exploiting the country's lack of reputation for drug exportation to re-export cocaine undetected. This study constitutes a precedent for future research on the role of South American Southern Cone ports in cocaine trafficking. We can identify at least four emerging lines of research: 1. Cocaine trafficking from landlocked countries; 2. The role of the waterway Paraná-Paraguay; 3. The link between Non-Traditional ports of cocaine departure and new markets; and 4. Other Non-Traditional Ports of cocaine departure, which are not containerized.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142322, 2022 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015063

RESUMEN

Importance: Severe outcomes among youths with SARS-CoV-2 infections are poorly characterized. Objective: To estimate the proportion of children with severe outcomes within 14 days of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in an emergency department (ED). Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study with 14-day follow-up enrolled participants between March 2020 and June 2021. Participants were youths aged younger than 18 years who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection at one of 41 EDs across 10 countries including Argentina, Australia, Canada, Costa Rica, Italy, New Zealand, Paraguay, Singapore, Spain, and the United States. Statistical analysis was performed from September to October 2021. Exposures: Acute SARS-CoV-2 infection was determined by nucleic acid (eg, polymerase chain reaction) testing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Severe outcomes, a composite measure defined as intensive interventions during hospitalization (eg, inotropic support, positive pressure ventilation), diagnoses indicating severe organ impairment, or death. Results: Among 3222 enrolled youths who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 3221 (>99.9%) had index visit outcome data available, 2007 (62.3%) were from the United States, 1694 (52.6%) were male, and 484 (15.0%) had a self-reported chronic illness; the median (IQR) age was 3 (0-10) years. After 14 days of follow-up, 735 children (22.8% [95% CI, 21.4%-24.3%]) were hospitalized, 107 (3.3% [95% CI, 2.7%-4.0%]) had severe outcomes, and 4 children (0.12% [95% CI, 0.03%-0.32%]) died. Characteristics associated with severe outcomes included being aged 5 to 18 years (age 5 to <10 years vs <1 year: odds ratio [OR], 1.60 [95% CI, 1.09-2.34]; age 10 to <18 years vs <1 year: OR, 2.39 [95% CI 1.38-4.14]), having a self-reported chronic illness (OR, 2.34 [95% CI, 1.59-3.44]), prior episode of pneumonia (OR, 3.15 [95% CI, 1.83-5.42]), symptoms starting 4 to 7 days prior to seeking ED care (vs starting 0-3 days before seeking care: OR, 2.22 [95% CI, 1.29-3.82]), and country (eg, Canada vs US: OR, 0.11 [95% CI, 0.05-0.23]; Costa Rica vs US: OR, 1.76 [95% CI, 1.05-2.96]; Spain vs US: OR, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.27-0.98]). Among a subgroup of 2510 participants discharged home from the ED after initial testing and who had complete follow-up, 50 (2.0%; 95% CI, 1.5%-2.6%) were eventually hospitalized and 12 (0.5%; 95% CI, 0.3%-0.8%) had severe outcomes. Compared with hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-negative youths, the risk of severe outcomes was higher among hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-positive youths (risk difference, 3.9%; 95% CI, 1.1%-6.9%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, approximately 3% of SARS-CoV-2-positive youths tested in EDs experienced severe outcomes within 2 weeks of their ED visit. Among children discharged home from the ED, the risk was much lower. Risk factors such as age, underlying chronic illness, and symptom duration may be useful to consider when making clinical care decisions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adolescente , COVID-19/patología , Prueba de COVID-19 , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 113, 2022 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034604

