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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(6): 419, 2022 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543872

RESUMEN

This paper was aimed at providing a perspective on the assessment of land-use dominant transition. Based on the transfer matrix of land-use type, the dynamic degree of dominant morphology transition was measured, and an active degree index was proposed. The spatiotemporal differentiation characteristics were assessed and analyzed by land use change characteristics in different phases. Our assessment resulted in three types of spatiotemporal differentiation of Hainan Province in China. The whole island can be divided into three regions with two parallel lines at 45° based on spatiotemporal differentiation characteristics. The "slow-type" was distributed in four eastern counties (cities), "steady-type" was distributed in 13 central and western counties (cities), and the "active-type" was distributed in four central counties (cities). Over three phases, namely 2010-2011, 2012-2015, and 2015-2018, four levels of spatiotemporal differentiation of the 21 counties (cities) were assessed, and they were relatively stable, leaping, declining, and unstable. Areas of new construction and fixed assets investments consumed by increased construction land were the positive factors of land-use dominant transition, while output values of secondary industries and area of industrial-mining per capita were the negative factors. Based on these results, a more informative examination of LULC was proposed, and all resulting land management policies will be more targeted and effective.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Minería , China , Ciudades , Industrias , Políticas
2.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 8006437, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35463232

RESUMEN

At present, data mining technology is continuously researched in science and application. With the rapid development of remote sensing satellite industry, especially the launch of remote sensing satellites with high-resolution sensors, the amount of information obtained from remote sensing images has increased dramatically, which has largely promoted the application of remote sensing data in various industries. This technique mines useable information from less complete and accurate data while ensuring low program complexity. In order to determine the impact of data mining techniques on feature extraction of graphic images, this paper explores the relevant steps in the image recognition process, especially the image preenhancement and image extraction processes. This paper develops a preliminary set of relevant data and investigates two different extraction methods based on the availability or absence of nursing information. Aiming at the advantages and disadvantages of the two house extraction methods, this work discusses how to effectively integrate remote sensing data. It uses different data sources to describe different characteristics of buildings, analyzes and extracts effective information, and finally derives building information. The research results show that, using the SVM algorithm in data mining for image feature extraction, in the verified filtering window, the accuracy can be effectively improved by about 20%. Buildings are important objects in high-resolution remote sensing images, and their feature extraction and recognition technology is of great significance in many fields such as digital city construction, urban planning, and military reconnaissance.


Asunto(s)
Minería de Datos , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos , Algoritmos , Ciudades , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos/métodos , Tecnología
3.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0263265, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344546

RESUMEN

In the last century, the increase in traffic, human activities and industrial production have led to a diffuse presence of air pollution, which causes an increase of risk of several health conditions such as respiratory diseases. In Europe, air pollution is a serious concern that affects several areas, one of the worst ones being northern Italy, and in particular the Po Valley, an area characterized by low air quality due to a combination of high population density, industrial activity, geographical factors and weather conditions. Public health authorities and local administrations are aware of this problem, and periodically intervene with temporary traffic limitations and other regulations, often insufficient to solve the problem. In February 2020, this area was the first in Europe to be severely hit by the SARS-CoV-2 virus causing the COVID-19 disease, to which the Italian government reacted with the establishment of a drastic lockdown. This situation created the condition to study how significant is the impact of car traffic and industrial activity on the pollution in the area, as these factors were strongly reduced during the lockdown. Differently from some areas in the world, a drastic decrease in pollution measured in terms of particulate matter (PM) was not observed in the Po Valley during the lockdown, suggesting that several external factors can play a role in determining the severity of pollution. In this study, we report the case study of the city of Pavia, where data coming from 23 air quality sensors were analyzed to compare the levels measured during the lockdown with the ones coming from the same period in 2019. Our results show that, on a global scale, there was a statistically significant reduction in terms of PM levels taking into account meteorological variables that can influence pollution such as wind, temperature, humidity, rain and solar radiation. Differences can be noticed analyzing daily pollution trends too, as-compared to the study period in 2019-during the study period in 2020 pollution was higher in the morning and lower in the remaining hours.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Ciudades/estadística & datos numéricos , Material Particulado/análisis , Cuarentena , COVID-19/epidemiología , Ciudades/epidemiología , Minería de Datos , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminación por Tráfico Vehicular/estadística & datos numéricos , Tiempo (Meteorología)
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 823: 153786, 2022 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35151743

