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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444043

RESUMEN

Authorized remanufacturing is an important means to achieve green manufacturing and carbon neutrality. In this study, a game theory model between a manufacturer and a remanufacturer was constructed to analyze the impact of government subsidies and carbon tax policies on authorized remanufacturing. Based on the game theory model, the effects of two government policies on the optimal solution, namely, the unit cost of remanufacturing product authorization and the waste product recovery rate, were compared and analyzed. This analysis could provide a reference for the government to improve and formulate relevant remanufacturing policies. The main results are as follows: government subsidy policies may increase the unit cost of remanufacturing product authorization and the rates of waste product recovery; government carbon tax policies may not affect the unit cost of remanufacturing product authorization, and increase the rates of waste product recovery; the government subsidy policy may not affect the unit retail price of new products, and reduces the unit retail price of remanufactured products; the government subsidy and carbon tax policies may reduce sales of new products and increase sales of remanufactured products; the government subsidies may increase the revenue of the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and the remanufacturer; and the government carbon tax policies may increase the revenue of the remanufacturer. However, government carbon tax policies increase the revenue of the OEM only when the new product carbon tax amount is higher than a certain threshold. The impact of the two policies on the environment is related to the ratio of the two products' impact on the environment, i.e., the quota ratio between the unit government carbon tax of the new product and the unit government subsidy of the remanufactured product. Finally, the consumer surplus is maximized when the government adopts the subsidy policy and lowest when the government adopts the carbon tax policy.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Comercio , Financiación Gubernamental , Teoría del Juego , Políticas
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300054

RESUMEN

To improve low-carbon technology, the government has shifted its strategy from subsidizing low-carbon products (LCP) to low-carbon technology. To analyze the impact of government subsidies based on carbon emission reduction levels on different entities in the low-carbon supply chain (LCSC), game theory is used to model the provision of government subsidies to low-carbon enterprises and retailers. The main findings of the paper are that a government subsidy strategy based on carbon emission reduction levels can effectively drive low-carbon enterprises to further reduce the carbon emissions. The government's choice of subsidy has the same effect on the LCP retail price per unit, the sales volume, and the revenue of low-carbon products per unit. When the government subsidizes the retailer, the low-carbon product wholesale price per unit is the highest. That is, low-carbon enterprises use up part of the government subsidies by increasing the wholesale price of low-carbon products. The retail price of low-carbon products per unit is lower than the retail price of low-carbon products in the context of decentralized decision making, but the sales volume and revenue of low-carbon products are greater in the centralized decision-making. The cost-benefit-sharing contract could enable the decentralized decision model to achieve the same level of profit as the centralized decision model.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Comercio , Financiación Gubernamental , Teoría del Juego
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673412

RESUMEN

The reduction in carbon emissions by industrial enterprises is an important means for promoting environmental protection and achieving sustainable development. To determine the impact of carbon emissions reduction on supply chain operation and financing decision-making, in this study we designed three financing strategies, i.e., bank loan financing, equity financing, and hybrid financing (a combination of bank loan financing and equity financing), for a manufacturer (leader) and a low-carbon supply chain composed of a capital-constrained retailer, constructed Stackelberg game models, solved the equilibrium results under each financing strategy using the reverse recursion method, and revealed the financing preference of the supply chain member companies through comparative analysis. The results showed that the increase in the consumers' low-carbon preference and equity financing ratio have positive impacts on supply chain equilibrium, a result that is opposite that for the impact of the interest rate of bank loan financing; additionally, the abovementioned three factors jointly determine the profit of the manufacturer of the low-carbon supply chain, while the retailer's profit is affected by the equity dividend ratio. Finally, we present the conditions for the financing preference of the manufacturer and the retailer. The findings of this study can provide references for low-carbon supply chain companies to make appropriate management decisions.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Comercio , Financiación del Capital , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Costos y Análisis de Costo
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440706