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer continues to show a high burden among young women worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Limited data is available describing cervical cancer mortality among young women in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The purpose of this study was to examine the mortality trends of cervical cancer among young women in LAC and predict mortality rates to 2030. METHODS: Deaths from cervical cancer were obtained from the World Health Organization mortality database. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 women-years were estimated in women aged 20-44 years using the world standard population for 16 countries (and territories) in LAC from 1997 to 2017. We estimated the average mortality rates for the last 4 years (2014-2017). Joinpoint regression models were used to identify significant changes in mortality trends. Nordpred method was used for the prediction of the mortality rates to 2030. RESULTS: Between 2014 and 2017, Paraguay and Venezuela had the highest mortality rates of cervical cancer, whereas Puerto Rico had the lowest rates. Overall, most of the LAC countries showed downward trends of cervical cancer mortality over the entire period. Significant decreases were observed in Chile (Average annual percent change [AAPC]: - 2.4%), Colombia (AAPC: - 2.0%), Cuba (AAPC: - 3.6%), El Salvador (AAPC: - 3.1%), Mexico (AAPC: - 3.9%), Nicaragua (AAPC: - 1.7%), Panama (AAPC: - 1.7%), and Peru (AAPC: - 2.2%). In contrast, Brazil (AAPC: + 0.8%) and Paraguay (AAPC: + 3.7%) showed significant upward trends. By 2030, mortality rates are not predicted to further decrease in some LAC countries, including Argentina, Paraguay, and Venezuela. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality trends of cervical cancer among young women have large variability in LAC countries. Cervical cancer screening programs have a high priority for the region. Primary and secondary prevention in the community are necessary to accelerate a reduction of cervical cancer mortality by 2030.

5.
Preprint en Inglés | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-3431

RESUMEN

Based on the available literature, a list of 40 gasteroid species recorded in Paraguay since the earliest known collection is presented. A total of forty species are reported, distributed among 16 genera and 4 families. This work represents the first compilation of data available on this group of fungi for Paraguay. These numbers reveal the scarce amount of species formally cited for the Paraguayan Funga.


Con base en la literatura disponible, se presenta una lista de 40 especies de gasteroides registradas en Paraguay desde los primeros registros conocidos. Se reporta un total de cuarenta especies, distribuidas en 16 géneros y 4 familias. Este trabajo representa la primera compilación de datos disponibles de este grupo de hongos para Paraguay. Estos números nos revela la escasa cantidad de especies citadas formalmente para la Funga del país.

6.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 27: 100657, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012714

RESUMEN

An adult female Leopardus pardalis from Jardín Botánico y Zoológico de Asunción, Paraguay was brought in from the wild, and inspected for a parasitic structure attached to the vulva. The parasite was removed and was identified as a Dioctophyme renale female. Blood samples and ultrasound did not show abnormalities in any organ, confirming the ectopic presentation of the parasite. This is the first report of D. renale in the L. pardalis and a first time for ectopic location in vagina and spontaneous elimination in a felid.

7.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 27: 100664, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012722

RESUMEN

Despite the epidemic situation of animal trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma vivax in South American countries, there are no reports for the prevalence of animal trypanosomes in Paraguay. In this study, 408 blood samples were obtained from apparently healthy horses from sixteen departments of Paraguay, for routine medical check-up from August to September 2019, and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based cross-sectional study was carried out to identify trypanosome prevalence. The prevalence of Trypanozoon (T. evansi and T. equiperdum) and T. vivax was 7.11% (29/408) and 26.23% (107/408), respectively. Mixed infections were detected in 4.90% (20/408) of the samples. Some of the selected trypanosome positive samples were confirmed as T. vivax and T. evansi Type A by sequence analysis of the internal transcribe spacer region and RoTat1.2 variant surface glycoprotein gene, respectively. In conclusion, we found higher prevalence of T. vivax than Trypanozoon in Paraguayan horses. However, the genotypic variation should be verified in further studies.

8.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 27: 100658, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012732

RESUMEN

We report for the first time from Paraguay the louse-fly Lipoptena mazamae Rondani, 1878 (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), based on an individual retrieved from the body of a gray brocket Mazama gouazoubira (Fischer), found dead in the Tatí Yupí Biological Refuge, in Alto Paraná, Eastern Paraguay. Before this finding, in the decade of the 1940's, this species of fly was wrongly recorded from Paraguay, based on material collected in Bolivia, some 300 km from the border to Paraguay.

