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2.
Nature ; 597(7876): 360-365, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526707

RESUMEN

Fish and other aquatic foods (blue foods) present an opportunity for more sustainable diets1,2. Yet comprehensive comparison has been limited due to sparse inclusion of blue foods in environmental impact studies3,4 relative to the vast diversity of production5. Here we provide standardized estimates of greenhouse gas, nitrogen, phosphorus, freshwater and land stressors for species groups covering nearly three quarters of global production. We find that across all blue foods, farmed bivalves and seaweeds generate the lowest stressors. Capture fisheries predominantly generate greenhouse gas emissions, with small pelagic fishes generating lower emissions than all fed aquaculture, but flatfish and crustaceans generating the highest. Among farmed finfish and crustaceans, silver and bighead carps have the lowest greenhouse gas, nitrogen and phosphorus emissions, but highest water use, while farmed salmon and trout use the least land and water. Finally, we model intervention scenarios and find improving feed conversion ratios reduces stressors across all fed groups, increasing fish yield reduces land and water use by up to half, and optimizing gears reduces capture fishery emissions by more than half for some groups. Collectively, our analysis identifies high-performing blue foods, highlights opportunities to improve environmental performance, advances data-poor environmental assessments, and informs sustainable diets.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Alimentos Marinos , Desarrollo Sostenible , Animales , Acuicultura/tendencias , Cambio Climático , Dieta , Ecología , Política Ambiental , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/métodos , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Humanos , Moluscos , Nitrógeno , Fósforo , Alimentos Marinos/provisión & distribución , Algas Marinas , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias
3.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 104, 2021 09 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535123

RESUMEN

Toxic chemicals - "toxicants" - have been studied and regulated as single entities, and, carcinogens aside, almost all toxicants, single or mixed and however altered, have been thought harmless in very low doses or very weak concentrations. Yet much work in recent decades has shown that toxicants can injure wildlife, laboratory animals, and humans following exposures previously expected to be harmless. Additional work has shown that toxicants can act not only individually and cumulatively but also collectively and even synergistically and that they affect disadvantaged communities inordinately - and therefore, as argued by reformers, unjustly. As late as December 2016, the last full month before the inauguration of a president promising to rescind major environmental regulations, the United States federal environmental-health establishment, as led by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), had not developed coherent strategies to mitigate such risks, to alert the public to their plausibility, or to advise leadership in government and industry about their implications. To understand why, we examined archival materials, reviewed online databases, read internal industry communications, and interviewed experts. We confirmed that external constraints, statutory and judicial, had been in place prior to EPA's earliest interest in mixture toxicity, but we found no overt effort, certainly no successful effort, to loosen those constraints. We also found internal constraints: concerns that fully committing to the study of complex mixtures involving numerous toxicants would lead to methodological drift within the toxicological community and that trying to act on insights from such study could lead only to regulatory futility. Interaction of these constraints, external and internal, shielded the EPA by circumscribing its responsibilities and by impeding movement toward paradigmatic adjustment, but it also perpetuated scientifically dubious policies, such as those limiting the evaluation of commercial chemical formulations, including pesticide formulations, to only those ingredients said by their manufacturers to be active. In this context, regulators' disregard of synergism contrasted irreconcilably with biocide manufacturers' understanding that synergism enhanced lethality and patentability. In the end, an effective national response to mixture toxicity, cumulative risk, and environmental injustice did not emerge. In parallel, though, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, which was less constrained, pursued with scientific investigation what the EPA had not pursued with regulatory action.