RESUMEN

Although the issue of cooperative emission reduction in supply chains has been extensively studied, there is little literature that considers the impact of consumers' reference low-carbon effect and product low-carbon goodwill on their purchasing behavior in the issue of dual-channel supply chain cooperative emission reduction. In order to explore the impact of consumers' reference low-carbon effect and product low-carbon goodwill on the balanced emission reduction decisions and profit of dual-channel supply chain members, we establish a dual-channel supply chain emission reduction dynamic optimization model, use differential game theory to solve the manufacturer's optimal emission reduction investment and the retailer's optimal low-carbon publicity investment strategies under four different decision scenarios, and analyze them in detail. In addition, we also design an effective low-carbon publicity cost-sharing contract to achieve coordination of the supply chain. The research results show that the equilibrium strategies of the manufacturer and retailer and the overall profit of the supply chain under the centralized decision scenario are better than those of decentralized decision scenario. When the initial reference low-carbon level is low, the online and offline reference low-carbon effects are beneficial to the manufacturer and retailer. When the initial low-carbon goodwill is high, it is beneficial for both the manufacturer and retailer to increase consumer recognition of low-carbon goodwill. When the ratio of low-carbon publicity cost sharing provided by the manufacturer to the retailer is within a reasonable range, the cost-sharing contract can reduce the double marginal effect and achieve supply chain coordination.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Comercio , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Contratos , Teoría del Juego
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440824

RESUMEN

This research investigates the effect of fairness concerns on a sustainable low-carbon supply chain (LCSC) with a carbon quota policy, in which a manufacturer is in charge of manufacturing low-carbon products and sells them to a retailer. The demand is affected by price and the carbon emission reduction rate. The optimal decisions of pricing and carbon emission reduction rate are analyzed under four decision models: (i) centralized decision, (ii) decentralized decision without fairness concern, (iii) decentralized decision with manufacturer's fairness concern, (iv) decentralized decision with retailer's fairness concern. The results indicate that the profits in the centralized LCSC are higher than those in the decentralized LCSC with fairness concern. If a manufacturer pays close attention to fairness, the fairness concern coefficient will reduce the carbon emission reduction rate and the profit of the LCSC and increase the wholesale price and the retail price of the product. If a retailer pays close attention to fairness, and the preference of consumers for a low-carbon product is low, the fairness concern coefficient of the retailer increases the total profit of the LCSC and decreases the carbon emission reduction rate and retail price of the product. Otherwise, if the preference of consumers for a low-carbon product is great, the fairness concern coefficient of the retailer would lead to a lower retail price compared with the retail price in the centralized decision and decrease the total profit of the LCSC.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Comercio , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Toma de Decisiones , Políticas
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(1): 220-229, 2021 01 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354966

RESUMEN

Substantial anthropogenic emissions have resulted in serious environmental problems in China. Direct emissions and demand-pulled emissions along the supply chains have been extensively investigated. However, understanding the mechanism of how the sectoral emission is transferred through production activities along the sale chains at different production layers remains a challenge. In this paper, a top-down multilayer emission attribution model is developed to unveil the metabolism of multilayer input-driven emissions. For the first time, a diagramming approach enables the exhaustive depiction of the connections between primary input attributions and final production attributions, which allows accurate reallocation of the emission responsibilities to sectors at different production layers. Individual sale chain paths and supply chain paths have been extracted and ranked according to the contributions of emissions. A four-perspective comparison of sectoral emissions (i.e., direct emissions along sale chains, enabled emissions, direct emissions along the supply chains, and embodied emissions) is assessed. We find that at multiple production layers, sectoral direct emissions along the sale chains differ greatly from direct emissions along the supply chains. By comprehensively considering providers, consumers, and producers within a metabolic system, policy-makers should encourage upstream sectors to improve their cleaner production technologies and downstream sectors to adjust their industrial structures.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Industrias , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , China , Comercio
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172168