9.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262334, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986203

RESUMEN

This paper contributes to the lack of longitudinal studies concerning online information access to corporate governance (CG) practices in the banking sector of Latin American countries. In particular, this study aims to analyze the factors that influence information transparency, both mandatory and voluntary, related to CG practices of banks that operate in Paraguay via their websites from 2016 to 2019. Findings indicate the need to improve the level of information available on websites, with disclosure of voluntary information on CG practices being more prevalent than the disclosure of mandatory information. Likewise, banks that operate in Paraguay have made scant "progress" regarding online access to their governance information over the years analyzed. Moreover, the factors "Bank size" and "listed status" positively influence the information transparency regarding CG practices of Paraguayan banks. In contrast, "leverage," "liquidity," "size of the audit firm," and "credit risk rating" are factors that have a negative relation with the extent of CG disclosure.

10.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 207640211070762, 2022 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991382

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to important changes in the approach to patients worldwide. Different agencies have proposed and implemented telemedicine-based care services in order to ensure access to health care for all people. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the satisfaction of patients using the Telepsychiatry service offered by the Department of Psychiatry of the Hospital de Clínicas (National University of Asunción, Paraguay). METHODS: A cross sectional and descriptive study has been conducted. Participants were recruited through a phone-based survey. Satisfaction with Telepsychiatry has been measured with an adapted version of a satisfaction survey in Teleneurology. As a complement, psychiatrists from the Hospital de Clínicas were also interviewed about their rate of satisfaction with Telepsychiatry. RESULTS: A total of 530 patients were included, 51.3% of whom were women. The consultation satisfaction scale ranged between 2.15 and 4.30 with a mean score of 3.02 ± 0.32. Cronbach's alpha for the scale was .897, indicating a good internal consistency. Patients' satisfaction was higher for the perception of Telepsychiatry and lower for the doctor-patient relationship. Of the physicians, 87.5% were satisfied with the Telepsychiatry service. CONCLUSION: The satisfaction overall score indicates patients' general satisfaction with the quality of care in Telepsychiatry, mainly regarding the perception of health care. and lower satisfaction with the doctor-patient relationship. Nine out of 10 psychiatrists felt satisfied with the Telepsychiatry service and considered that the degree of patient's satisfaction was acceptable during the Telepsychiatry consultation.

11.
Data Brief ; 40: 107699, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34977291

RESUMEN

This paper presents a data set with information on meteorological data and electricity consumption in the department of Alto Paraná, Paraguay. The meteorological data were registered every three hours at the Aeropuerto Guarani, Department of Alto Paraná, which belongs to the Dirección Nacional de Aeronáutica Civil of Paraguay. The final data consists of a total of 22.445 records of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and atmospheric pressure. On the other hand, the electrical energy consumption data set contains a total of 1.848.947 records, all of them coming from the one hundred and fifteen feeders located throughout the Alto Paraná region of Paraguay. Electrical energy consumption data was provided by Administración Nacional de Electricidad (ANDE). The analysis of this data can yield insights regarding the energy consumption in the area.

12.
Food Chem ; 368: 130746, 2022 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411857

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to identify useful chemical markers for the differentiation of true and false cinnamon; to develop a fast and efficient method of differentiation using MIR associated with chemometric methods. A total of 129 cinnamon samples from 3 countries (Brazil, Sri Lanka, and Paraguay) were purchased, being differentiated by visual analysis. The bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, HPLC, and MIR analysis were performed. The data obtained were submitted to PCA and PLS-DA. The results showed that the samples of true cinnamon have a higher concentration of eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, and antioxidant capacity, as well as a lower coumarin content. The PCA showed the separation of two groups of cinnamon samples. PLS-DA was effective in differentiating the studied samples with an accuracy of 94.44% and 100% for the composition and MIR analysis, respectively. The MIR proved to be an alternative for the rapid differentiation of true and false cinnamon.