RESUMEN

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, governments declared severe restrictions throughout 2020, presenting an unprecedented scenario of reduced anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants derived mainly from traffic sources. To analyze the effect of these restrictions derived from COVID-19 pandemic on air quality levels, relative changes in NO, NO2, O3, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were calculated at urban traffic sites in the most populated Spanish cities over different periods with distinct restrictions in 2020. In addition to the changes calculated with respect to the observed air pollutant levels of previous years (2013-2019), relative changes were also calculated using predicted pollutant levels for the different periods over 2020 on a business-as-usual scenario using Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models with meteorological and seasonal predictors. MLR models were selected among different data mining techniques (MLR, Random Forest (RF), K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN)), based on their higher performance and accuracy obtained from a leave-one-year-out cross-validation scheme using 2013-2019 data. A q-q mapping post-correction was also applied in all cases in order to improve the reliability of the predictions to reproduce the observed distributions and extreme events. This approach allows us to estimate the relative changes in the studied air pollutants only due to COVID-19 restrictions. The results obtained from this approach show a decreasing pattern for NOx, with the largest reduction in the lockdown period above -50%, whereas the increase observed for O3 contrasts with the NOx patterns with a maximum increase of 23.9%. The slight reduction in PM10 (-4.1%) and PM2.5 levels (-2.3%) during lockdown indicates a lower relationship with traffic sources. The developed methodology represents a simple but robust framework for exploratory analysis and intervention detection in air quality studies.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , COVID-19 , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , COVID-19/epidemiología , Ciudades , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Minería de Datos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análisis , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , España
5.
Public Health Nutr ; 25(2): 368-380, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975667

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is a widespread livelihood in low- and middle-income countries; however, many in ASM communities face high levels of poverty and malnutrition. The food environments in ASM communities have non-agricultural rural characteristics that differ from those in urban and agricultural rural areas examined in much existing food environment literature. DESIGN: We examine these complex external and personal food environments in ASM communities via a study using qualitative and quantitative methods. Market surveys and a cross-sectional household survey, plus qualitative mining site non-participant observations and in-depth structured interviews, were conducted in three waves. SETTING: Eighteen study sites in ASM communities in northern Guinea. PARTICIPANTS: Surveys covered mothers in mining households with young children (n 613); in-depth interviews engaged caregivers of young children (n 45), food vendors (n 40) and young single miners (n 15); observations focused on mothers of young children (n 25). RESULTS: The external food environment in these ASM communities combines widespread availability of commercially processed and staple-heavy foods with lower availability and higher prices for more nutritious, non-staple foods. Within the personal food environment, miners are constrained in their food choices by considerable variability in daily cash income and limited time for acquisition and preparation. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that ASM communities have characteristics of both urban and rural populations and argue for greater nuance and appreciation of complexity in food environment research and resultant policy and programming.


Asunto(s)
Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Minería , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Granjas , Guinea , Humanos , Población Rural
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(7): 10291-10307, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519005

RESUMEN

Urban transformation is an inevitable trend for mining cities to achieve sustainable development. Analyzing the spatiotemporal evolution laws and driving mechanisms of mining cities is necessary for providing a scientific basis for their transformation. In this study, Jixi was taken as an example, which is a typical mining city in China. Based on geographic information system, various mathematical statistical analysis methods were used to quantitatively analyze the evolution pattern of mining cities. In addition, the driving mechanisms of land expansion in mining cities were examined further. The results showed that (1) the urban land in the mining city is mainly distributed in low-lying areas, and land expansion mainly occurred in flat areas. (2) Based on the distribution of mineral resources, the land use pattern of mining cities was scattered; with steady economic development, the urban spatial pattern tends to be compact. (3) The spatial pattern of mining cities is affected by natural, economic, and policy factors. The results reveal the spatiotemporal evolution law and driving mechanism of the patterns in mining cities, thereby providing a scientific basis for the sustainable development planning and land management of mining cities.


