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1.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(3): 349-354, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479291

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Chile, cystic echinococcosis is endemic throughout the country and hyperendemic in some regions such as La Araucanía and Aysén and continues to be a neglected public health problem. AIM: To estímate the risk of human hydatidosis in Aysén, studying the relationship of notifications and hospital discharge rates with social and environmental factors, such as population, multidimensional poverty index, urbanization, average temperature, average rainfall and sheep population. METHODS: Poisson regressions were used to study the factors associated with notifiable diseases and hospital discharge rates and the Besag-York-Mollie model for relative risk. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Aysén has a high risk, between 2 and 19 times that expected for the region. A significant underreporting of cases was found. The model of hospital discharges had a good fit showing the positive influence of the human and bovine population and the positive effect of temperature. An effect of the multidimensional poverty index was also detected, which is mainly affected by education and working conditions. Excepting one locality, the areas of greatest risk correspond to the eastern cordon of the Aysén region.


Asunto(s)
Equinococosis , Animales , Bovinos , Equinococosis/epidemiología , Escolaridad , Humanos , Alta del Paciente , Factores de Riesgo , Ovinos , Temperatura
3.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113706, 2021 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521001

RESUMEN

Rural problems are becoming increasingly prominent in sustainable development in China. Landscape services (LSs) are an emerging concept associated with ecosystem services and play an important role in promoting sustainable development. However, a comprehensive framework of rural LS and empirical research are still lacking. Here, we proposed a rural LSs system based on its multiple functions of "ecological maintenance, agricultural production and human living", including 9 LS types. Combined with the impact of landscape pattern on LSs, we optimized the assessment method of LS, and the LS capabilities were assessed at the village scale in Hangzhou city. Furthermore, we identified the spatial differentiation of rural LSs capabilities and trade-offs/synergies along urban-rural and terrain gradients. The results showed that the LSs capabilities of the rural landscape were greatly affected by the urban radiation and terrain, and we found that the turning point of LSs capabilities was 35 km from the urban fringe and the terrain gradient T5. The LSs in most villages (77%) revealed trade-offs, and the villages with LS synergies largely occurred in the middle and eastern regions of the study area. This study could improve our current understanding of LSs in regard to sustainable rural development, and identifying the trade-offs/synergies of LSs in a spatially explicit way can provide suggestions for the differentiated management of rural landscape sustainability.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Desarrollo Sostenible , Agricultura , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos , Planificación Social
4.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 313, 2021 09 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530746

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 can remain transiently viable on surfaces. We examined if use of shared chairs in outpatient hemodialysis associates with a risk for indirect patient-to-patient transmission of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We used data from adults treated at 2,600 hemodialysis facilities in United States between February 1st and June 8th, 2020. We performed a retrospective case-control study matching each SARS-CoV-2 positive patient (case) to a non-SARS-CoV-2 patient (control) treated in the same dialysis shift. Cases and controls were matched on age, sex, race, facility, shift date, and treatment count. For each case-control pair, we traced backward 14 days to assess possible prior exposure from a 'shedding' SARS-CoV-2 positive patient who sat in the same chair immediately before the case or control. Conditional logistic regression models tested whether chair exposure after a shedding SARS-CoV-2 positive patient conferred a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection to the immediate subsequent patient. RESULTS: Among 170,234 hemodialysis patients, 4,782 (2.8 %) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (mean age 64 years, 44 % female). Most facilities (68.5 %) had 0 to 1 positive SARS-CoV-2 patient. We matched 2,379 SARS-CoV-2 positive cases to 2,379 non-SARS-CoV-2 controls; 1.30 % (95 %CI 0.90 %, 1.87 %) of cases and 1.39 % (95 %CI 0.97 %, 1.97 %) of controls were exposed to a chair previously sat in by a shedding SARS-CoV-2 patient. Transmission risk among cases was not significantly different from controls (OR = 0.94; 95 %CI 0.57 to 1.54; p = 0.80). Results remained consistent in adjusted and sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of indirect patient-to-patient transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection from dialysis chairs appears to be low.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , COVID-19/transmisión , Fómites/virología , Diseño Interior y Mobiliario , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Diálisis Renal , Esparcimiento de Virus , Anciano , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Femenino , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Teóricos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
5.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 208, 2021 09 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526041