Asunto(s)
Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Eugenol , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Análisis Espectral , Sri Lanka
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114702, 2022 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627987

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Information on the use of medicinal plants in the daily life by Paraguayan people is scarce in mainstream scientific literature. The study on the Paraguayan diaspora in the Provincia de Misiones, Argentina, gives an insight into Guaraní traditions, colonial legacy and current search for new medicinal plants to address new health challenges. AIM OF THE STUDY: To document the use of medicinal plants by Paraguayan mestizo migrants who moved into a new country, yet within the same ecological region. The present and past uses of medicinal plants were compared to understand the continuity and change in the Paraguayan herbal pharmacopoeia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fieldwork based on ethnographic and ethnobotanical techniques was carried out in the Provincia de Misiones, Argentina, in 2014, 2015, and 2019. Eighty-five Paraguayan migrants and their descendants from eastern Paraguay took part in the study. The list of recorded plants was compared with the information in historical sources from Paraguay, to examine the continuity and changes in Paraguayan herbal medicine, and with the present-day ethnobotanical studies from Paraguay. Ethnopharmacological and phytochemical studies on the medicinal plants with the highest consensus of uses were reviewed. RESULTS: Altogether, 204 medicinal plant species were recorded. The most frequently mentioned species represented a combination of plants native to the New and Old World. Nearly 40% of the present-day Paraguayan pharmacopoeia shows continuity from colonial and post-colonial periods. Plants were used for 19 medical categories, of which digestive, circulatory and those belonging to humoral medicine were the most prevalent. The ongoing search of plants to treat new health problems is illustrated by reports of 40 species used for hypertension, 26 for diabetes and 18 to lower cholesterol. There is still little evidence for the effectiveness of these plants in the pharmacological literature. Paraguayan migrants were able to continue their traditional plant medicine in Misiones, Argentina, in a substantial way. CONCLUSION: This study was carried out in a geographic area with a long-standing tradition of Guaraní medicine. Paraguayan migrants in Misiones integrate pre-Hispanic Guaraní names and uses of plants and old humoral concepts with current adaptation of plants to meet new health challenges. Several of the uses described in early colonial times are still practiced, giving a solid background for in-depth studies of the local pharmacopoeia.

14.
Infect Genet Evol ; 97: 105181, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896287

RESUMEN

Although Bartonella spp. is described in cats worldwide, little is known about the occurrence and genetic diversity of Bartonella spp. in cats from South America. To date, it has only been detected in cats from Brazil, Chile and Argentina. This study aimed to undertake a molecular survey and explore the genetic diversity of Bartonella spp. in domestic cats from Paraguay. A TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting the nuoG gene (83 bp) for Bartonella spp. was used to screen 125 blood samples from cats in Asuncion, Paraguay. nuoG qPCR-positive samples were further submitted to conventional PCR assays based on the ITS (453- 717 bp), gltA (767 bp), ftsZ (515 bp), rpoB (333 bp), ribC (585-588 bp), and pap-31 (564 bp) loci. Positive samples were sequenced for species identification, phylogenetic, and haplotype analyses. Bartonella D.N.A. was present in 20.8% (26/125) cat blood samples, with low levels of Bartonella nuoG D.N.A. cPCR products targeting gltA, ftsZ, ITS, and rpoB loci from sixteen cats were successfully sequenced. However, all nouG qPCR-positive samples were negative for the ribC and pap-31 genes. Bartonella henselae [62.5% (10/16)] and Bartonella clarridgeiae [37.5% (6/16)] were identified among the sequenced samples. Upon phylogenetic analysis, B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae from Paraguay clustered with sequences detected in domestic and wild cats, dogs, and cat fleas worldwide. Two to four haplotypes of B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae in cats from Paraguay were observed, with some being exclusive and others shared with worldwide distributed haplotypes. Here, we report B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae for the first time in cats from Paraguay. Its circulation in cats suggests the need to consider Bartonellae when testing clinical samples from suspected infectious diseases in humans from Paraguay.

