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1.
Artículo en Español | BDNPAR, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1369788

RESUMEN

Las revistas científicas son uno de los principales canales de difusión de los resultados de investigación y de institucionalización social de la ciencia en la mayoría de lasáreas del conocimiento.Sin embargo, es limitada la presencia de revistas latinoamericanas en las bases de datos como Web of Science (WOS) o Scopus con mucho prestigio en el mundo científico(1). Se han desarrollado proyectos regionales importantes con miras a aumentar la visibilidad y acceso a la productividad científica iberoamericana como Scientific Electronic Library Online ­SciELO(2)y la Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal ­RedALyC(3).El primero, desarrollado por FAPESP-BIREME Brasil hacia fines de la década de 1990 e implementado en más de diez países iberoamericanos, funciona como una biblioteca electrónica en línea que ofrece acceso abierto al texto completo de los artículos de unas 822 revistas(4).RedALyC, por su parte, es un proyecto más reciente,impulsado por la Universidad Autónoma del Estado deMéxico (UAEM), que bajo el lema "La ciencia que no se ve no existe" ofrece acceso al texto completo de artículos de758 revistas de 13 países de ALyC, España y Portugal(1).Son 19 revistas paraguayas las que están indexadas en SciELO(5)y ninguna en RedALyC(6). Tampoco ninguna revista paraguaya tiene presencia en SCOPUS,probablemente porque los requisitos son más exigentes(7). Sin duda,esto dificulta la difusión de la producción científica paraguaya en el contexto regional e internacional.El reconocimiento de las revistas depende en gran medida de su calidad ysu visibilidad.La calidad se define principalmente por el cumplimiento de un conjunto de pautas editoriales,de presentación, de gestión y de contenidos que garanticen el rigor científico de los artículos publicados en ellas(8). Su visibilidad se estima, tanto por el alcance dela difusión de las revistas como por el uso que la comunidad científica brinda a los artículos publicados en ellas, a través de la citación.Cuanta más visibles una revista,recibirá mayor oferta de trabajos y la publicación de los artículos así seleccionados,eleva la calidad de su contenido(9).Las revistas científicas paraguayas presentan muchas y muy variadas debilidades principalmente por falta de inversión en las mismas.La revista científica ciencias de la salud de la Universidad del Pacífico desde este número pasa a formar parte de la colección de revistas de SciELO. La editorial de la revista está realizando todos los esfuerzos para lograr su indexación en las bases de datos de mayor prestigio, sin embargo,aún hay un largo camino por recorrer.La incipiente sociedad científica paraguaya se caracteriza por no reconocer que el producto final de una investigación científica es una publicación científica(10). A pesar de que la productividad científica de los investigadores paraguayos ha aumentado en los últimos años, Paraguay sigue siendo uno de los países con menor productividad científica.En 2017, Paraguay ocupaba el puesto 133 en la producción mundial de artículos. Su índice h era de 76, lo que significa que tuvo 76 artículos ­con al menos un autor residente en Paraguay ­que alcanzaron 76 citas cada uno(11).Los programas impulsados por el CONACYT como el PRONII implementado desde el año 2011 ha logrado estimular la producción científica nacional y su visibilidad.Uno de los criterios para categorizar como investigador en el PRONII es precisamente la publicación de artículos en revistas indexadas en Latindex, Scielo, PubMed, Web of science o Scopus. En el año 2011 se habían publicado 238 artículos en revistas arbitradas, alcanzando el mayor número en el año 2012 con 340 publicaciones, que no ha bajadode este número hasta el año 2020.En nuestro país al año 2020 se cuenta con 514 investigadores categorizados en el PRONII12. La inversión en Investigación y Desarrollo Experimental (I+D)registrada en el periodo 2020 en lo que respecta al volumen de inversión total en I+D en guaraníes aumentó un 16% con respecto al año anterior(13).Se han desarrollado algunos estudios para evaluar la productividad científica de investigadores afiliados con alguna institución paraguaya(14), y de las revistas nacionales(15).En ninguno se ha utilizado el índice h para la evaluación de la productividad científica de investigadores paraguayos. Gómez y Samudio han desarrollado un estudio para valorar el desempeño de los investigadores paraguayos categorizados o no en el PRONII del área de salud a través del índice h, en el que se muestra una necesidad de mejorar la productividad y visibilidad medido por este índice;un muy reducido número de investigadores cumple con ser exitosos, con un índice mayor a 20(16).Existe necesidad de mayor inversión en las revistas científicas nacionales de manera a elevar su calidad para así ser parte de la colección de revistas de mayor impacto y de esa manera mejorar su visibilidad internacional y constituirse en una opción para los investigadores paraguayos.Además,recurrir a vínculos colaborativos con investigadores de instituciones con mayor productividad científica y así lograr mejor posicionamiento de los investigadores paraguayos a nivel internacional.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Investigadores , Publicación Periódica , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto
2.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2069974, 2022 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543602

