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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149915, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525760

RESUMEN

The land use planning and management of urban fringe areas have become major governmental agendas under the background of continuing periurbanization processes. Quantifying land use functions (LUFs) and their interactions as rationales for spatial planning can aid in formulating a more effective and sustainable land use management system. Considering that most of the previous research on LUFs focused on large-scale regions, research on local-scale districts such as urban fringe is still limited. Therefore, the objective of this work is to map the spatial distribution of LUFs and their level of provision around an urban fringe area, so as to identify LUFs synergies and trade-offs in relation to urban expansion and environmental protection planning. To achieve this target, we have proposed an improved LUFs classification system that was suitable for small-scale regions. Fine scale multivariate datasets were used to meet the practical requirements of spatial planning. The urban fringe areas of Binzhou city in China was taken as a case study to quantify and analyze nine kinds of sub-land use functions. The interactions among LUFs and their cold-hot spots were measured through Spearman correlation analysis and bivariate local Moran's I respectively. The results demonstrated a heterogeneous spatial pattern of multiple LUFs and the diverse interactions among them. The social production function presented an obvious regional distribution, the residents' living functions were greatly affected by the radiation of the urban central areas, and the ecological regulation functions were closely related to the land use types. According to the LUFs clustering results, we proposed two spatial planning-zoning schemes based on the land use function and human utilization intensity. The integrative approach and the proposal of functional zones developed in this paper are applicable to provide a new perspective for spatial planning and peri-urban land use management.


Asunto(s)
Planificación de Ciudades , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , China , Ciudades , Humanos
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 801, 2021 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773500

RESUMEN

The reforming and opening-up has brought about the rapid development of China's economy, greatly improved the living standards of rural residents, and also caused the destruction of the rural ecological environment. Due to the backward production technology and pollution control technology, many township enterprises discharge excessive pollutants, and excessive application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in agricultural production causes serious agricultural non-point source pollution. These pollution sources that cannot be effectively controlled cause a large number of water and land resource function decline. Not only the loss of agricultural production, but they also bring hidden danger to the survival of many rural residents. Taking Xinxiang city of Hunan province as an example, this paper selects 28 indicators and mainly uses AHP, entropy weight method, and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to evaluate and analyze the development level of rural ecological environment. This study can provide a reference for the Chinese government to formulate rural development planning and can also be used as a reference for the evaluation of rural ecological environment in developed and underdeveloped areas.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación Difusa , Agricultura , China , Humanos , Planificación Social
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769818

RESUMEN

The basic premise of regional ecological construction would be to scientifically and effectively grasp the characteristics of land use change and its impact on landscape ecological risk. The research objects of this paper are the typical areas of the Yellow River Basin in China and "process-change-drive" as the logical main line. Moreover, this paper is based on multi-period land use remote sensing data from 2000 to 2020, the regional land use change process and influencing factors are identified, the temporal and spatial evolution and response process of landscape ecological risk are discussed, and the land use zoning control strategy to reduce ecological risk is put forward. The results indicated: (1) The scale and structure of land use show the characteristics of "many-to-one" and "one-to-many"; (2) the process of land use change is affected by the alternation of multiple factors. The natural environment and socio-economic factors dominate in the early stage and the location and policy factors have a significant impact in the later stage; (3) the overall landscape ecological risk level and conversion rate show a trend of "high in the southeast, low in the northwest", shift from low to high and landscape ecological risks gradually increase; and (4) in order to improve the regional ecological safety and according to the characteristics of landscape ecological risk and spatial heterogeneity, we should adopt the management and control zoning method and set different levels of control intensity (from key intensity to strict intensity to general intensity), and develop differentiated land use control strategies.


Asunto(s)
Planificación de Ciudades , Ríos , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769914

RESUMEN

Previous studies have shown that natural environments and leisure activities can reduce depression and increase well-being. Urban parks are important for the psychological well-being of middle-aged and older adults. However, it remains unknown whether the relationship between environmental perceptions, leisure activity, and well-being is affected by the quality of park environments. This study uses a cross-level framework to examine the effects of urban park quality on middle-aged and older adults' environmental perceptions, leisure activity, and well-being. The Neighborhood Green Space Tool was used to assess the environmental quality of 19 parks, and 380 individuals aged 55 years and older were interviewed in each park using an on-site questionnaire. The results reveal that the associations between environmental perception and well-being were moderated by the quality of park accessibility, amenities, and incivilities; the effect of environmental perception on depression was moderated by the quality of incivilities in parks; and the effect of frequency of leisure activities on depression was moderated by the quality of park accessibility.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Recreativas , Parques Recreativos , Anciano , Ambiente , Planificación Ambiental , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción , Características de la Residencia , Población Urbana
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770241