15.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e232868, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153458

RESUMEN

Abstract The "piaussu", Megaleporinus macrocephalus is an anostomatid fish species native to the basin of the Paraguay River, in the Pantanal biome of western Brazil. However, this species has now been recorded in a number of other drainages, including those of the upper Paraná, Uruguay, Jacuí, Doce, Mucuri, and Paraíba do Sulrivers. This study presents two new records of the occurrence of M. macrocephalus, in the basins of the Itapecuru and Mearim rivers in the state of Maranhão, in the Brazilian Northeast. The piaussu is a large-bodied fish of commercial interest that is widely raised on fish farms, and its occurrence in the Itapecuru and Mearim rivers is likely the result of individuals escaping from fish tanks when they overflow during the rainy season. Morphological analyses and sequences of the Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI) gene confirmed the taxonomic identification of the specimens as M. macrocephalus. The COI sequences were 99.66% similar to those of M. macrocephalus deposited in the BOLDSystems database. These records extend the known distribution of M. macrocephalus to the basins of the Itapecuru and Mearim rivers in the Brazilian Northeast, highlighting a new case of introduction of exotic fish species into Brazilian river basins.


Resumo Megaleporinus macrocephalus é uma espécie de peixe anostomatídeo nativa da bacia do rio Paraguai, no bioma Pantanal do oeste do Brasil. No entanto, essa espécie já foi registrada em várias outras drenagens, incluindo as dos rios Alto Paraná, Uruguai, Jacuí, Doce, Mucuri e Paraíba do Sul. Este estudo apresenta dois novos registros da ocorrência de M. macrocephalus, nas bacias dos rios Itapecuru e Mearim, no estado do Maranhão, no nordeste brasileiro. O piaussu é um peixe de grande porte, de interesse comercial, amplamente criado em pisciculturas, e sua ocorrência nos rios Itapecuru e Mearim é provavelmente o resultado de indivíduos que escapam dos tanques quando transbordam durante a estação chuvosa. Análises morfológicas e sequências do gene da subunidade I do citocromo oxidase (COI) confirmaram a identificação taxonômica dos espécimes como M. macrocephalus. As sequências de COI foram 99,66% semelhantes às de M. macrocephalus depositadas no banco de dados BOLDSystems. Esses registros estendem a conhecida distribuição de M. macrocephalus às bacias dos rios Itapecuru e Mearim, no nordeste brasileiro, destacando um novo caso de introdução de espécies exóticas de peixes nas bacias hidrográficas brasileiras.

16.
Front Psychol ; 12: 763993, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34867664

RESUMEN

The invariance of the Preventive COVID-19 Infection Behaviors Scale (PCIBS) was evaluated in 12 Latin American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay). A total of 5183 people from the aforementioned countries participated, selected using the snowball sampling method. Measurement invariance was assessed by multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) and Multi-Group Factor Analysis Alignment (CFA-MIAL). In addition, item characteristics were assessed based on Item Response Theory. The results indicate that the original five-item version of the PCIBS is not adequate; whereas a four-item version of the PCIBS (PCIBS-4) showed a good fit in all countries. Thus, using the MG-CFA method, the PCIBS-4 achieved metric invariance, while the CFA-MIAL method indicated that the PCIBS-4 shows metric and scalar invariance. Likewise, the four items present increasing difficulties and high values in the discrimination parameters. The comparison of means of the PCIBS-4 reported irrelevant differences between countries; however, Mexico and Peru presented the highest frequency of preventive behaviors related to COVID-19. It is concluded that the PCIBS-4 is a unidimensional self-report measure which is reliable and invariant across the twelve participating Latin American countries. It is expected that the findings will be of interest to social and health scientists, as well as those professionals directly involved in public health decision making.