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate the public health and economic benefit of using a quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) instead of a trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in past seasons in Paraguay. The budget impact of switching from TIV to QIV in the Immunization Program was also evaluated. The adapted model includes two modules. The first compared retrospectively Health and Economic outcomes resulting from the use of QIV instead of TIV. The second forecast the spending and savings that would be associated with the switch from TIV to QIV. Our findings estimate that the switch from TIV to QIV during the seasons 2012 to 2017 could have prevented around 2,600 influenza cases, 67 hospitalizations and 10 deaths. An alternative scenario using standardized estimates of the burden of influenza showed that 234 influenza-related hospitalizations and 29 deaths could have been prevented. The estimated annual budget impact of a full switch from TIV to QIV was around USD1,6 million both from the payer and societal perspectives. Those results are mainly driven by vaccine prices and coverage rate. In sum, this manuscript describes how the use of QIV instead of TIV could have prevented influenza cases and subsequent complications that led to hospitalizations and deaths. This could have generated savings for the health system and society, offsetting part of the additional investment needed to switch from TIV to QIV.

4.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 55: e01712022, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522804

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission of Chagas disease (CD) has become a relevant problem in both endemic and non-endemic areas. METHODS: Description of the CUIDA Chagas Project - Communities United for Innovation, Development and Attention for Chagas disease'. RESULTS: Through innovative and strategic research, this project will provide improved diagnostic and treatment options as well as replicable implementation models that are adaptable to different contexts. CONCLUSIONS: By integrating test, treat and care actions for CD into primary health care practices, the burden of CD on people and health systems may be significantly reduced.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Bolivia/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Chagas/diagnóstico , Enfermedad de Chagas/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Chagas/prevención & control , Colombia , Femenino , Humanos , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Paraguay/epidemiología
5.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 13(4): 101967, 2022 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597189

RESUMEN

Bovine parasitic sadness, comprised of the diseases babesiosis and anaplasmosis, has a large impact on cattle farming in several countries, as it compromises animal productivity. Using systematic review (SR)-meta-analysis (MA) methodology, our objective was to summarize and to investigate study characteristics associated with prevalence of Babesia spp. and Anaplasma marginale infection in Latin American cattle herds. Five electronic databases were used. The inclusion criteria were studies that assessed the prevalence of Babesia spp. and A. marginale in cattle in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Colombia, and Mexico. The reported prevalences were converted to logistic scale and summarized using random effects MA. The heterogeneity was assessed, separately, for papers from Brazil and from the remaining countries. A total of 28 papers were included in this MA with a high heterogeneity (I2 > 95%). The prevalences of A. marginale, Babesia spp., and their co-infections, in Latin America, were 48.9% (95% CI: 30.3-67.8%), 39.8% (95% CI: 24.6-57.2%), and 26.1% (95% CI: 9.1-55.8%), respectively. The prevalence of A. marginale was higher due to the high prevalence of this agent in Mexico (67.1%). In Brazil, the prevalence was 36.6% for A. marginale, 62.6% for Babesia spp., and 8.2% for their co-infections. The North region of Brazil was reported with the highest prevalence for A. marginale (71.9%), while for Babesia spp., the prevalence was considerably divergent between regions, with the highest values also observed in the North region (97.4%), and the lowest in the South region (9.5%). For studies of Babesia spp. in cattle in Latin America, the heterogeneity was mainly explained by the diagnostic method (98.0%), and country (54.8%). When looking at Brazil alone, a similar pattern was observed, but with lower values (i.e., diagnostic method, 31.5%; region, 25.3%; and climate, 12,4%). The evaluated regions presented different levels of prevalence infections, with most of them being classified as high degree of enzootic instability, which can predispose to the occurrence of outbreaks.