RESUMEN

The enhancement of physical activity is highly correlated with the conditions of the built environment. Walking is considered to be a fundamental daily physical activity, which requires an appropriate environment. Therefore, the barriers of the built environment should be identified and addressed. Barriers can act as external stimuli for pedestrians, so pedestrians may diversely respond to them. Based on this consideration, this study examines the feasibility of information-entropy-based behavioral analysis for the detection of environmental barriers. The physical responses of pedestrians were collected using an inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor in a smartphone. After the acquired data were converted to behavioral probability distributions, the information entropy of each grid cell was calculated. The grid cells whereby the participants indicated that environmental barriers were present yielded relatively high information entropy values. The findings of this study will facilitate the design of more pedestrian-friendly environments and the development of diverse approaches that utilize citizens for monitoring the built environment.


Asunto(s)
Peatones , Entorno Construido , Entropía , Planificación Ambiental , Estudios de Factibilidad , Humanos , Caminata
6.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 133, 2021 10 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627280

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Parks are a key setting for physical activity for children. However, little is known about which park features children prefer and which features are most likely to encourage them to be active in parks. This study examined the relative importance of park features among children for influencing their choice of park for engaging in park-based physical activity. METHODS: Children (n = 252; 8-12 years, 42% male) attending three primary schools in Melbourne, Australia completed a survey at school. They were required to complete a series of Adaptive Choice-Based Conjoint analysis tasks, with responses used to identify the part-worth utilities and relative importance scores of selected park features using Hierarchical Bayes analyses within Sawtooth Software. RESULTS: For the overall sample and both boys and girls, the most important driver of choice for a park that would encourage them to be active was presence of a flying fox (overall conjoint analysis relative importance score: 15.8%; 95%CI = 14.5, 17.1), followed by a playground (13.5%; 95%CI = 11.9, 15.2). For the overall sample, trees for climbing had the third highest importance score (10.2%; 95%CI = 8.9, 11.6); however, swings had 3rd highest importance for girls (11.1, 95%CI = 9.3, 12.9) and an obstacle course/parkour area had the 3rd highest importance score for boys (10.7, 95%CI = 9.0, 12.4). For features with two levels, part-worth utility scores showed that the presence of a feature was always preferred over the absence of a feature. For features with multiple levels, long flying foxes, large adventure playgrounds, lots of trees for climbing, large round swings, large climbing equipment, and large grassy open space were the preferred levels. CONCLUSION: To ensure parks appeal as a setting that encourages children to engage in physical activity, park planners and local authorities and organisations involved in park design should prioritise the inclusion of a long flying fox, large adventure playgrounds, lots of trees for climbing, large round swings and obstacle courses/parkour areas.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Características de la Residencia , Teorema de Bayes , Niño , Planificación Ambiental , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Parques Recreativos , Recreación
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639550

RESUMEN

The built environment refers to the objective material environment built by humans in cities for living and production activities. Existing studies have proven that the built environment plays a significant role in human health, but little attention is paid to the elderly in this regard. At the same time, existing studies are mainly concentrated in Western developed countries, and there are few empirical studies in developing countries such as China. Based on POI (point of interest) data and 882 questionnaires collected from 20 neighborhoods in Guangzhou, we employ multilevel linear regression modeling, mediating effect modeling, to explore the path and mechanism of the impact of the built environment on elderly individuals' physical health, especially the mediating effects of physical and social interaction activity. The results show that the number of POIs, the distance to the nearest park and square, and the number of parks and squares are significantly positively correlated with the physical health of the elderly, while the number of bus and subway stations and the distance to the nearest station are significantly negatively correlated. Secondly, physical activity and social networks play a separate role in mediating the effect of the built environment on elderly individuals' physical health. The results enrich the research on the built environment and elderly individuals' health in the context of high-density cities in China and provide some reference basis for actively promoting spatial intervention and cultivating a healthy aging society.