Asunto(s)
Minería , Desarrollo Sostenible , China , Ciudades , Planificación de Ciudades , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Desarrollo Económico , Urbanización
7.
Environ Res ; 206: 112514, 2022 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922981

RESUMEN

We studied the chemical composition of As and Pb in total (<2 mm) and fine fractions (<50 µm) of 52 urban soil samples from Minas de Riotinto (mining area) and Aracena (non-exposed area) in SW Spain. In addition to a soil phytotoxicity bioassay using Lactuca Sativa L., we modelled and performed carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic human health risk assessment, later comparing our data with relative cancer mortality rates reported at the municipal level. This study demonstrates that mineralized bedrock and natural soil-forming processes affect the geochemistry of natural (in-situ) urban soils, which in many cases surpass the regulatory levels for As (36 mg/kg) and Pb (275 mg/kg). Fine fractions of in-situ and mixed urban soils -susceptible of inhalation- are significantly enriched in As and Pb with respect to fine fractions of aggregate materials (ex-situ soils of chalky sands and gravel) in Minas de Riotinto. The soils in Minas de Riotinto are significantly enriched in As (total and fine fractions) and Pb (total fraction) with respect to Aracena. Despite elevated bulk concentrations of As and Pb, only one in-situ sample exhibits phytotoxic effects of the soil-water extracts on Lactuca Sativa L. seeds. Health risk assessment of these towns as exposure areas indicates that the soils of Minas de Riotinto are indeed a health risk to the residents, whereas there is no potential risk in Aracena. The reported relative mortality rates in Minas de Riotinto show a greater mortality of carcinogenic tumors potentially related to As and Pb exposure, including lung cancer. Both soil type and use must be considered when administrators or policy-makers evaluate health risks involved in urbanistic decision-making. To minimize exposure risk and adverse health outcomes, we recommend that in-situ soils surpassing regulatory levels for As and Pb in public playgrounds and passing areas should be covered with aggregate materials.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Humanos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Minería , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad
8.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 6323357, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887940

RESUMEN

The current article paper is aimed at assessing and comparing the seasonal check-in behavior of individuals in Shanghai, China, using location-based social network (LBSN) data and a variety of spatiotemporal analytic techniques. The article demonstrates the uses of location-based social network's data by analyzing the trends in check-ins throughout a three-year term for health purpose. We obtained the geolocation data from Sina Weibo, one of the biggest renowned Chinese microblogs (Weibo). The composed data is converted to geographic information system (GIS) type and assessed using temporal statistical analysis and spatial statistical analysis using kernel density estimation (KDE) assessment. We have applied various algorithms and trained machine learning models and finally satisfied with sequential model results because the accuracy we got was leading amongst others. The location cataloguing is accomplished via the use of facts about the characteristics of physical places. The findings demonstrate that visitors' spatial operations are more intense than residents' spatial operations, notably in downtown. However, locals also visited outlying regions, and tourists' temporal behaviors vary significantly while citizens' movements exhibit a more steady stable behavior. These findings may be used in destination management, metro planning, and the creation of digital cities.


Asunto(s)
Macrodatos , Minería de Datos/estadística & datos numéricos , Aprendizaje Automático/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Viaje/estadística & datos numéricos , China , Ciudades , Biología Computacional , Árboles de Decisión , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Estaciones del Año , Red Social , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24491, 2021 12 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34966184

RESUMEN

There is an ongoing need for scientific analysis to help governments and public health authorities make decisions regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. This article presents a methodology based on data mining that can offer support for coping with epidemic diseases. The methodological approach was applied in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Manaus, the cities in Brazil with the most COVID-19 deaths until the first half of 2021. We aimed to predict the evolution of COVID-19 in metropolises and identify air quality and meteorological variables correlated with confirmed cases and deaths. The statistical analyses indicated the most important explanatory environmental variables, while the cluster analyses showed the potential best input variables for the forecasting models. The forecast models were built by two different algorithms and their results have been compared. The relationship between epidemiological and environmental variables was particular to each of the three cities studied. Low solar radiation periods predicted in Manaus can guide managers to likely increase deaths due to COVID-19. In São Paulo, an increase in the mortality rate can be indicated by drought periods. The developed models can predict new cases and deaths by COVID-19 in studied cities. Furthermore, the methodological approach can be applied in other cities and for other epidemic diseases.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/mortalidad , Minería de Datos/métodos , Brasil/epidemiología , COVID-19/patología , Ciudades/epidemiología , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Morbilidad , Pandemias/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770128