6.
Plant Dis ; 2022 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522964

RESUMEN

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana [Bertoni] Bertoni) is a perennial plant originating in Paraguay. Stevia is primarily cultivated for the production of non-caloric sweeteners. In December 2018, wilted stevia cv. 'PC4' were recovered from two separate fields of 0.3 ha (24.66 S 56.46 W) and 0.5 ha (24.69 S 56.44 W), both with 3 years history of stevia production in San Estanislao County, San Pedro, Paraguay. The wilted plants were randomly distributed in beds covered with plastic mulch and a 30% disease incidence was recorded. Dark brown septate hyphae and microsclerotia were observed on stem bases and black necrotic roots of the wilted plants. Root and crown regions were washed, cut into 0.5 to 1.0 cm pieces, and then surface-disinfested with 0.6% NaOCl before placing them in Petri dishes containing acidified potato-dextrose-agar. Plates were incubated for one week at 25 ± 5°C under fluorescent light with a 12 h photoperiod yielding five isolates SP1PY, SP2PY, SP3PY, SP4PY and SP5PY with gray-black colonies without conidia but showing numerous microsclerotia. Twenty microsclerotia from pure cultures of five isolates were measured, with mean width 38.8 ± 4.7 µm and length 68.8 ± 15.5 µm. Fungal DNA was extracted from mycelia of five isolates for PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1-α) using ITS4/ITS5 and EF1-728F/EF-2 primers (Machado et al. 2019). The resultant amplicons were sequenced at Eton Bioscience (Research Triangle Park, NC) and deposited in the NCBI GenBank database (ITS: MT645815, OM956150, OM956151, OM956152, OM956153; and TEF1-α: MT659121, OM959505, OM959506, OM959507, OM959508). Sequences were aligned with several isolates of Macrophomina spp. previously reported (Huda-Shakirah et al. 2019; Machado et al. 2019; Santos et al. 2020; Poudel et al. 2021) using ClustalW. Alignments (ITS and TEF-1α) were concatenated to generate a maximum likelihood tree using MEGA7. The novel isolates grouped into the M. euphorbiicola clade with 95% of bootstrap support. Stevia plants cv. 'Katupyry' were grown in 10 cm-diameter nursery bags containing autoclaved sandy soil and kept under greenhouse conditions (28 ± 5°C; 16 h photoperiod). Fifteen plants per isolate (n=75) were inoculated by adding 20 g of rice infested with M. euphorbiicola to each plant. Infested grains were distributed around the crown of the plant at a depth of 0.5 cm; non-infested rice was added to four control plants. Lower-stem lesions and microsclerotia of M. euphorbiicola developed on all inoculated plants. No lesions or microsclerotia were observed on control plants. The M. euphoribiicola fungus was re-isolated from inoculated stevia plants but not from the non-infested rice treated plants. Koch's postulates were repeated twice with similar results. Previously, M. phaseolina was reported causing charcoal rot on stevia in Egypt (Hilal and Baiuomy 2000), and in North Carolina, USA (Koehler and Shew 2017). However, Paraguayan isolates grouped with isolates of M. euphorbiicola based on the combined sequences of the ITS and TEF-1α regions. Machado et al. (2019) reported M. euphorbiicola causing charcoal rot on castor bean (Ricinus communis) and bellyache bush (Jatropha gossypifolia) in Brazil, which borders northeast Paraguay, a major stevia production area. This pathogen has a significant impact on stevia production during hot, dry weather by reducing the number of harvestable plants and increasing replanting costs in perennial production systems.

7.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 173: 107494, 2022 Apr 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490968