Asunto(s)
Entorno Construido , Planificación Ambiental , Anciano , China , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Características de la Residencia
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682469

RESUMEN

The health and welfare of older adults have raised increasing attention due to global aging. Cycling is a physical activity and mode of transportation to enhance the mobility and quality of life among older adults. Nevertheless, the planning strategies to promote cycling among older adults are underutilized. Therefore, this paper describes the nonlinear associations of the built environment with cycling frequency among older adults. The data were collected from the Zhongshan Household Travel Survey (ZHTS) in 2012. The modeling approach was the eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) model. The findings demonstrated that nonlinear relationships exist among all the selected built environment attributes. Within specific intervals, the population density, the land-use mixture, the distance from home to the nearest bus stop, and the distance from home to CBD are positively correlated to the cycling among older adults. Additionally, an inverse "U"-shaped relationship appears in the percentage of green space land use among all land uses. Moreover, the intersection density is inversely related to the cycling frequency among older adults. These findings provide nuanced and appropriate guidance for establishing age-friendly neighborhoods.


Asunto(s)
Entorno Construido , Planificación Ambiental , China , Calidad de Vida , Características de la Residencia , Transportes , Caminata
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682484

RESUMEN

Although the built environment (BE) is important for children's health, there is little consensus about which features are most important due to differences in measurement and outcomes across disciplines. This meta-narrative review was undertaken by a multi-disciplinary team of researchers to summarise ways in which the BE is measured, and how this links to children's health. A structured search of four databases across the relevant disciplines retrieved 108 relevant references. The most commonly addressed health-related outcomes were active travel, physical activity and play, and obesity. Many studies used objective (GIS and street audits) or standardised subjective (perceived) measurements of the BE. However, there was a wide variety, and sometimes inconsistency, in their definition and use. There were clear associations between the BE and children's health. Objective physical activity and self-reported active travel, or obesity, were positively associated with higher street connectivity or walkability measures, while self-reported physical activity and play had the strongest association with reduced street connectivity, indicated by quieter, one-way streets. Despite the high heterogeneity found in BE measures and health outcomes, the meta-narrative approach enabled us to identify ten BE categories that are likely to support children's health and be protective against some non-communicable disease risk factors. Future research should implement consistent BE measures to ensure key features are explored. A systems approach will be particularly relevant for addressing place-based health inequalities, given potential unintended health consequences of making changes to the BE.


Asunto(s)
Entorno Construido , Salud del Niño , Niño , Planificación Ambiental , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Obesidad , Características de la Residencia
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1937, 2021 10 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696762

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Latent class analysis (LCA) is an alternative and innovative approach to verify the relation of the various combinations of the constructed environment and movement behavior (levels of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep) characteristics. This study aimed to identify latent classes based on the characteristics of the neighborhood environment perceived by adolescents and their association with gender, socioeconomic status (SS), body composition and movement behaviors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study includes 309 Brazilian adolescents (14 to 16 years old, 57% female). The characteristics of the neighborhood environment perceived were analyzed by the Neighborhood Walkability for Youth Scale. Accelerometers were used for a week to evaluate the movement behaviors. Questionnaires assessed the screen times, total sitting time (TST), and sociodemographic characteristics. LCA was used for modeling the "Perceived Enviroment" variable, having been conducted in the poLCA (Polychromous Variable Latent Class Analysis) package of the R statistical software. RESULTS: Three classes were recognized: class 1, "Best Perceived Environment" with 23.03% of adolescents; class 2, "Moderate Perceived Environment", 63.33%; and class 3, "Worst Perceived Environment", 13.67%. Light physical activity (LPA), TST, and SS were associated with class prevalence. The adolescents with medium and low SS were, respectively, 3.42 (95% CI 1.62-7.21) and 4.18 (95% CI 1.66-10.50) more likely to belong to class 2, and those with low SS were 5.21 (95% CI 1.35-20.13) more likely to belong to class 3. Class 1 adolescents were associated with a lower chance (OR: 0.09, 95% CI 0.02-0.55) of involvement in 'adequate LPA time' compared to class 3. Class 1 adolescents were associated with a lower chance (OR: 0.31, 95% CI 0.12-0.79) of involvement in 'adequate TST' compared to class 2. There was a difference between the LPA and TST classes; class 3 presented a longer time in LPA than class 1; class 1 had higher TST than the other classes. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight the influence of neighborhood classes on adolescents' LPA and TST.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Sedentaria , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Planificación Ambiental , Femenino , Humanos , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Masculino , Características de la Residencia , Tiempo de Pantalla
11.
Accid Anal Prev ; 163: 106446, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666264