Asunto(s)
Política Ambiental/historia , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Sustancias Peligrosas/toxicidad , National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (U.S.)/historia , Medición de Riesgo/historia , United States Environmental Protection Agency/historia , Salud Ambiental/historia , Regulación Gubernamental , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Justicia Social , Estados Unidos
4.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 32(2): 59-67, 2021 06 18.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553856

RESUMEN

Epigenetics is the study of changes in the activity of genes induced by the environment and not involving modification of the DNA sequence. From the point of view of the human sciences, it invites, by its specific characteristics, to reflect on a variety of questions relating to public policies in a logic of “sustainable health” but also of “sustainable respect” of fundamental rights. But while public policies have a direct impact on fundamental freedoms, other factors also play a decisive role in this regard, accentuating the specificity of genetic data.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Política Pública , Libertad , Humanos
5.
Waste Manag ; 135: 287-297, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562811

RESUMEN

The international trade weight of scrap copper has exceeded 6 million tons annually over the past two decades. China introduced the "National Sword" policy in 2017, which brought uncertainty to the international recycling of scrap copper. We use the international scrap copper trade figures from 1998 to 2019 in UN Comtrade, and seek to analyze the impact of China's import ban by setting up a difference-in-differences (DID) model based on the gravity model. The results show that 1) The ban has promoted the development of regional trade and improved the quality of scrap copper in international trade. The unit value of imported scrap copper in China has risen by 58%. 2) China's import ban has reduced the import weight of scrap copper by 68.6% and its value by 44.4% without the influence of other socioeconomic factors. 3) China's import of copper scrap is concentrated in coastal provinces. Guangdong Province has been most heavily affected. The imports of low-quality copper scrap in Guangdong have decreased by 94%. 4) The import ban reduced the environmental impact in China by 36.6%, but the global environmental impact has increased because of the gap in recycling technology, especially in developing countries. These discoveries will be beneficial to predict the future of international scrap copper recovery, and help rule makers formulate trade and environmental policies.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Cobre , China , Política Ambiental , Internacionalidad
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 624, 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477980

RESUMEN

Monitoring and Assessment (M&A) of environmental resources aims to support the formulation of policies and follow up on outcomes of their implementation. In this study, the state of M&A is explored for Ethiopia with a focus on forests and water resources. The study is intended to serve as recommendations for future M&A applications in Ethiopia, as well as fulfillment of SDGs and other national and international commitments. Expert meetings, key informant interviews, and selected document analysis served as sources of information. The findings were summarized using qualitative grading and institutional mapping. Basic results of the study are that monitoring data on climate and streamflow are standardized in forms that can be communicated to policymakers. Scantier and less standardized are environmental data on soils, sediment transport, forests, biodiversity, and air quality. Water quality, soil moisture, groundwater level, forest biomass, and soil carbon are rarely monitored and can only be found in reports or studies for the fulfillment of academic degree requirements. Resources like nutrient fluxes have rarely been documented, not at all in some cases. There is considerable scope for tapping both technological advances and experiences of citizen science and local participation in environmental governance to rapidly expand and improve monitoring from local to regional and national scales. The study showed that there is a need for establishing a coordinated national system for monitoring and assessing the status of the environment, including the use of natural resources. Communicating such data to the scientific and wider public will support evidence-based planning and policy-making towards national development.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Política Ambiental , Etiopía , Bosques
7.
Lima; Perú. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; 1 ed; 20210900. 89 p. ilus.
Monografía en Español | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1290608

RESUMEN

El documento contiene una compilación ordenado y ­ a veces corregido ­ las notas que, habiendo sido presentadas a los responsables de dicho Blog, han sido publicadas en este año del bicentenario y de la pandemia. Notas en las que se presentan, para su debate crítico en aquel intercambio de ideas, algunas reflexiones y comentarios personales ­ no siempre ortodoxos ­ sobre tres temas: salud pública; política y justicia social en salud pública; y, memoria institucional.