RESUMEN

Lentinula (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) includes the most widely cultivated mushroom in the world, Lentinula edodes, also known as shiitake (Japanese) or xiang-gu (Chinese). At present, nine species are recognized in the genus, based on morphology, mating criteria, and geographic distribution. However, analyses of internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of ribosomal RNA genes have suggested that there are cryptic lineages. We analyzed a global-scale phylogenetic dataset from 325 Lentinula individuals from 24 countries in Asia-Australasia and the Americas plus Madagascar, with 325 sequences of ITS, 80 LSU sequences, and 111 sequences of translation elongation factor (tef1-α) genes. We recovered 15 independent lineages (Groups 1-15) that may correspond to species. Lineages in Asia-Australasia (Groups 1-5) and the Americas plus Madagascar (Groups 6-15) formed sister clades. Four lineages are represented only by sequences from single individuals and require further molecular sampling, including L. aff. raphanica (Group 7), L. ixodes (Group 8), L. boryana (Group 12), and L. aff. aciculospora (Group 14). Groups 1 and 5 are here referred to L. edodes and L. aff. edodes, respectively. However, these groups most likely represent the same species and are only recognized as (unsupported) monophyletic lineages by maximum likelihood analyses of ITS alone. Other putative species resolved here include L. lateritia (Group 2), L. novae-zelandieae (Group 3), L. aff. lateritia (Group 4), L. raphanica (Group 6), L. aff. detonsa (Group 9), L. detonsa (Group 10), L. guzmanii sp. nov. (Group 11), L. aciculospora (Group 13), and L. madagasikarensis (Group 15). Groups 9-12 represent the "L. boryana complex". Molecular clock and historical biogeographic analyses suggest that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Lentinula can be placed in the middle Oligocene, ca. 30 million years ago (Ma), and had a likely presence in neotropical America. The MRCA of Lentinula in the Americas and Madagascar lived ca. 22 Ma in the Neotropics and the MRCA of Lentinula in Asia-Australasia lived ca. 6 Ma in Oceania. Given the current knowledge about plate tectonics and paleoclimatic models of the last 30 Myr, our phylogenetic hypothesis suggests that the extant distribution of Lentinula is likely to have arisen, in large part, due to long-distance dispersal. Lentinula collections include at least four dubious taxa that need further taxonomic studies: L. reticeps from the USA (Ohio); L. guarapiensis from Paraguay; Lentinus puiggarii from Brazil (São Paulo); and "L. platinedodes" from Vietnam. Approximately ten of the fifteen Groups are reported on Fagaceae, which appears to be the ancestral substrate of Lentinula.

8.
Front Psychol ; 13: 855713, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35602688

RESUMEN

Conspiracy theories about COVID-19 began to emerge immediately after the first news about the disease and threaten to prolong the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic by limiting people's willingness of receiving a life-saving vaccine. In this context, this study aimed to explore the variation of conspiracy beliefs regarding COVID-19 and the vaccine against it in 5779 people living in 13 Latin American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela) according to sociodemographic variables such as gender, age, educational level and source of information about COVID-19. The study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic between September 15 and October 25, 2021. The Spanish-language COVID-19 Vaccine Conspiracy Beliefs Scale (ECCV-COVID) and a sociodemographic survey were used. The results indicate that, in most countries, women, people with a lower educational level and those who receive information about the vaccine and COVID-19 from family/friends are more supportive of conspiracy ideas regarding the COVID-19 vaccine. In the case of age, the results vary by country. The analysis of the responses to each of the questions of the ECCV-COVID reveals that, in general, the countries evaluated are mostly in some degree of disagreement or indecision regarding conspiratorial beliefs about COVID-19 vaccines. The findings could help open further study which could support prevention and treatment efforts during the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 294: 115344, 2022 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526731

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In Paraguay, healers from the Mbya culture treat cancer with a recipe prepared with the native toad Rhinella schneideri. However, the chemical composition and biological effects of the recipe remain unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim is to determine the composition of the traditional preparation made using the toad R. schneideri and to evaluate its effect on human breast cancer (BC) cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The metabolites contained in the preparation were concentrated using XAD-7 resin, and the concentrate was analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. The effect of the preparation was assessed in normal (MCF10F) and BC cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7). The mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and cell cycle progression were determined by flow cytometry. The oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was measured by Clark electrode, and fibronectin-dependent migration in normoxia and hypoxia-like conditions were evaluated by transwell assay. RESULTS: From the Amberlite-retained extract from the preparation, 24 compounds were identified, including alkaloids, amino acids, bufadienolides, and flavonoids, among others. The crude extract (CE) did not affect cell cycle progression and viability of BC cell lines. Moreover, it did not make cancer cells more sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of the chemotherapeutics doxorubicin and teniposide. On the other hand, the CE reduced the menadione-induced ROS production and increased NADH, Δψm, and the OCR. Respiratory complexes I and III as well as ATP synthase levels were increased in an AMPK-dependent manner. Moreover, the CE inhibited the migration of BC cells in normoxia and a hypoxia-like condition using CoCl2 as a HIF1α-stabilizing agent. This latter effect involved an AMPK-dependent reduction of HIF1α levels. CONCLUSIONS: The Paraguayan toad recipe contains metabolites from the toad ingredient, including alkaloids and bufadienolide derivatives. The CE lacks cytotoxic effects alone or in combination with chemotherapeutics. However, it increases mitochondrial bioenergetics and inhibits the cancer cell migration in an AMPK-dependent manner in BC cells. This is the first report of the in vitro anticancer effect of a traditional Rhinella sp. toad preparation based on Mbya tradition.