17.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 774386, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34867914

RESUMEN

Circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) are important components of the HIV-1 pandemic. Among 110 reported in the literature, 17 are BF1 intersubtype recombinant, most of which are of South American origin. Among these, all 5 identified in the Southern Cone and neighboring countries, except Brazil, derive from a common recombinant ancestor related to CRF12_BF, which circulates widely in Argentina, as deduced from coincident breakpoints and clustering in phylogenetic trees. In a HIV-1 molecular epidemiological study in Spain, we identified a phylogenetic cluster of 20 samples from 3 separate regions which were of F1 subsubtype, related to the Brazilian strain, in protease-reverse transcriptase (Pr-RT) and of subtype B in integrase. Remarkably, 14 individuals from this cluster (designated BF9) were Paraguayans and only 4 were native Spaniards. HIV-1 transmission was predominantly heterosexual, except for a subcluster of 6 individuals, 5 of which were men who have sex with men. Ten additional database sequences, from Argentina (n = 4), Spain (n = 3), Paraguay (n = 1), Brazil (n = 1), and Italy (n = 1), branched within the BF9 cluster. To determine whether it represents a new CRF, near full-length genome (NFLG) sequences were obtained for 6 viruses from 3 Spanish regions. Bootscan analyses showed a coincident BF1 recombinant structure, with 5 breakpoints, located in p17 gag , integrase, gp120, gp41-rev overlap, and nef, which was identical to that of two BF1 recombinant viruses from Paraguay previously sequenced in NFLGs. Interestingly, none of the breakpoints coincided with those of CRF12_BF. In a maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree, all 8 NFLG sequences grouped in a strongly supported clade segregating from previously identified CRFs and from the CRF12_BF "family" clade. These results allow us to identify a new HIV-1 CRF, designated CRF66_BF. Through a Bayesian coalescent analysis, the most recent common ancestor of CRF66_BF was estimated around 1984 in South America, either in Paraguay or Argentina. Among Pr-RT sequences obtained by us from HIV-1-infected Paraguayans living in Spain, 14 (20.9%) of 67 were of CRF66_BF, suggesting that CRF66_BF may be one of the major HIV-1 genetic forms circulating in Paraguay. CRF66_BF is the first reported non-Brazilian South American HIV-1 CRF_BF unrelated to CRF12_BF.

18.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-19, 2021 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886735

RESUMEN

The genus Schinus belongs to family 'Anacardiaceae' and includes about 29 species originating from South America, distributed to Peru, Chile, Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay and cultivated in Egypt. Traditionally, Schinus plants are used to alleviate several and diverse diseases including rheumatism, hypertension, ulcers, gastric distress, menstrual disorders, gonorrhea, bronchitis, gingivitis, conjunctivitis, dysentery, wounds, urinary tract, and eye infections. Several phytochemical studies on the Schinus plants revealed presence of diverse bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, bioflavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins, catechins, terpenoids and essential oils. Besides, some Schinus species and their isolated active compounds showed important biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, antiparasitic, analgesic, cytotoxic, antitumor, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antimycobacterial, anti-Parkinson, anti-allergic, antiviral, wound healing, chemoprotective, anthelmintic and hepatoprotective. This review attempts to summarize the phytochemical profile and biological activities of Schinus species that could guide researchers to undertake further investigation.

19.
J Med Entomol ; 2021 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893852

RESUMEN

The Triatoma sordida subcomplex traditionally included four triatomine species, T. sordida, Triatoma garciabesi, Triatoma guasayana, and Triatoma patagonica, distributed in the Southern Cone of South America. These species have a large intraspecific variability together with an overall similarity, making difficult to establish their taxonomic status. Many cytogenetic, morphometric, and molecular markers have been applied to address this. Recent studies have posed concerns on the inclusion of T. guasayana and T. patagonica within the subcomplex. Also, T. sordida from Argentina has been designed as a new species, Triatoma rosai. Using the cuticular hydrocarbon pattern as chemotaxonomic marker, the relationships among several populations of these species were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography and linear discriminant analysis along 25 collection sites in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay. T. sordida and T. rosai populations were differentially clustered in two CHC-based groups: "Group 1" included T. sordida from Eastern Brazil, Eastern Paraguay, and the Bolivian populations from La Paz and Izozog G1; "Group 2" included T. rosai, and T. sordida from Izozog G2 (Bolivia), and Western Paraguay. Whereas T. garciabesi remained closely related to T. sordida and T. rosai, T. guasayana, and T. patagonica were clearly separated from the species of the T. sordida subcomplex. Our results agree with those from other several techniques suggesting that the taxonomy of the T. sordida subcomplex should be revised.