RESUMEN

Continuous coal mining results in dramatic regional land use change, and significantly influences the sustainable development of coal resource-based cities. Present studies pay little attention to the characteristics and regularities of land use change in coal resource-based cities, caused by underground coal mining in high groundwater areas. Based on the Landsat remote sensing images of 1999, 2000, 2010, and 2018 of Huaibei City, a typical coal resource-based city of a high ground water area on the North China Plain, this paper applies the dynamic degree and transition matrix of land use to analyze the land use change characteristics, and identify the regularity between land use type and coal mining production in this coal resource-based city. Results show that the land use change in the research area presents an overall characteristic of a constant increase in water area, urban construction land, and rural settlement land, and a continuous decrease in cultivated land. Cultivated land is converted into a water area, urban construction land, and rural settlement land, and rural settlement land and cultivated land are converted bidirectionally. The land use change in this coal resource-based city demonstrates significant reliance on coal resources, and coal mining is significantly related to the area of cultivated land, water area, and rural settlement land, which demonstrates that continuous large-scale coal mining results in damage to cultivated land, a decrease in rural settlement land, and an increase in water area. The research result contributes to the sustainable land use of coal resource-based cities.


Asunto(s)
Minas de Carbón , Agua Subterránea , China , Ciudades , Carbón Mineral , Minería
11.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 3400943, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603646

RESUMEN

The paper presents a recommendation model for developing new smart city and smart health projects. The objective is to provide recommendations to citizens about smart city and smart health startups to improve entrepreneurship and leadership. These recommendations may lead to the country's advancement and the improvement of national income and reduce unemployment. This work focuses on designing and implementing an approach for processing and analyzing tweets inclosing data related to smart city and smart health startups and providing recommended projects as well as their required skills and competencies. This approach is based on tweets mining through a machine learning method, the Word2Vec algorithm, combined with a recommendation technique conducted via an ontology-based method. This approach allows discovering the relevant startup projects in the context of smart cities and makes links to the needed skills and competencies of users. A system was implemented to validate this approach. The attained performance metrics related to precision, recall, and F-measure are, respectively, 95%, 66%, and 79%, showing that the results are very encouraging.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Algoritmos , Ciudades , Minería de Datos , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático
12.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 6128260, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567483

RESUMEN

Norovirus monitoring and early warning can be used for diagnosis without etiological testing, and the treatment of this disease does not require the antibiotics. It often occurs in preschool children and affects their growth and development, so the coping measures for this disease are more prevention than treatment. In this study, the clinical data of 2133 children with diarrhea were collected. Based on the artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm of wavelet transform, a related model for data mining and processing of children's intestinal ultrasound images and stool specimens was constructed. Then, the norovirus infection trend was warned based on the wavelet analysis algorithm model. The results showed that the intestinal ultrasound image processed by the wavelet transform algorithm was clearer. The positive detection rate of norovirus in children with clinical diarrhea was as high as 59%, and the children had different degrees of body damage, of which the probability of compensatory metabolic acidosis was the highest. The epidemiological analysis found that children with norovirus infection were mainly concentrated in the age group under 2 years old and over 5 years old and showed a peak of infection in December. In summary, the intelligent algorithm based on wavelet transform can realize the noise reduction of intestinal ultrasound, and it should protect children with susceptible age and susceptible seasons to reduce the clinical infection rate of norovirus.


Asunto(s)
Norovirus , Análisis de Ondículas , Inteligencia Artificial , Preescolar , Minería de Datos , Humanos , Lactante , Tecnología
13.
Toxicology ; 458: 152848, 2021 06 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217791

RESUMEN

High maternal serum bile acid level is common and sometimes harmful to the gravida. This study aimed to confirm the bile acid phenotypic change caused by prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) and elucidate its placental mechanism. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered intragastrically with ethanol 4 g/kg⋅d from gestational day 9-20. Total bile acids (TBA) were detected in maternal, fetal serum and placental tissues, increasing significantly in the serum but no significant change in the placental tissues. Meta-analysis was performed and verified the efficacy of the PEE-induced model based on published data from several relevant studies. Mining of microarray data from human and rat placental sources identified the involvement of bile acid metabolism and its significant genes, which were verified by RT-qPCR and western blotting on tissues and treated BeWo cells with the administration of FXR/PXR siRNAs or FXR/PXR agonists. Our examination, consistent with microarray data and wet experiments, showed that organic anion transporter polypeptide-related protein 2B1 (Oatp2b1), multidrug resistance-associated proteins 3 (Mrp3) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) expression were increased, while nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) was decreased but pregnane X receptor (Pxr) was increased. Furthermore, the interventional experiments confirmed that FXR regulated Bcrp while PXR regulated Oatp2b1 and Mrp3. In summary, PEE could induce high bile acid level in maternal serum and its mechanism is associated with the high expression of BCRP/MRP3/OATP2B1 in the placenta through up-regulating PXR and down-regulating FXR, thereby leading to an excessive bile acid transport to maternal blood via the placenta. Our study provides a novel perspective in terms of placenta, explaining the increased maternal blood bile acids under the toxicity of PEE.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos y Sales Biliares/metabolismo , Depresores del Sistema Nervioso Central/toxicidad , Etanol/toxicidad , Redes y Vías Metabólicas/efectos de los fármacos , Placenta/metabolismo , Animales , Ácidos y Sales Biliares/sangre , Proteínas Portadoras/metabolismo , Línea Celular , Minería de Datos , Femenino , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis por Micromatrices , Embarazo , ARN Interferente Pequeño/farmacología , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Receptores Citoplasmáticos y Nucleares
14.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(5): e00100119, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008697