10.
J Psychiatr Res ; 150: 237-245, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398667

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations of lockdown stringency and duration with Google searches for four mental health concepts (i.e., "Anxiety," "Depression," "Suicide," "Mental Health") in nine countries (i.e., Hungary, India, Iran, Italy, Paraguay, Serbia, South Africa, Spain, Turkey) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We retrieved national-level data for each country from Google Trends and the Global Panel Database of Pandemic Policies. In our primary analysis, we used data from all countries to estimate a set of multilevel regression models examining associations of overall lockdown stringency and lockdown duration with relative search volumes for each mental health term. We repeated the models after replacing overall lockdown stringency with each of the lockdown stringency components. RESULTS: A negative association was found between overall lockdown stringency and "Depression." Lockdown duration and the most stringent stay-at-home requirements were negatively associated with "Anxiety." Policies that recommended or required the cancelation of public events evidenced negative associations with "Depression," whereas associations between policies that required some or all levels of schooling to close and "Depression" were positive. Policies that recommended or required workplaces to close and those that enforced quarantines on non-citizens arriving from high-risk regions or closed borders entirely were negatively associated with "Suicide." CONCLUSIONS: Lockdown duration and some lockdown policies during the COVID-19 pandemic were generally associated with significantly lower, rather than higher, Google searches for selected mental health terms. These findings could be used alongside other evidence to develop future lockdown strategies that are sensitive to mental health issues during public health crises.

11.
J Glob Health ; 12: 04031, 2022 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35486804

RESUMEN

Background: Little is known about place of death in Latin America, although this data are crucial for health system planning. This study aims to describe place of death and associated factors in Latin America and to identify factors that contribute to inter-country differences in place of death. Methods: We conducted a total population observational study using death certificates of the total annual decedent populations in 12 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay) for the most recent available year (2016, 2017, or 2018). Data were analysed regarding place of death and multivariable logistic regression with place of death as the dependent variable was used to examine associated clinical and sociodemographic factors (independent variables) in each of the countries. Results: The total study sample was 2 994 685 deaths; 31.3% of deaths occurred at home, and 57.6% in hospitals. A strong variation was found among the countries with home deaths ranging from 20% (Brazil) to 67.9% (Guatemala) and hospital deaths from 22.3% (Guatemala) to 69.5% (Argentina). These differences between countries remained largely unchanged after controlling for sociodemographic factors and causes of death. The likelihood of dying at home was consistently higher with increasing age, for those living in a rural area, and for those with a lower educational level (except in Argentina). Conclusions: Most deaths in Latin America occur in hospitals, with a strong variation between countries. As clinical and sociodemographic factors included in this study did not explain country differences, other factors such as policy and health care system seem to have a crucial impact on where people die in Latin America.


Asunto(s)
Certificado de Defunción , Proyectos de Investigación , Brasil , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología , México
12.
Zootaxa ; 5124(1): 75-80, 2022 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391136

RESUMEN

Orthobula Simon, 1897 is a group of very small litter-dwelling spiders with a tropical and subtropical distribution. The genus comprises 18 species, without any records in the Neotropical realm yet. Here we describe O. sudamericana sp. nov., distributed in Argentina and Paraguay. The new species appears to be most closely related to O. chayuensis Yang, Song and Zhu, 2003. The male also resembles O. charitonovi (Mikhailov, 1986). Orthobula sudamericana sp. nov. females differ from these species by the straight and parallel insemination ducts, and males by the centrally located, U-shaped sperm duct. Further, we summarize details on its natural history and habitat characteristics.