Asunto(s)
Política , Justicia Social , Salud Pública , Coronavirus , Impactos en la Salud , Sistemas Nacionales de Salud , Pandemias , Política de Salud , Historia de la Medicina , Memoria
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3753-3764, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468669

RESUMEN

This work, extracted from the doctoral research of the author, aims to discuss, from the reports of socio-educational system professionals, the access to State politics and programs performed by youth in conflict with the law attending to socio-educational system. In this research, 14 professionals who work in periphery regions, at the South Zone of São Paulo were interviewed, using the methodological proposal of "narrative policies". From the reports, we can see ambiguities of proposals and state interventions, configuring the "double discipline" of State, evidencing the insufficiency and the disinvestment in social security and social assistance policies, meanwhile occurs the production of an apparatus of repressive measures. We discuss the theme related to the field of public health and the importance of the bonds between professionals and youth attending to socio-educational system.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Salud Pública , Adolescente , Brasil , Humanos , Política , Política Pública
11.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372562

RESUMEN

Many of the world's most pressing issues, such as the emergence of zoonotic diseases, can only be addressed through interdisciplinary research. However, the findings of interdisciplinary research are susceptible to miscommunication among both professional and non-professional audiences due to differences in training, language, experience, and understanding. Such miscommunication contributes to the misunderstanding of key concepts or processes and hinders the development of effective research agendas and public policy. These misunderstandings can also provoke unnecessary fear in the public and have devastating effects for wildlife conservation. For example, inaccurate communication and subsequent misunderstanding of the potential associations between certain bats and zoonoses has led to persecution of diverse bats worldwide and even government calls to cull them. Here, we identify four types of miscommunication driven by the use of terminology regarding bats and the emergence of zoonotic diseases that we have categorized based on their root causes: (1) incorrect or overly broad use of terms; (2) terms that have unstable usage within a discipline, or different usages among disciplines; (3) terms that are used correctly but spark incorrect inferences about biological processes or significance in the audience; (4) incorrect inference drawn from the evidence presented. We illustrate each type of miscommunication with commonly misused or misinterpreted terms, providing a definition, caveats and common misconceptions, and suggest alternatives as appropriate. While we focus on terms specific to bats and disease ecology, we present a more general framework for addressing miscommunication that can be applied to other topics and disciplines to facilitate more effective research, problem-solving, and public policy.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Malentendido Terapéutico/psicología , Animales , Quirópteros , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Humanos , Lenguaje , Salud Pública , Política Pública/tendencias , Zoonosis/transmisión
12.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54758

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. This paper highlights the important leadership role of the public health sector, working with other governmental sectors and nongovernmental entities, to advance environmental public health in Latin America and the Carib-bean toward the achievement of 2030 Sustainable Development Goal 3: Health and Well-Being. The most pressing current and future environmental public health threats are discussed, followed by a brief review of major historical and current international and regional efforts to address these concerns. The paper concludes with a discussion of three major components of a regional environmental public health agenda that responsible parties can undertake to make significant progress toward ensuring the health and well-being of all people throughout Latin America and the Caribbean.


[RESUMEN]. En este artículo se destaca el importante papel de liderazgo que tiene el sector de la salud pública, en colaboración con otros sectores gubernamentales y entidades no gubernamentales, en el fomento de la salud pública medioambiental en América Latina y el Caribe con el fin de alcanzar para el 2030 el Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible número 3: salud y bienestar. Se abordan las amenazas de salud pública medioambi-ental actuales y futuras más urgentes, y se presenta una breve revisión de las principales medidas históricas y actuales adoptadas a nivel regional e internacional para abordar estas cuestiones. El artículo finaliza con un análisis de los tres principales componentes de un programa regional de salud pública ambiental que las partes responsables pueden ejecutar para realizar progresos significativos en la garantía de la salud y el bienestar de todos en América Latina y el Caribe.