RESUMEN

Safety evaluation of signalized intersections is often conducted by developing statistical and data-driven methods based on data aggregated at certain temporal and spatial levels (e.g., yearly, hourly, or per signal cycle; intersection or approach leg). However, such aggregations are subject to a major simplification that masks the underlying spatio-temporal safety risk patterns within the data aggregation levels. Consequently, high-resolution analysis such as safety risk within signal cycles and at traffic movement level cannot be performed. This study contributes to the literature by proposing a new functional data analysis (FDA) approach for a novel characterization of safety risk patterns of signalized intersections. Functional data smoothing methods that can mitigate overfitting and account for the nonnegative characteristics of safety risk are proposed to model the time series of safety risk within signal cycles at the traffic movement level. Functional analysis of variance method (FANOVA) that can compare the group level differences of functional curves is used to test differences of safety risk functions among different traffic movements. A typical signalized intersection with representative signal types and channelizations is selected as the study location and approximately 1-hour traffic video data recorded by an unmanned aerial vehicle are used to extract traffic conflicts. New movement-level safety risk patterns are characterized based on the safety risk functions that can reveal the temporal distribution of risk within signal cycles. Most of the tested traffic movements have significantly distinct functional risk patterns according to the FANOVA results while risk patterns for most of the traffic movements cannot be differentiated based on the data aggregated at the cycle and approach levels. The proposed functional approach has the potential to be used for facilitating proactive safety management, calibrating microsimulation models for safety evaluation, and optimizing signal timing while considering traffic safety at more disaggregated levels.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Conducción de Automóvil , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Planificación Ambiental , Humanos , Seguridad , Administración de la Seguridad
12.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 313, 2021 09 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530746

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 can remain transiently viable on surfaces. We examined if use of shared chairs in outpatient hemodialysis associates with a risk for indirect patient-to-patient transmission of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We used data from adults treated at 2,600 hemodialysis facilities in United States between February 1st and June 8th, 2020. We performed a retrospective case-control study matching each SARS-CoV-2 positive patient (case) to a non-SARS-CoV-2 patient (control) treated in the same dialysis shift. Cases and controls were matched on age, sex, race, facility, shift date, and treatment count. For each case-control pair, we traced backward 14 days to assess possible prior exposure from a 'shedding' SARS-CoV-2 positive patient who sat in the same chair immediately before the case or control. Conditional logistic regression models tested whether chair exposure after a shedding SARS-CoV-2 positive patient conferred a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection to the immediate subsequent patient. RESULTS: Among 170,234 hemodialysis patients, 4,782 (2.8 %) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (mean age 64 years, 44 % female). Most facilities (68.5 %) had 0 to 1 positive SARS-CoV-2 patient. We matched 2,379 SARS-CoV-2 positive cases to 2,379 non-SARS-CoV-2 controls; 1.30 % (95 %CI 0.90 %, 1.87 %) of cases and 1.39 % (95 %CI 0.97 %, 1.97 %) of controls were exposed to a chair previously sat in by a shedding SARS-CoV-2 patient. Transmission risk among cases was not significantly different from controls (OR = 0.94; 95 %CI 0.57 to 1.54; p = 0.80). Results remained consistent in adjusted and sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of indirect patient-to-patient transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection from dialysis chairs appears to be low.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , COVID-19/transmisión , Fómites/virología , Diseño Interior y Mobiliario , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Diálisis Renal , Esparcimiento de Virus , Anciano , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Femenino , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Teóricos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574756

RESUMEN

The precise simulation of urban space evolution and grasping of the leading factors are the most important basis for urban space planning. However, the simulation ability of current models is lacking when it comes to complicated/unpredictable urban space changes, resulting in flawed government decision-making and wasting of urban resources. In this study, a macro-micro joint decision model was proposed to improve the ability of urban space evolution simulation. The simulation objects were unified into production, living and ecological space to realize "multiple planning in one". For validation of the proposed model and method, remote sensing images, geographic information and socio-economic data of Xuzhou, China from 2000 to 2020 were collected and tested. The results showed that the simulation precision of the cellular automata (CA) model was about 87% (Kappa coefficient), which improved to 89% if using a CA and multi-agent system (MAS) joint model. The simulation precision could be better than 92% using the prosed model. The result of factor weight determination indicated that the micro factors affected the evolution of production and living space more than the macro factors, while the macro factors had more influence on the evolution of ecological space than the micro factors. Therefore, active policies should be formulated to strengthen the ideological guidance towards micro individuals (e.g., a resident, farmer, or entrepreneur), and avoid disordered development of living and production space. In addition, ecological space planning should closely link with the local environment and natural conditions, to improve urban ecological carrying capacity and realize urban sustainable development.