Asunto(s)
Arañas , Distribución Animal , Animales , Ecosistema , Femenino , Masculino , América del Sur
13.
Zootaxa ; 5109(1): 1-102, 2022 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391391

RESUMEN

The coccinelloid (Cucujiformia) family Murmidiidae is revised. Thirty-four species (including sixteen new) in four genera (incl. one new) are recognized: Botrodus championi Slipinski (Mexico), Botrodus dufaui Grouvelle (Caribbean), Botrodus estriatus Casey (Nearctic, Caribbean), Botrodus montserratensis sp. n. (Caribbean), Murmidius araguanus sp. n. (Venezuela), Murmidius australicus sp. n. (Australia), Murmidius campbelli sp. n. (Colombia, Panama), Murmidius convexus sp. n. (Brazil), Murmidius drakei Heinze (Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay), Murmidius elongatus sp. n. (Argentina, Brazil), Murmidius globosus Hinton (Chile), Murmidius hawaiianus sp. n. (Hawaiian Islands), Murmidius hebrus Hinton (Afrotropical), Murmidius irregularis Reitter (Guatemala, Mexico), Murmidius lankanus sp. n. (Sri Lanka), Murmidius melon Guerrero, Ramrez Vidal (Chile), Murmidius meridensis sp. n. (Venezuela), Murmidius merkli sp. n. (India), Murmidius okinawanus sp. n. (Japan: Okinawa Is.), Murmidius ovalis (Beck) (cosmopolitan), Murmidius panamanus sp. n. (Panama), Murmidius rectistriatus Lewis (Mexico), Murmidius segregatus Waterhouse (Mascarene Islands), Murmidius stoicus Hinton (Singapore, Thailand, India, Myanmar, ?China), Murmidius tachiranus sp. n. (Venezuela), Murmidius trujilloensis sp. n. (Venezuela), Murmidius tydeus Hinton (W Malaysia, Singapore), Murmidiella sola gen. sp. n. (Ecuador), Mychocerinus arizonensis Lawrence Stephan (USA: Arizona; Mexico: Sonora), Mychocerinus caledonicus sp. n. (New Caledonia), Mychocerinus depressus (LeConte) (eastern USA), Mychocerinus oahuanus sp. n. (Hawaiian Islands), Mychocerinus piceus sp. n. (Argentina), and Mychocerinus pilifer (Lewis) (Guatemala, Mexico). Murmidius chapini Hinton, syn. n. is placed as a junior synonym of Murmidius irregularis Reitter. Detailed morphological structures are described and illustrated for each genus, and identification keys to all treated genera and species are given.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Diatomeas , Heterópteros , Animales
14.
Zootaxa ; 5093(5): 547-558, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391468

RESUMEN

The Neurigona orbicularis species group (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) is recorded from Brazil for the first time, and three new species are described and illustrated, including figures of the male genitalia: N. lopesi sp. nov. (Tocantins and Gois, Cerrado biome), N. papaveroi sp. nov. (Mato Grosso, Cerrado biome) and N. tingua sp. nov. (Rio de Janeiro, Atlantic Forest biome). Additionally, N. orbicularis Becker, previously known only from the type-locality in Paraguay, is newly recorded from the Brazilian States of Mato Grosso do Sul (Pantanal biome) and So Paulo (Atlantic Forest biome) and its hypopygium is also illustrated. An updated identification key to males of the orbicularis-group is provided.


Asunto(s)
Dípteros , Animales , Brasil , Ecosistema , Bosques , Masculino
15.
Zookeys ; 1087: 19-104, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437365