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cycling for transport provides many health and social benefits - including physical activity and independent access to jobs, education, social opportunities, health care and other services (accessibility). However, some population groups have less opportunity to reach everyday destinations, and public transport stops, by bicycle - owing in part to their greater aversion to riding amongst motor vehicle traffic. Health equity can therefore be improved by providing separated cycleway networks that give more people the opportunity to access places by bicycle using traffic-free routes. The aim of this study was to assess the health equity benefits of two bicycle infrastructure development scenarios - a single cycleway, and a complete network of cycleways - by examining the distributions of physical activity and accessibility benefits across gender, age and income groups. METHODS: Travel survey data collected from residents in Sydney (Australia) were used to train a predictive transport mode choice model, which was then used to forecast the impact of the two intervention scenarios on transport mode choice, physical activity and accessibility. The latter was measured using a utility-based measure derived from the mode choice model. The distributions of the forecast physical activity and accessibility benefits were then calculated across gender, age and income groups. RESULTS: The modelled physical activity and accessibility measures improve in both intervention scenarios. However, in the single cycleway scenario, the benefits are greatest for the male, high-income and older age groups. In the complete network scenario, the benefits are more equally distributed. Forecast increases in cycling time are largely offset by decreases in walking time - though the latter is typically low-intensity physical activity, which confers a lesser health benefit than moderate-intensity cycling. CONCLUSIONS: Separated cycleway infrastructure can be used to improve health equity by providing greater opportunities for transport cycling in population groups more averse to riding amongst motor vehicle traffic. Disparities in the opportunity to access services and economic/social activities by bicycle - and incorporate more physical activity into everyday travel - could be addressed with connected, traffic-free cycleway networks that cater to people of all genders, ages and incomes.


Asunto(s)
Ciclismo , Planificación Ambiental , Ejercicio Físico , Equidad en Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Australia , Planificación Ambiental/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
6.
Accid Anal Prev ; 160: 106317, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333159

RESUMEN

Nowadays, Spanish two-lane rural roads frequently accommodate sport cyclists. They usually ride on the shoulder or on the right edge of the lane, sharing the infrastructure with motorised vehicles. Due to the speed difference between road users, the most frequent and dangerous interaction is in overtaking manoeuvres. One key factor from a safety and traffic operation point of view is the overtaking duration. The main aim of this paper is to analyse how factors related to the road, the cyclists, and the overtaking manoeuvre influence the duration of overtaking to cyclists on two-lane rural roads. Naturalistic field data were obtained using instrumented bicycles. Seven groups of cyclists, formed by different numbers of cyclists riding in-line and two-abreast, rode along five rural roads with different geometric and traffic characteristics. A total of 1592 flying manoeuvres, in which drivers did not reduce their speed, and 192 accelerative manoeuvres were analysed. The overtaking duration, considering each overtaking strategy, was modelled using Bayesian statistics. Results showed that flying manoeuvres were more prevalent than accelerative. They were performed with higher speeds and lower lateral clearances and, therefore, presented lower overtaking durations. For both overtaking strategies, duration increased on wider roads and with a larger size of the group. The presence of an oncoming vehicle decreased the overtaking duration. However, other factors presented opposite effects on the duration depending on the overtaking strategy. The developed predictive models allow obtaining overtaking durations varying road and cyclist grouping characteristics. Results can be used by road administration to manage and propose some specific countermeasures to integrate the cyclists in a safe and efficient way on two-lane rural roads.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil , Ciclismo , Accidentes de Tránsito , Automóviles , Teorema de Bayes , Planificación Ambiental , Humanos
8.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113506, 2021 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388545

RESUMEN

Marine spatial planning (MSP) is to manage incompatible functional use for achieving spatial homogeneity in sea. However most MSP strategies focus on single-target sea use demand ignoring multiple-conflicts of different demands. Thus, this study develops a spatial management model and quantitatively recognizes two types of spatial conflicts among eight sea use functions in the Zhejiang coasts, China. Under the simulation of three different management scenarios including independent, joint and overall-value managements respectively, we further propose a conflict optimization scheme in the scenarios of sea uses with different intensities, different types of sea use combinations, and different site selection. Most importantly, this study demonstrates the spatial management model is a powerful and efficient tool for spatial multiple-conflicts trade-off and matching sea use demands under the practical approach of marine functional zoning (MFC) in China.