[RESUMO]. Este artigo destaca o importante papel de liderança do setor de saúde pública, trabalhando com outros seto-res governamentais e entidades não governamentais, para promover a saúde pública ambiental na América Latina e no Caribe a fim de atingir o Objetivo de Desenvolvimento Sustentável 3 para 2030: Saúde e Bem- Estar. São discutidas as ameaças ambientais mais urgentes para a saúde pública, atuais e futuras, seguidas por uma breve revisão dos principais esforços históricos e atuais, internacionais e regionais, para abordar essas preocupações. O artigo conclui com uma discussão de três componentes essenciais de uma agenda regional de saúde pública ambiental que as partes responsáveis podem adotar para avançar significativa-mente no sentido de garantir a saúde e o bem-estar de todas as pessoas na América Latina e no Caribe.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Salud Ambiental , Medio Ambiente y Salud Pública , Equidad en Salud , Política de Salud , Desarrollo Sostenible , Américas , Cambio Climático , Salud Ambiental , Medio Ambiente y Salud Pública , Equidad en Salud , Política de Salud , Desarrollo Sostenible , Américas , Cambio Climático , Salud Ambiental , Medio Ambiente y Salud Pública , Equidad en Salud , Política de Salud , Desarrollo Sostenible , Américas
13.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113421, 2021 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365184

RESUMEN

Creating institutions to manage shared waterways at the basin scale, instead of as a patchwork of fragmented political jurisdictions, has long held attraction for water managers and political scientists. Basin-scale planning, management, and governance, the scholarly consensus runs, can promote cooperative management of shared water resources, facilitate management on an ecological rather than political basis, and better engage a diverse set of stakeholders. Yet in practice, River Basin Management (RBM) has proven difficult to institute and often produced disappointing results, being either too weak to be effective or too technocratic. The case of the Delaware River basin in the United States is a noteworthy exception. RBM in the Delaware basin has taken the form of a capable but inclusive inter-jurisdictional commission that has almost eliminated previously widespread conflict between riparian states; generally improved water quality and ecosystem protection; and empowered civil society. Yet this effectiveness stemmed from a messy political process marked by tension and competition between central, state, and local levels of government. Harnessing this tension to forge a durable, adaptable institutional framework proved to be key to the relative success of RBM in the Delaware basin, providing lessons to inform the management of shared watersheds elsewhere.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Ríos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Delaware , Política , Recursos Hídricos
14.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113465, 2021 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371220

RESUMEN

Efficient environmental resource management is a serious concern for sustainable development in developing countries. This study determines the impact of institutional quality on sustainable development, based on total factor productivity improvements through the environmental regulatory process by way of abatement policies using an augmented endogenous sustainable growth model. Based on panel data covering 66 developing countries from 1984 to 2019, the employed methods involve the fixed effects and the system generalized method of moments (GMM). The main results indicate that institutional quality has a positive impact on sustainable development. Institutional quality has a more positive role in sustainable development in lower middle-income countries than low-income countries. The overall results indicate that the disaggregated performance of institutional quality variables is higher in lower middle-income countries than low-income countries. Two main policy implications are implied by our analyses: legislative backing in the form of institutional enforcement is mandatory to design efficient and productive policy relevant to environmental resource management; and various institutional forms should be considered when designing environmental resource protection policy from an environmental governance point of view.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Política Ambiental , Países en Desarrollo , Renta , Desarrollo Sostenible
15.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113445, 2021 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375920

RESUMEN

There is significant interest among policymakers and academics about whether or not green credit, which is a market-oriented environmental policy tool, has achieved its intended effect in improving the environment in China. This paper addresses this question from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. Using panel data from 30 provincial administrative regions of China from 2007 to 2016, we apply the fixed effect model and the gray correlation analysis method to examine the influence and its mechanism of green credit on China's environmental quality. The results show that green credit does improve China's environmental quality overall. Green credit can reduce environmental pollution through three mechanisms: improving enterprise performance, motivating enterprise innovation, and upgrading industrial structure. However, there are regional differences in the emission-reduction effect of green credit. Green credit improves the environmental quality in resource-based regions more than non-resource-based regions; the emission-reduction effect is significant in regions with developed financial markets, but not significant elsewhere. The results indicate that green credit policies should be regionally differentiated to more effectively achieve emission-reduction targets.