RESUMEN

Leptospirosis is related to problems with environmental sanitation, and the incidence tends to increase during flood periods. Considering issues related to climate change, floods can be expected to increase. Floods do not affect populations homogeneously, and communities with worse socioeconomic conditions tend to be impacted more heavily. In order to determine whether the number of floods increases the incidence of leptospirosis and its relationship to contextual variables, the study used socioeconomic, environmental, and disease occurrence data at the municipal (county) level. Municipalities suffering problems with sewage disposal showed a higher risk of leptospirosis incidence. Total flooding since the municipality's declaration of flood emergency was an important risk marker for leptospirosis incidence. Regression tree modeling proved useful for estimating leptospirosis incidence in Brazil.


A leptospirose se relaciona a problemas de saneamento ambiental, com incremento de casos em períodos de inundações. Levando-se em consideração as questões relacionadas a mudanças climáticas, as inundações tendem a um aumento. As inundações não atingem as populações de maneira homogênea, em geral os menos favorecidos em termos socioeconômicos são os mais acometidos. Para saber se o número de inundações aumentaria a incidência de leptospirose e sua relação com as variáveis contextuais, utilizou-se dados socioeconômicos, ambientais e de ocorrência da doença no nível municipal. Os municípios que tinham problemas no esgotamento sanitário apresentaram maior risco para a ocorrência da leptospirose. O total de inundações adquirida a partir da decretação pela autoridade municipal constituiu um importante marcador de risco para a ocorrência de leptospirose. A modelagem de árvore de regressão mostrou-se útil para estimar a ocorrência de leptospirose no Brasil.


La leptospirosis se relaciona con problemas de saneamiento ambiental, así como con el incremento de casos en períodos de inundaciones. Teniendo en consideración las cuestiones relacionadas con el cambio climático, las inundaciones tienden a aumentar. Las inundaciones no afectan a las poblaciones de manera homogénea, en general, los menos favorecidos en términos socioeconómicos son los más afectados. Para saber si el número de inundaciones aumentaría la incidencia de leptospirosis, y su relación con variables contextuales, se utilizaron datos socioeconómicos, ambientales y de ocurrencia de la enfermedad en el nivel municipal. Los municipios que poseían problemas en el alcantarillado sanitario presentaron un mayor riesgo para la ocurrencia de leptospirosis. El total de inundaciones sufridas a partir de su reconocimiento oficial por parte de la autoridad municipal constituyó un importante marcador de riesgo para la ocurrencia de leptospirosis. El modelo de árbol de regresión se mostró útil para estimar la ocurrencia de leptospirosis en Brasil.


Asunto(s)
Inundaciones , Leptospirosis , Brasil/epidemiología , Ciudades/epidemiología , Minería de Datos , Humanos , Leptospirosis/epidemiología
15.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 76(2): 123-146, 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616180

RESUMEN

Public health historians have repeatedly shown that the theory, policy, and practice of group prophylactics far predate their alleged birth in industrial modernity, and regularly draw on Galenic principles. While the revision overall has been successful, its main focus on European cities entails a major risk, since city dwellers were a minority even in Europe's most urbanised regions. At the same time, cities continue to be perceived and presented as typically European, which stymies transregional and comparative studies based at least in part on non- or extra-urban groups. Thus, any plan to both offer an accurate picture of public health's deeper past and fundamentally challenge a narrative of civilizational progress wedded to Euro-American modernity ("stagism") would benefit from looking beyond cities and their unique health challenges. The present article begins to do so by focusing on two ubiquitous groups, often operating outside cities and facing specific risks: miners and shipmates. Evidence for these communities' preventative interventions and the extent to which they drew on humoral theory is rich yet uneven for Europe between the thirteenth and sixteenth centuries. Methodological questions raised by this unevenness can be addressed by connecting different scales of evidence, as this article demonstrates. Furthermore, neither mining nor maritime trade was typically European, thus building a broader base for transregional studies and comparisons.