Asunto(s)
Planificación de Ciudades , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , China , Ecosistema
9.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113540, 2021 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399373

RESUMEN

As a special ecosystem in cities, urban wetland parks have important environmental regulation and social service functions. This paper proposes a new methodology of urban wetland planning and management based on the vulnerability of the ecological environment. The Jixi National Wetland Park (JNWP) was taken as the research area to analyze the ecological, geological and environmental factors that affect urban wetlands. A remote sensing image, digital elevation model, and environmental quality interpolation processing were used to generate the factor layer, and a comprehensive evaluation index system was established. The fuzzy Delphi analytic hierarchy process (FDAHP) method was used to calculate the comprehensive weight of each evaluation factor. A model to evaluate the ecological environment vulnerability of the JNWP was established. Then, an improved k-means clustering algorithm was used to classify the ecological environment of the study area. The ecological environment vulnerability of the wetland was evaluated. The results showed that the vulnerability of the ecological environment in the study area could be divided into five levels, including very low, low, medium, high and very high vulnerability areas. According to the vulnerability level and the results of k-means++ cluster analysis, the JNWP is divided into five areas. The wetland buffer zone is the main factor that determines the distribution of ecological environment vulnerability in urban wetlands. However, cultivated land development and ecological environmental restoration are the main factors that determine the evolution of ecological environment vulnerability in urban wetlands. The FDAHP and geographic information systems (GIS), combined with cluster analysis, are effective methods to evaluate the vulnerability of the ecological environment of urban wetlands, which provides a scientific and accurate methodology for the management and sustainable development of urban wetlands.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Humedales , China , Ciudades , Planificación de Ciudades , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Sistemas de Información Geográfica
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444444

RESUMEN

The role played by urban greenways in supporting physical activity (PA) for public health benefits has been receiving increasing attention. Most studies on this topic have been conducted in plains, whereas studies in mountainous regions have been limited as a result of the complexity of these areas. To address this knowledge gap, this article aims to analyze the effects of the environmental features for a mountainous urban greenway (MUG) on PA, leading to better support for greenway practice in mountainous areas. A volunteered geographic information (VGI) method was applied through the mobile app KEEP to collect 1314 valid records of PA including its density (total PA distance per unit area within the buffer zone) and attributes (distance, duration and speed) in the Yuzhong Peninsula, Chongqing, China. Similar to those of the studies conducted in the plains, our results showed that PA density was affected by the MUG and its surrounding environment. The key environmental features included residential density, open-space POI, the slope, the transportation-MUG (T-MUG) ratio and the recreational-MUG (R-MUG) ratio. For the PA attributes, the MUG showed stronger effects than the surrounding environment. The key environmental features included the slope and type of MUG, of which the former was negatively associated with distance and speed. The T-MUG ratio was positively related to duration and speed, while the R-MUG ratio was positively related to duration and distance. No association was found between livelihood (L-MUG) and PA. Hence, to support both the PA density and attributes, the environmental qualities for recreation and the types of R-MUGs should be given more consideration in practice.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Transportes , China , Estudios Transversales , Planificación Ambiental , Características de la Residencia
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360264

RESUMEN

Few studies have examined associations between neighborhood built environments (BE) and longitudinally measured cognition. We examined whether four BE characteristics were associated with six-year change in global cognition and processing speed. We obtained data on 1816 participants without dementia from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. BE measures included social destination density, walking destination density, proportion of land dedicated to retail, and network ratio (street connectivity). Global cognition was measured with the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) and processing speed with the Digit Symbol Coding test (DSC). Multivariable random intercept logistic models tested associations between neighborhood BE at 2010-2012 and maintained/improved cognition (versus decline) from 2010-2018, and mediation by minutes of physical activity (PA)/week. The sample was an average of 67 years old (standard deviation = 8.2) (first cognitive measurement) and racially/ethnically diverse (29% African American, 11% Chinese, 17% Hispanic, 44% White). Compared to individuals with no walking destinations in the 1-mile surrounding their residence, those with 716 walking destinations (maximum observed) were 1.24 times more likely to have maintain/improved DSC score (Odds ratio: 1.24; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.45). No other associations were observed between BE and cognition, and PA minutes/week did not mediate the association between walking destination density and DSC change. This study provides limited evidence for an association between greater neighborhood walking destinations and maintained/improved processing speed in older age and no evidence for associations between the other BE characteristics and cognition. Future studies with finer grained BE and cognitive measures and longer-term follow up may be required.