RESUMEN

The taxonomy of South American Scythrididae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) is revised, based on external morphology, genitalia, male abdominal segment VIII, and DNA barcodes using genetic distances, BINs, and a tentative molecular phylogeny. Data include both historical and fresh specimens from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay, and Peru. Thirty-four species are recognised as valid, and the fauna classified in three genera. Type specimens and morphology of all species are described and figured in detail. DNA barcode sequences of the COI gene were successful for 22 species, the average genetic divergence between species being 5.1%. A key to Neotropical Scythrididae species is provided, based on the male genitalia and abdominal segment VIII, which show most and easily accessible interspecific differences. Our study revealed that the Scythridae fauna of South America is more or less completely unknown. As a result, 22 new species are described, increasing the number of South American Scythrididae species from 13 to 34. All new species are authored by Kari Nupponen (incertae sedis means the genus combination is uncertain and needs further research, country of the type locality is given in parentheses): Rhamphurasubdimota sp. nov. (Argentina), R.pozohondaensis sp. nov. (Argentina), R.spiniuncus sp. nov. (Argentina), R.angulisociella sp. nov. incertae sedis (Argentina), R.curvisociella sp. nov. incertae sedis (Argentina), R.tetrafasciella sp. nov. incertae sedis (Argentina), Landryiaankylosauroides sp. nov. incertae sedis (Argentina), L.chilensis sp. nov. incertae sedis (Chile), Scythrisdirectiphallella sp. nov. (Argentina), S.furciphallella sp. nov. (Argentina), S.manchaoensis sp. nov. (Argentina), S.salinasgrandensis sp. nov. (Argentina), S.angustivalvella sp. nov. (Argentina), S.caimancitoensis sp. nov. (Argentina), S.lequetepequensis sp. nov. (Peru), S.sanfriscoensis sp. nov. (Argentina), S.tigrensis sp. nov. (Argentina), S.bicoloristrigella sp. nov. incertae sedis (Argentina), S.saldaitisi sp. nov. incertae sedis (Argentina), S.wikstromi sp. nov. incertae sedis (Argentina), S.andensis sp. nov. incertae sedis (Argentina), S.mendozaensis sp. nov. incertae sedis (Argentina). The following new combinations are proposed: Scythrisdepressa Meyrick, 1931 and Scythrisdimota Meyrick, 1931 are transferred from Scythris Hübner, 1825 to Rhamphura Landry, 1991 comb. nov. Three species classified in Scythris earlier are now classified as Scythris (incertae sedis): Scythrisdividua Meyrick, 1916, S.medullata Meyrick, 1916 and S.notorrhoa Meyrick, 1921. The taxon Syntetrernisneocompsa Meyrick, 1933, recently classified in Scythrididae: Scythris, is excluded from Scythrididae and it is now classified in Cosmopterigidae incertae sedis.

16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6874, 2022 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35478213

RESUMEN

All South American countries from the Southern cone (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay) experienced severe COVID-19 epidemic waves during early 2021 driven by the expansion of variants Gamma and Lambda, however, there was an improvement in different epidemic indicators since June 2021. To investigate the impact of national vaccination programs and natural infection on viral transmission in those South American countries, we analyzed the coupling between population mobility and the viral effective reproduction number [Formula: see text]. Our analyses reveal that population mobility was highly correlated with viral [Formula: see text] from January to May 2021 in all countries analyzed; but a clear decoupling occurred since May-June 2021, when the rate of viral spread started to be lower than expected from the levels of social interactions. These findings support that populations from the South American Southern cone probably achieved the conditional herd immunity threshold to contain the spread of regional SARS-CoV-2 variants circulating at that time.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brasil , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Humanos , Vacunación
17.
Int J Food Sci ; 2022: 1512505, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400147

RESUMEN

The nutritional composition and toxicity of native plants with food potential like Capsicum chacoense are important for the safe use of populations and could be used as a source for searching for new drug candidates. Infections produced by parasites such as helminths are a public health concern for many countries. The drugs used for treating these diseases are few, and the emergence of resistance is a risk. In this work, the nutritional composition, acute toxicity, antioxidant activity, and anthelmintic activity of crushed C. chacoense fruits were evaluated. The composition was analyzed by standard procedures. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using the ABTS radical and the total phenolic compound (TPC) tests. The toxicity was evaluated on Swiss albino mice by the single-DL50-dose procedure. The anthelmintic activity was tested against Eisenia foetida. The samples presented high levels of dietary fiber (47.05-49.19 g/100 g), proteins (14.43-15.60 g/100 g), and potassium (1708-1733 mg/100 g). In the samples, the absence of acute lethal effects in doses lower than 2000 mg/kg was observed. A rich composition of TPC (517.26-543.32 mg GAE/100 g sample), total carotenoids (125.72-239.57 mg/kg), ß-carotene (3.29-5.60 mg/kg), and good TAC was observed (154-158 mM TEAC/g SMTC). The methanolic extracts at the doses tested (2.5 to 40 mg/mL) showed good anthelmintic activity. The presence of alkaloids was demonstrated in the methanolic extract, consistent with the levels of capsaicin (131.85 and 98.80 mg/100 g) and dihydrocapsaicin (80.75 and 63.68 mg/100 g), with significant statistical differences between samples (p < 0.05). These results show that through the chemical composition of this underutilized native resource and good fruit processing procedures, the C. chacoense fruits have a great nutraceutical potential of interest for the food and pharmaceutical industries.