Asunto(s)
Planificación de Ciudades , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , China , Ciudades , Simulación por Computador , Ecosistema , Humanos , Remodelación Urbana
14.
Accid Anal Prev ; 162: 106389, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560507

RESUMEN

The proliferation of Connected Vehicles and their ability to collect a large amount of data presents an opportunity for the real-time safety optimization of traffic networks. At intersections, Adaptive Traffic Signal Control (ATSC) systems and dynamic speed advisories are among the proactive real-time safety interventions that can assist in preventing rear-end collisions. This study proposes a Signal-Vehicle Coupled Control (SVCC) system incorporating ATSC and speed advisories to optimize safety in real-time. By applying a rule-based approach in conjunction with a Soft-Actor Critic RL framework, the system assigns speed advisories to platoons of vehicles on each approach and extends the current signal time accordingly. Dynamic traffic parameters are collected in real-time and are used to estimate the current conflict rate at the intersection, which is then used both as an input to the model and to evaluate performance. The system was tested on two different intersections modeled using real-world data through the simulation platform VISSIM. Traffic conflicts were reduced by 41-55%, and vehicle delay was reduced by 21-24%. The results also show that the system functions at lower levels of market penetration, with diminishing returns beyond 50% MPR. The proposed system presents an SVCC framework that is both effective and low in computational intensity to optimize safety at signalized intersections.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Conducción de Automóvil , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Simulación por Computador , Planificación Ambiental , Humanos , Seguridad
15.
Conserv Biol ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476838

RESUMEN

From a conservation perspective, quantifying potential refugial capacity has been predominantly focused on climate refugia, which is critical for maintaining the persistence of species and ecosystems. However, protection from other stressors, such as human-induced changes in fire and hydrology, that cause habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation is also necessary to ensure that conservation efforts focused on climate are not undermined by other threats. Thus, conceptual and methodological advances for quantifying potential refugia from multiple anthropogenic stressors are important to support conservation efforts. We devised a new conceptual approach, the domains of refugia, for assessing refugial capacity that identifies areas where exposure to multiple stressors is low. In our framework, patterns of environmental variability (e.g., increased frequency of warm summers), thresholds of resilience, and extent and intensity of stressors are used to identify areas of potential refugia from a suite of ongoing anthropogenic stressors (e.g., changes in fire regime). To demonstrate its utility, we applied the framework to a Southern California landscape. Sites with high refugial capacity (super-refugia sites) had on average 30% fewer extremely warm summers, 20% fewer fire events, 10% less exposure to altered river channels and riparian areas, and 50% fewer recreational trails than the surrounding landscape. Our results suggest that super-refugia sites (∼8200 km2 ) for some natural communities are underrepresented in the existing protected area network, a finding that can inform efforts to expand protected areas. Our case study highlights how considering exposure to multiple stressors can inform planning and practice to conserve biodiversity in a changing world.

16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574808

RESUMEN

The long-distance commute to school caused by urban sprawl and the car-oriented urban construction model are key factors leading to primary/middle school students being picked up by their parents in cars. Encouraging those students to take rail transit can reduce their dependence on cars. This paper uses a stepwise regression based on rail-transit swipe data to explore the influence of the built environment on rail-transit commuting characteristics in Wuhan, and uses a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model to analyze the spatial heterogeneity of significant influencing variables. The study found that: (1) 60% of students are one-way commuters; (2) 88.6% of students travel less than 10 km; (3) the floor area ratio, bus station density and whether the station is a transfer station have an obvious positive effect on the flow of commuters; (4) whether the station is a departure station has a positive effect on the commuting distance, but the mixed degree of land use and road density have a negative effect on the commuting distance. This research can assist cities in formulating built environment optimization measures and related policies to improve school-age children's use of rail transit. This is important in the development of child-friendly cities.