Asunto(s)
Política Ambiental , Políticas , China , Contaminación Ambiental/prevención & control , Industrias
16.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113499, 2021 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385115

RESUMEN

The pollution control of local government to industrial enterprises is actually a long-term, complex and dynamic game process. This study develops an evolutionary game model to analyze the operation mechanism of local governments' different expenditure preferences on the production behavior of industrial polluting enterprises, so as to specify the behavioral characteristics and optimal strategy of local environmental governance. The results indicated that whether the relationship between local governments and polluting enterprises in environmental governance becomes cooperative or collusive depends on their game sequence and initial endowment. Under the condition of realizing a steady state of cooperation, polluting enterprises would advance faster toward clean production if local governments distribute more environmental expenditures on cost subsidies for enterprises to implement clean production. The findings of this study provide decision-making basis for local governments to control industrial pollution.


Asunto(s)
Política Ambiental , Gobierno Local , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Contaminación Ambiental/prevención & control , Gobierno , Industrias
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360311

RESUMEN

The rapid economic development has severely damaged the ecological environment and affected public health. Firms are the main source of pollution; thus, corporate environmental responsibility (CER) has attracted great attention from the government, shareholders and the public. This study used both the fixed effects model and the system GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) model to examine the relationship between environmental pollution, environmental regulations and CER for 30 provinces in China, over the period 2005 to 2015. This study drew the following results: first, mandatory CER disclosure policy can significantly decrease environmental pollution. Second, an inverted U-shaped relationship exists between environmental regulations and environmental pollution. Third, environmental pollution has a positive impact on CER. Fourth, an inverted U-shaped relationship exists between environmental regulations and CER. Therefore, it is necessary to find a balance between environmental regulations affecting environmental pollution and CER so that they can effectively reduce environmental pollution and increase the enthusiasm of firms to carry out environmental responsibility activities.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación Ambiental , Responsabilidad Social , China , Desarrollo Económico , Ambiente , Política Ambiental , Humanos , Políticas
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360509

RESUMEN

It is the scientific way to promote the transformation and optimization of an industrial structure to promote the improvement of its green total factor productivity (GTFP) by formulating environmental regulation policies. Based on the GTFP panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2004 to 2017, this paper takes the "Air Pollution Control and Prevention Action Plan" (APCP Action Plan) as the proxy dummy variable of environmental regulation, and uses the difference-in-differences (DID) model to explore the impact of the implementation of the APCP Action Plan on GTFP. In addition, by constructing the industrial structure optimization index, this paper analyzes how the APCP Action Plan policy affects GTFP through the transformation and optimization of industrial structure. The following basic conclusions are obtained: First, environmental regulation policies like the APCP Action Plan can improve GTFP. Second, the APCP Action Plan has regional heterogeneity in promoting GTFP in different regions. The policy only significantly affects the GTFP in the Pearl River Delta region in southern China. Third, the "quantity" and "quality" of the optimization of industrial structure will weaken the promoting effect of the APCP Action Plan on GTFP. In contrast, the rationalization of industrial structure will aggravate this promoting effect.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Política Ambiental , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Eficiencia , Contaminación Ambiental
20.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(7): 910-12, 2021 07 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343114

RESUMEN

Confirmed new cases of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have accelerated in Sub-Saharan Africa against a backdrop of fragile health systems, a high burden of comorbidities and socioeconomic instability. The context makes the region particularly vulnerable to the virus and its impact. As cases escalate, the need to tailor-make COVID-19-related response strategies to the African context is imperative. This paper aims to discuss key considerations on the public health response to the pandemic and its intersection with ethics and human rights. With this perspective, we bring attention to the conflict between healthcare workers' obligations and patient rights under the unclear policy and regulatory frameworks and the application of restrictive measures in the context of poverty. The indirect effects of the pandemic on already existing health problems are also highlighted. We appeal to the African States to establish appropriate systems which integrate human rights-based approaches to COVID-19 response. These systems should be ethically sound systems and ensure no-one is left behind in terms of testing, access to therapeutics and vaccination, and social protection; based on lessons learned over the past 12 months of the pandemic's presence in SSA, and patterns emerging across the globe.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Derechos Humanos/ética , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salud Pública , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Atención a la Salud , Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Pobreza
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