18.
medRxiv ; 2022 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378755

RESUMEN

Brazil has experienced some of the highest numbers of COVID-19 cases and deaths globally and from May 2021 made Latin America a pandemic epicenter. Although SARS-CoV-2 established sustained transmission in Brazil early in the pandemic, important gaps remain in our understanding of virus transmission dynamics at the national scale. Here, we describe the genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 using near-full genomes sampled from 27 Brazilian states and a bordering country - Paraguay. We show that the early stage of the pandemic in Brazil was characterised by the co-circulation of multiple viral lineages, linked to multiple importations predominantly from Europe, and subsequently characterized by large local transmission clusters. As the epidemic progressed under an absence of effective restriction measures, there was a local emergence and onward international spread of Variants of Concern (VOC) and Variants Under Monitoring (VUM), including Gamma (P.1) and Zeta (P.2). In addition, we provide a preliminary genomic overview of the epidemic in Paraguay, showing evidence of importation from Brazil. These data reinforce the usefulness and need for the implementation of widespread genomic surveillance in South America as a toolkit for pandemic monitoring that provides a means to follow the real-time spread of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants with possible implications for public health and immunization strategies.

19.
J Nurs Educ ; 61(4): 193-196, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384756

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The current diverse health care environment makes it vital for nursing students to have multicultural respect and understanding. Collaborative action research can be used to engage students in the learning process. METHOD: Action research addressing adolescent pregnancy in rural Paraguay involved nursing students in the research process and care delivery. RESULTS: Two groups of nursing students participated in two or more cycles of action research. The first cycle included identifying the problem, research development, data gathering, and interpreting results. Contributing factors to adolescent pregnancy and potential solutions were discovered. Teaching reproductive education informed the second cycle of the action research. Students created reproductive education modules and taught them to more than 700 adolescents in Paraguay. CONCLUSION: Action research provided a collaborative and engaging method to teach undergraduate nursing students about both global health advocacy and the research process. The cyclic nature of action research provides an excellent way to involve subsequent student groups. [J Nurs Educ. 2022;61(4):193-196.].


Asunto(s)
Bachillerato en Enfermería , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Adolescente , Bachillerato en Enfermería/métodos , Salud Global , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Mentores
20.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 170, 2022 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410263

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies have explored the impact of meteorological factors on the epidemic of COVID-19, their relationship remains controversial and needs to be clarified. METHODS: We assessed the risk effect of various meteorological factors on COVID-19 infection using the distributed lag nonlinear model, based on related data from July 1, 2020, to June 30, 2021, in eight countries, including Portugal, Greece, Egypt, South Africa, Paraguay, Uruguay, South Korea, and Japan, which are in Europe, Africa, South America, and Asia, respectively. We also explored associations between COVID-19 prevalence and individual meteorological factors by the Spearman's rank correlation test. RESULTS: There were significant non-linear relationships between both temperature and relative humidity and COVID-19 prevalence. In the countries located in the Northern Hemisphere with similar latitudes, the risk of COVID-19 infection was the highest at temperature below 5 â„ƒ. In the countries located in the Southern Hemisphere with similar latitudes, their highest infection risk occurred at around 15 â„ƒ. Nevertheless, in most countries, high temperature showed no significant association with reduced risk of COVID-19 infection. The effect pattern of relative humidity on COVID-19 depended on the range of its variation in countries. Overall, low relative humidity was correlated with increased risk of COVID-19 infection, while the high risk of infection at extremely high relative humidity could occur in some countries. In addition, relative humidity had a longer lag effect on COVID-19 than temperature. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of meteorological factors on COVID-19 prevalence are nonlinear and hysteretic. Although low temperature and relative humidity may lower the risk of COVID-19, high temperature or relative humidity could also be associated with a high prevalence of COVID-19 in some regions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Conceptos Meteorológicos , Dinámicas no Lineales , Prevalencia , Sudáfrica , Temperatura
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