20.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-12-28.
en Inglés, Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55468

RESUMEN

WEEKLY SUMMARY (ENGLISH): North America: Overall, influenza activity remained low but increasing. In Canada, influenza A and B virus co-circulated with influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 among samples where subtyping was performed; SARS-CoV-2 activity slightly increased. In Mexico, influenza A(H3N2) prevailed, with B co-circulating and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased at moderate levels. In the United States, influenza A(H3N2) predominated, with SARS-CoV-2 activity increasing, hospitalizations and deaths remained elevated. Respiratory syncytial virus activity remained high in Canada and Mexico. Caribbean: Influenza remained at low activity levels. Haiti and French Guiana reported a few detections in recent weeks with the predominance of influenza B/Victoria and A(H3N2) in the latter. In Suriname, SARS-CoV-2 and SARI activity decreased to low levels. Central America: Influenza activity continued low and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased to low levels overall. In Guatemala, influenza activity increased with the predominance of influenza A(H3N2), and SARS-CoV-2 activity increased. RSV activity remained elevated in Honduras. Andean: Overall, influenza activity remained low; however, Bolivia and Peru reported increased influenza activity associated with A(H3N2) detections. SARS-CoV-2 activity stands elevated in Bolivia and Ecuador, and in Bolivia, SARI activity was recorded at extraordinary levels. Brazil and Southern Cone: Influenza activity increased to pre-pandemic levels, and SARS-CoV-2 activity continues at low levels. Influenza A(H3N2) detections continue to rise in Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Most activity and increasing A(H3N2) detections are recorded in Brazil and Uruguay.


[RESUMEN SEMANAL]: América del Norte: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja pero en aumento. En Canadá, el virus de la influenza A y B circularon concurrentemente con los virus influenza A(H3N2) y A(H1N1)pdm09 en las muestras a las que se les determinó el subtipo; la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó ligeramente. En México, predominó el virus influenza A(H3N2), con la circulación concurrente de B, y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó a niveles moderados. En los Estados Unidos, predominó la influenza A(H3N2), con un aumento de la actividad del SARS-CoV-2, las hospitalizaciones y muertes se mantuvieron elevadas. La actividad del virus respiratorio sincitial se mantuvo alta en Canadá y México. Caribe: la la influenza se mantuvo en niveles bajos de actividad. Haití y Guayana Francesa reportaron algunas detecciones en las últimas semanas con predominio de influenza B/Victoria y A(H3N2) en esta última. En Surinam, la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 e IRAG disminuyó a niveles bajos. América Central: la actividad de la influenza continuó baja y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó a niveles bajos en general. En Guatemala, la actividad de la influenza aumentó con el predominio de la influenza A(H3N2) y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó, mientras que la actividad del VRS se mantuvo elevada en Honduras. Andina: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja; sin embargo, Bolivia y Perú informaron un aumento de la actividad de la influenza asociada con las detecciones de A(H3N2). La actividad de SARS-CoV-2 se mantiene elevada en Bolivia y Ecuador, y en Bolivia, la actividad de IRAG se registró en niveles extraordinarios. Brasil y Cono Sur: la actividad de la influenza aumentó a niveles prepandémicos y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continúa en niveles bajos. Las detecciones de influenza A(H3N2) continúan aumentando en Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay. La mayor parte de la actividad y las detecciones crecientes de A(H3N2) se registran en Brasil y Uruguay.


Asunto(s)
Gripe Humana , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Betacoronavirus , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Urgencias Médicas , Américas , Región del Caribe , Gripe Humana , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Urgencias Médicas , Américas , Región del Caribe
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...