Asunto(s)
Minería/historia , Salud Pública/historia , Navíos/historia , Transportes/historia , Ciudades , Europa (Continente) , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia Medieval , Humanos
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111234, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916529

RESUMEN

The activity and fate of heavy metals (HMs) from mining and smelting activities in farmland soil is of great significance to effectively prevent the excessive enrichment of HMs in crops. This study focuses on Baiyin area, a typical mining city in northwest China. In this example, the sources, speciation, and fate of HMs in the farmland soil, and the migration and enrichment characteristics of HMs in the different parts of crops planted in different areas were studied in detail combining the chemical sequential extraction and Pb isotope approaches. Results showed that the mean anthropogenic contributions of HMs in farmland soils were approximately 85%, 88%, 76%, and 41% for the ore district (OD), Xidagou sewage irrigation area (XSIA), Dongdagou sewage irrigation area, and the Yellow River irrigation area, respectively, and the risk that HMs were excessively accumulated in crops in OD and XSIA was high. Compared with soil residual fractions, the isotope ratios 206Pb/207Pb in non-residual fractions (1.1304-1.1669) were closer to the values of local ores, suggesting that anthropogenic HMs from mining and smelting activities were mainly enriched in the non-residual fractions. The isotope ratios 206Pb/207Pb in crops (1.1398-1.1686) further confirmed that those anthropogenic HMs were more easily absorbed and concentrated by crops. HMs contents in leaves from OD and XSIA were generally higher than that in roots, suggesting that atmospheric deposition in OD and XSIA had a greater impact on the HMs concentration of crop leaves,while the excess rate of HMs in grain/fruit was the lowest in all parts of crops. The division and classification of crop planting in mining area can effectively help minimize the risk that HMs from anthropogenic source enter the human body through the food chain.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/métodos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Minería , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , China , Ciudades , Productos Agrícolas/química , Grano Comestible/química , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Granjas , Humanos , Raíces de Plantas/química , Ríos , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Suelo/química
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141938, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898804

RESUMEN

Secondary salinization of freshwater ecosystems is of increasing global concern. One of the main causes are the effluents of the potash mining industry containing high concentrations of major ions (Cl-, Na+, Mg2+, K+). In Germany, the ongoing discharge of effluents into the River Werra led to a strong impoverishment of the biodiversity and abundance of local species. Young cohorts of many freshwater fish are completely absent suggesting reproductive failure under these conditions. Therefore, the aim of the study was to experimentally investigate the effects of high concentrations and imbalances of ions that are prevalent in potash mining effluents on reproductive traits of native freshwater teleosts. Sperm motility parameters of the common roach, Rutilus rutilus, and European perch, Perca fluviatilis, were assessed as well as fertilization rate, egg size, hatching, malformations and mortality of embryonic and larval stages of roach. Concentrations of the permitted thresholds (HT) and future thresholds (LT) as well as three ion solutions containing high Mg2+ (Mg), high K+ (K) and both in combination (Mg + K) were tested. Curvilinear velocity and linearity of perch spermatozoa were elevated with potentially adverse effects on fertilization success. Sperm motility parameters and fertilization rate of roach were not affected. However, egg sizes of roach were increased in all groups due to the osmotic action of ions and in LT, premature hatch was observed. Furthermore, all groups comprised a higher number of malformations including pericardial edema and spine curvatures and group HT exhibited a higher mortality rate compared to control. The results clearly demonstrated that particularly the sum of high concentrations of ions, as prevalent in HT and LT, rather than individual ion species exerts detrimental effects on early development of roach potentially increasing overall mortality under natural conditions. These results emphasize that currently permitted and future thresholds are exceeding tolerated ion concentrations.