Asunto(s)
Entorno Construido , Características de la Residencia , Ciudades , Planificación Ambiental , Humanos , Instituciones Académicas , Transportes , Caminata
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501641

RESUMEN

Territorial space classification (TSC) provides the basis for establishing systems of national territory spatial planning (NTSP) and supervising their implementation in China, thus has important theoretical and application significance. Most of the current TSC research is related to land use/land cover classification, ignoring the connection of the NTSP policies and systems, failing to consider the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of land use superior territorial space functions (TSFs) and the dynamic coupling between land use and its superior TSFs on the result of TSC. In this study, we integrated the factors influencing the connection of NTSP policies and systems and established a theoretical framework system of TSC from the perspective of spatial form and functional use. By integrating the q-statistic method with spatiotemporal geographical analysis, we propose a method to construct a TSC system for Qionglai City of Sichuan Province in China based on the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of land use superior TSFs and the dynamic coupling between land use and its superior TSFs. It makes up for the deficiency of directly taking land use/land cover classification as TSC and solves the problems of ignoring the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of land use superior TSFs and the dynamic coupling between land use and its superior TSFs. Using this method, we found that the TSC of Qionglai City consists of 3, 7, and 14 first-, second-, and third-level space types, respectively. The key findings from this study are that land use superior TSFs show spatiotemporal heterogeneity in Qionglai, and coupling effects in spatial distribution were noted between land use types and their superior TSFs, as was temporal heterogeneity in the coupling degree and the structure of the TSFs corresponding to the land use types, which show obvious dynamics and non-stationarity of the functional structure. These findings confirm the necessity of considering the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of land use superior TSFs and the dynamic coupling between land use and its superior TSFs in TSC. This method of establishing a TSC system can be used to address a number of NTSP and management issues, and three examples are provided here: (a) zoning of urban, agricultural, and ecological space; (b) use planning of production, living and ecological space; (c) delimitation of urban development boundary, permanent basic farmland protection redline, and ecological protection redline.


Asunto(s)
Planificación de Ciudades , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Agricultura , China , Ciudades , Ecosistema
18.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(3): 349-354, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479291

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Chile, cystic echinococcosis is endemic throughout the country and hyperendemic in some regions such as La Araucanía and Aysén and continues to be a neglected public health problem. AIM: To estímate the risk of human hydatidosis in Aysén, studying the relationship of notifications and hospital discharge rates with social and environmental factors, such as population, multidimensional poverty index, urbanization, average temperature, average rainfall and sheep population. METHODS: Poisson regressions were used to study the factors associated with notifiable diseases and hospital discharge rates and the Besag-York-Mollie model for relative risk. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Aysén has a high risk, between 2 and 19 times that expected for the region. A significant underreporting of cases was found. The model of hospital discharges had a good fit showing the positive influence of the human and bovine population and the positive effect of temperature. An effect of the multidimensional poverty index was also detected, which is mainly affected by education and working conditions. Excepting one locality, the areas of greatest risk correspond to the eastern cordon of the Aysén region.


Asunto(s)
Equinococosis , Animales , Bovinos , Equinococosis/epidemiología , Escolaridad , Humanos , Alta del Paciente , Factores de Riesgo , Ovinos , Temperatura
20.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 208, 2021 09 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526041

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cycling for transport provides many health and social benefits - including physical activity and independent access to jobs, education, social opportunities, health care and other services (accessibility). However, some population groups have less opportunity to reach everyday destinations, and public transport stops, by bicycle - owing in part to their greater aversion to riding amongst motor vehicle traffic. Health equity can therefore be improved by providing separated cycleway networks that give more people the opportunity to access places by bicycle using traffic-free routes. The aim of this study was to assess the health equity benefits of two bicycle infrastructure development scenarios - a single cycleway, and a complete network of cycleways - by examining the distributions of physical activity and accessibility benefits across gender, age and income groups. METHODS: Travel survey data collected from residents in Sydney (Australia) were used to train a predictive transport mode choice model, which was then used to forecast the impact of the two intervention scenarios on transport mode choice, physical activity and accessibility. The latter was measured using a utility-based measure derived from the mode choice model. The distributions of the forecast physical activity and accessibility benefits were then calculated across gender, age and income groups. RESULTS: The modelled physical activity and accessibility measures improve in both intervention scenarios. However, in the single cycleway scenario, the benefits are greatest for the male, high-income and older age groups. In the complete network scenario, the benefits are more equally distributed. Forecast increases in cycling time are largely offset by decreases in walking time - though the latter is typically low-intensity physical activity, which confers a lesser health benefit than moderate-intensity cycling. CONCLUSIONS: Separated cycleway infrastructure can be used to improve health equity by providing greater opportunities for transport cycling in population groups more averse to riding amongst motor vehicle traffic. Disparities in the opportunity to access services and economic/social activities by bicycle - and incorporate more physical activity into everyday travel - could be addressed with connected, traffic-free cycleway networks that cater to people of all genders, ages and incomes.


Asunto(s)
Ciclismo , Planificación Ambiental , Ejercicio Físico , Equidad en Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Australia , Planificación Ambiental/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
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