Asunto(s)
Aterosclerosis , Entorno Construido , Anciano , Cognición , Estudios Transversales , Planificación Ambiental , Humanos , Características de la Residencia , Caminata
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360492

RESUMEN

Outdoor physical activity duration is a key component of outdoor physical activity behavior of older adults, and therefore, an important determinant of their total physical activity levels. In order to develop a successful outdoor physical activity program, it is important to identify any heterogeneity in preferences for outdoor physical activity duration patterns among older adults. In addition, more insight is needed in the influence of environmental characteristics on duration choice for creating supportive neighborhood environments matching individuals' preferences. To this end, a mixed multinomial logit model is estimated based on one-week data collected among 336 respondents aged 60 or over in 2017 in Dalian, China. The present model formulation accounts for heterogeneity in individuals' preferences and allows for the analysis of substitution and complementary relationships between the different patterns of outdoor physical activity duration. Results indicate that older adults vary significantly in their preferences for each outdoor physical activity duration pattern. Moreover, short walking duration, short exercise duration and medium exercise duration are substitutes for medium walking duration while short walking duration and short exercise duration are complements for medium exercise duration in terms of individuals' outdoor physical activity duration preferences. In addition, we find that distance to the nearest park, footpath conditions and neighborhood aesthetics are associated with older adults' outdoor physical activity duration choice.


Asunto(s)
Planificación Ambiental , Caminata , Anciano , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Características de la Residencia
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360182

RESUMEN

Urban community parks are closely related to the health of residents, and have a positive effect on residents' perception of nature, alleviating anxiety, and promoting physical health. Many previous studies have examined the impact of community parks on the health of the population, but few studies have investigated the potential of specific landscape elements in community parks to restore physical health. We conducted psychological questionnaires with 440 users of community parks in Shanghai through on-site surveys. Based on the psychological questionnaire, a structural equation model of the relationship between the community park landscape environment and users' feelings was established. The model indicated that the natural environment, activity environment, and rest environment in the community park had positive effects on the physical, mental, and social health of users. At the same time, we recruited 50 participants to conduct laboratory experiments examining physiological changes while participants viewed different types of scene photographs showing the same landscape element. By measuring physiological indicators, including skin conductivity and heart rate, we sought to identify the types of landscape elements that help relieve the stress of users. The results revealed that flower clusters and waterscapes in the natural environment landscape, plastic fitness trails and fitness equipment places in the sports area, landscape elements such as benches with backrests, Chinese style pavilions, and green corridors with plants in the rest space, played positive roles in alleviating feelings of pressure and promoting relaxation among community park users. Based on these findings, we propose specific design strategies to improve the landscape health of community parks.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Parques Recreativos , Trastornos de Ansiedad , China , Emociones , Planificación Ambiental , Humanos , Recreación
14.
Accid Anal Prev ; 160: 106313, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365043

RESUMEN

The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials' Highway Safety Manual (HSM) includes a collection of safety performance functions (SPFs) or statistical models to estimate the expected crash frequency of roadway segments, intersections, and interchanges. These models are applied in several steps of the safety management process, including to screen the road network for opportunities to improve safety and to evaluate the performance of safety countermeasure deployments. The SPFs in the HSM are generally estimated using negative binomial regression modeling. In some instances, they are estimated using annual crash frequency and site-specific (e.g., traffic volume) data, while in other instances they are estimated using aggregate crash frequency and site-specific data. This paper explores the differences that result from estimating SPFs using aggregate versus disaggregate data using the same methods as those used to estimate the SPFs in the HSM. A synthetic dataset was first used to conduct these comparisons - these data were generated in a manner that is consistent with the properties of the negative binomial distribution. Then, an observational dataset from Pennsylvania was used to compare the SPFs from both aggregate and disaggregate data. The results show that SPFs estimated using the panel (disaggregate) data and aggregated data provide similar model coefficients, although some differences may sometimes arise. However, the overdispersion parameter obtained using each dataset can differ significantly. These differences result in systematic biases in calculations of expected crash frequency when Empirical Bayes adjustments are applied, which - as the paper demonstrates - could lead to different outcomes in a network screening exercise. Overall, these results reveal that aggregating crash data might result in biased SPF outputs and lead to inconsistent Empirical Bayes adjustments.