Asunto(s)
Cyprinidae , Percas , Animales , Mezclas Complejas , Ecosistema , Alemania , Humanos , Iones , Masculino , Minería , Motilidad Espermática
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141821, 2021 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891993

RESUMEN

Intense human disturbance has made algal bloom a prominent environmental problem in gate-controlled urban water bodies. Urban water bodies present the characteristics of natural rivers and lakes simultaneously, whose algal blooms may manifest multi-factor interactions. Hence, effective regulation strategies require a multi-factor analysis to understand local blooming mechanisms. This study designed a holistic multi-factor analysis framework by integrating five data mining techniques. First, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was conducted to screen out the possible explanatory variables. Then, correlation analyses and principal component analyses were performed to identify variable collinearity and mutual causality, respectively. After collinearity and mutual causality were treated prudently by using orthogonalization and instrumental variables, multilinear regression can be properly conducted to quantify factor contributions to algae growth. Lastly, a decision tree was used innovatively to depict the limiting threshold curves of each driving factor that restricts algae growth under different circumstances. The driving factors, their contributions, and the limiting threshold curves compose the complete blooming mechanisms, thus providing a clear direction for the targeted regulation task. A typical case study was performed in Suzhou, a Chinese city with an intricate gate-controlled river network. Results confirmed that climatic factors (i.e., water temperature and solar radiation), hydrodynamic factors (i.e., flow velocity), nutrients (i.e., phosphorus and nitrogen), and external loadings contributed 49.3%, 21.7%, 21.3%, and 7.7%, respectively, to algae growth. These results indicate that a joint regulation strategy is urgently required. Future studies can focus on coupling the revealed mechanisms with an ecological model to provide a comprehensive toolkit for the optimization of an adaptive joint regulation plan under the background of global warming.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Eutrofización , China , Ciudades , Minería de Datos , Análisis Factorial , Humanos , Lagos , Fósforo/análisis
19.
J Urban Health ; 98(2): 285-295, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230671

RESUMEN

To overcome the challenge of obtaining accurate data on community food retail, we developed an innovative tool to automatically capture food retail data from Google Earth (GE). The proposed method is relevant to non-commercial use or scholarly purposes. We aimed to test the validity of web sources data for the assessment of community food retail environment by comparison to ground-truth observations (gold standard). A secondary aim was to test whether validity differs by type of food outlet and socioeconomic status (SES). The study area included a sample of 300 census tracts stratified by SES in two of the largest cities in Brazil, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte. The GE web service was used to develop a tool for automatic acquisition of food retail data through the generation of a regular grid of points. To test its validity, this data was compared with the ground-truth data. Compared to the 856 outlets identified in 285 census tracts by the ground-truth method, the GE interface identified 731 outlets. In both cities, the GE interface scored moderate to excellent compared to the ground-truth data across all of the validity measures: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy (ranging from 66.3 to 100%). The validity did not differ by SES strata. Supermarkets, convenience stores and restaurants yielded better results than other store types. To our knowledge, this research is the first to investigate using GE as a tool to capture community food retail data. Our results suggest that the GE interface could be used to measure the community food environment. Validity was satisfactory for different SES areas and types of outlets.


Asunto(s)
Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Restaurantes , Brasil , Ciudades , Comercio , Minería de Datos , Humanos , Características de la Residencia
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(11): 13562-13569, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185795

RESUMEN

Selenium (Se) presents a dual role to human body, harmful or beneficial, depending on its concentration. The exposure to this element has been associated to coal mining. Health risk assessment allows estimating and evaluating the risks that environmental hazards pose to vulnerable groups of populations. The present study aimed to analyze the risk of exposure to Se through multiple exposure pathways in children living in Candiota city, where the largest coal reserve of Brazil is located. Data from previous environmental (air, soil, drinking water, and food) and population parameters (age, weight, and food intake) were used to assess the health risk, which was calculated with real values (extracted from the population) and fixed reference values, based on the USEPA recommendation. Most of the children had low health risk (HQ < 1); however, in the most conservative scenarios (higher Se values in the different matrices), there was a high health risk in both scenarios, using population data or the USEPA parameters. The mean HQ using reference values was twice higher than using real values. Se content in air, soil, and drinking water did not represent important average daily dose in both scenarios. While, food intake was a main source of Se exposure, contributing with 96.9% of total Se intake. The findings of this study reinforce the importance of food intake for exposure to Se and the difference between HQs using population measures and fixed parameters of the USEPA highlights the need for adaptations to local scenarios for a better dimensioning of toxicological risk management actions.


Asunto(s)
Minas de Carbón , Selenio , Brasil , Niño , Ciudades , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Humanos , Minería , Medición de Riesgo , Selenio/análisis
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