Asunto(s)
Agregación de Datos , Planificación Ambiental , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Modelos Estadísticos , Seguridad , Administración de la Seguridad
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444148

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Weather can be a barrier to walking. Understanding how perceptions of weather as a barrier and measured temperature are associated with walking can inform monitoring and promotion strategies. The objective of this study is to examine the association between perceptions of weather as a barrier to walking and measured weather with the volume of leisure and transportation walking. METHODS: The 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) assessed participation in and volume of walking (transportation, leisure) in the past week and frequency of reporting weather as a barrier to walking. Data were collected over the entire year. In 2019, we merged month-specific temperature data from the PRISM climate group with individual NHIS records. We examined associations using logistic (participation) and linear regression models (volume). RESULTS: Participation in walking increased as frequency of reporting weather as a barrier to walking decreased, from 'almost always' (transportation: 23%, leisure: 42%) to 'a little of the time' (transportation: 40%, leisure: 67%). Among adults reporting walking, walking volume increased as frequency of reporting weather as a barrier decreased from 'almost always' (transportation: 51 min/week, leisure: 64 min/week) to 'never' (transportation: 69 min/week, leisure: 98 min/week). Month-specific temperature was significantly associated with leisure walking with lower participation at the lowest and highest temperature quintiles, although the strength of the association differed by frequency of reporting weather as a barrier. CONCLUSIONS: In general, prevalence and volume of leisure and transportation walking decreased as the perception of weather as a barrier increased. Low and high temperature conditions were also associated with leisure walking participation, particularly among adults with increased perceptions of weather as a barrier. Our findings highlight the importance of including strategies to help adults overcome perceived and actual weather-related barriers in walking promotion efforts.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Recreativas , Caminata , Estudios Transversales , Planificación Ambiental , Percepción , Características de la Residencia , Transportes , Estados Unidos , Tiempo (Meteorología)
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444194

RESUMEN

This paper applied landscape indexes to evaluate the size, form, and structure of green spaces in the mountainous city of Chongqing and found that green spaces benefit from certain advantages in size, but the network suffered from low heterogeneity and limited interconnectivity. To ensure the integrity and continuity of ecological processes and improve the efficiency of ecosystem services (ES), the authors used Geographic Information System (GIS) software to conduct adaptability evaluation and adjacent buffer analysis for the existing green spaces, wetlands, rivers, and other landscapes with relatively high capacity for ES. We designed a comprehensive map of potential areas for UGS expansion by superimposing the maps obtained from adaptability evaluation and buffer analysis. We also proposed some strategies that respect, consider, and evaluate aspects and special features of urban environment to optimize green space planning and improve ES efficiency, such as protection of important areas, development of green corridors, and careful consideration of ecological processes and complex functions in urban areas. Based on these strategies, the paper put forth suggestions for green space planning to improve ES efficiency that can function as foundation for subsequent green space planning.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Parques Recreativos , China , Ciudades , Planificación de Ciudades , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humedales
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 686144, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422746

RESUMEN

Aim: Promoting walking activity is an effective way to improve the health of older adults. Walking frequency is a critical component of walking behavior and an essential determinant of daily walking levels. To decipher the association between the built environment and walking frequency among older adults, this study's aims are as follows: (1) to empirically test whether non-linear relationships between the two exist, and (2) to identify the thresholds of the built environment characteristics that promote walking. Methods: The walking frequency of old adults was derived from the Zhongshan Household Travel Survey (ZHTS) in 2012. The sample size of old adults aged 60 or over was 4784 from 274 urban and rural neighborhoods. A semi-parametric generalized additive model (GAMM) is used to analyze the non-linear or non-monotonic relationships between the built environment and the walking frequency among older adults. Results: We found that non-linear relationships exist among five out of the six built environment characteristics. Within certain thresholds, the population density, sidewalk density, bus stop density, land use mixture, and the percentage of green space are positively related to older adults' walking trips. Furthermore, the land use mixture and the percentage of green space show an inverse "V"-shaped relationship. Conclusions: Built environment features can either support or hinder the walking frequency among older adults. The findings in the current study contribute to effective land use and transport policies for promoting active travel among older adults.


Asunto(s)
Entorno Construido , Caminata , China , Planificación Ambiental , Características de la Residencia
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 797: 149067, 2021 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346370

RESUMEN

The present wind tunnel particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements document flows around flat and steep street canyons subject to thermal conditions at different levels, ranging from the Richardson number of 0.31 to 2.07. A steepness ratio, that is, the ratio of windward and leeward building heights, is proposed to characterise the geometrical influence of street canyons surrounded by buildings of non-uniform height. To study the thermal effects of building façades and ground on surrounding flow, surfaces of building models and the ground between them are heated up and maintained at three different temperatures to induce buoyant flows of different strength. The transition of the canyon flow from the typical rooftop shear-layer driven vortex to the buoyant plume type of flow is clearly revealed from the measurement results, which enhances the air removal that takes place at the roof-level of the two canyons. However, due to the different steepness of the canyons, the air removal rate from the steep canyon of a steepness ratio 2.52 is approximately 50% of that from the flat canyon with a steepness ratio of 1.53 in the buoyant plume-driven case because the downward flush flow along the windward façade suppresses the ascending plumes in the steep canyon. At the pedestrian level, the wind field is jointly dominated by the interplay between canyon-wide vortical flow and the buoyant plume rising ascending from the ground. The dynamics of non-isothermal flow in flat and steep canyons are revealed in detail, the implication of which is that the steepness of street canyons has to be considered in urban morphology planning, as well as in simplified geometrical representations of street canyons and in simplified urban canopy models.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Ciudades , Planificación de Ciudades , Calor , Modelos Teóricos , Reología , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
19.
Int J Health Geogr ; 20(1): 35, 2021 08 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399765

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Urban parks are critical environmental resources in which adolescents engage in physical activity (PA). Evidence on the associations between park environmental characteristics and park-based PA in adolescents is mixed, particularly for high-density cities. Evidence is also lacking concerning the moderating role of neighbourhood socioeconomic status on the park-PA relationships. The current study aimed to examine the associations between park environmental characteristics and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in parks among adolescents in Hong Kong and the moderating effect of neighbourhood income on these associations. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving direct observations of adolescents was conducted in 32 randomly selected urban parks in Hong Kong. Park environmental characteristics were measured using the Community Park Audit Tool. Park-based MVPA among adolescents was measured using the System for Observation Play and Recreation in Communities. Neighbourhood income was extracted from the 2011 Hong Kong Population Census data on median household income. RESULTS: There was a significant positive association between the quality of amenities and park-based MVPA (metabolic equivalents per observation) in adolescents. However, the associations between the diversity of active facilities, greenness and adolescents' park-based MVPA were not significant. Neighbourhood income moderated the association between adolescents' park-based MVPA and park safety, where the relationship between park safety and park-based MVPA was significantly positive in low-income neighbourhoods but not significant in high-income neighbourhoods. An income-by-environment interaction was also observed concerning park aesthetics, with a negative relationship between park aesthetics and park-based MVPA in high-income neighbourhoods but not in low-income neighbourhoods. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide evidence regarding how park environment and neighbourhood income impact adolescents' park-based MVPA in Hong Kong. These findings can inform urban planning and policymakers who seek to improve urban park development in high-density cities.


Asunto(s)
Parques Recreativos , Características de la Residencia , Adolescente , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Planificación Ambiental , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos
20.
Int J Health Geogr ; 20(1): 36, 2021 08 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407828

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is consensus that planning professionals need clearer guidance on the features that are likely to produce optimal community-wide health benefits. However, much of this evidence resides in academic literature and not in tools accessible to the diverse group of professionals shaping our cities. Incorporating health-related metrics into the planning support systems (PSS) provides an opportunity to apply empirical evidence on built environment relationships with health-related outcomes to inform real-world land use and transportation planning decisions. This paper explores the role of planning support systems (PSS) to facilitate the translation and application of health evidence into urban planning and design practices to create healthy, liveable communities. METHODS: A review of PSS software and a literature review of studies featuring a PSS modelling built environmental features and health impact assessment for designing and creating healthy urban areas was undertaken. Customising existing software, a health impact PSS (the Urban Health Check) was then piloted with a real-world planning application to evaluate the usefulness and benefits of a health impact PSS for demonstrating and communicating potential health impacts of design scenarios in planning practice. RESULTS: Eleven PSS software applications were identified, of which three were identified as having the capability to undertake health impact analyses. Three studies met the inclusion criteria of presenting a planning support system customised to support health impact assessment with health impacts modelled or estimated due to changes to the built environment. Evaluation results indicated the Urban Health Check PSS helped in four key areas: visualisation of how the neighbourhood would change in response to a proposed plan; understanding how a plan could benefit the community; Communicate and improve understanding health of planning and design decisions that positively impact health outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The use of health-impact PSS have the potential to be transformative for the translation and application of health evidence into planning policy and practice, providing those responsible for the policy and practice of designing and creating our communities with access to quantifiable, evidence-based information about how their decisions might impact community health.


Asunto(s)
Planificación de Ciudades , Salud Pública , Ciudades , Planificación Ambiental , Humanos , Transportes , Salud Urbana
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