RESUMEN

To guide sustainable development in the hospitality industry requires hotel staff engagement, so what causes and how to facilitate the implementation of low-carbon behaviors should be high priorities. However, most prior studies focused on hotel guest behavior or discussed, on an individual level, the psychological aspects of the factors of the low-carbon behavior of either managers or employees. Therefore, this research aims to examine the effect of influencing factors inside and outside of the hotel context on hotel staff's low-carbon behaviors in star-rated hotels. A set of influencing factors were identified by using literature retrieval, ground theory and in-depth interviews. Structural equation modelling was then applied with 440 valid questionnaires collected from representative star-rated hotels in Eastern China. The results revealed that low-carbon managerial activities, strategic orientation, social norms, and perceived behavior control were four key factors affecting the low-carbon behavior adoption of staff from star-rated hotels. Among them, low-carbon managerial activities were found to be the strongest factor affecting hotel staff's low-carbon behaviors. Consumer attitude, however, exerted no significant impact. Targeted strategies were finally proposed for the improvement of hotel staff's low-carbon behavior from the perspectives of hoteliers and governments. This study contributes to the generation mechanism of low-carbon behavior among staff and, in practice, towards behavioral improvement by providing comprehensive insights about the attribution of factors belonging to multiple dimensions related to the low-carbon behavior of staff in the hotel industry.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Industrias , China , Comercio , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Investigación Empírica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105880

RESUMEN

In the market, once consumers have a low-carbon preference, they will choose green low-carbon products. The market demand for green products is not only related to product price, but also consumers' low-carbon preference. In this way, enterprise has to consider the cost of carbon emissions in the process of production and operation. In this paper, we consider a two-level supply chain system composed of a manufacturer and a retailer. The supply chain system can determine the price of products and the level of carbon emission reduction through different supply chain contracts: wholesale price contract and revenue sharing contract. However, the power control structure of a manufacturer and a retailer is different, which will further affect the decision-making strategy of the supply chain system. We set up four models (Wholesale Price-NM and NR, and Revenue-Sharing-SR and SM) of the supply chain with carbon emission reduction, and calculated and analyzed. The results show that firstly, regardless of whether the manufacturer's power control structure or the retailer power structure is dominant, the manufacturer wholesale price with a contract on revenue-sharing is always higher than on wholesale price, and it is inversely proportional to the revenue-sharing proportion. Secondly, under the two power control structures, the carbon emission level of the manufacturer with a contract on revenue-sharing is always lower than on wholesale price, and it gradually decreases with the increase of the revenue-sharing proportion of the manufacturers. Thirdly, when the retailer dominates the supply chain, the retailer selling price with a contract on revenue-sharing is always higher than on wholesale price. Under the manufacturer's power control structure, when the revenue-sharing ratio is small, the retailer selling price with a contract on revenue-sharing is higher than on wholesale price; when the revenue-sharing ratio is large, the retailer selling price with a contract on revenue-sharing is lower than on wholesale price. Finally, the validity of the model is verified by an example, and the sensitivity of the parameters is analyzed.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Comercio , Modelos Económicos , Carbono/economía , Comercio/economía , Comportamiento del Consumidor/economía , Humanos
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825627

RESUMEN

Taking China's carbon emissions and trading pilot (CCETP) as a quasi-natural experiment, this paper examines the impact of CCETP on publicly listed private firms' innovation input and the moderating effect of the firms' political connection based on the difference-in-differences model. The results show that CCETP has a significantly positive effect on the innovation input of Chinese publicly listed private firms. Moreover, the political connection of executives exhibits a positive moderating effect on CCETP's impact on innovation input. Meanwhile, the effect is more significant in regions with high environmental protection investment and large publicly listed private firms. The conclusions could provide some policy enlightenment for China's carbon market, as well as a rational adjustment of the relationship between political connection and innovation input of publicly listed private firms in the future.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Comercio , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Invenciones , Política , Carbono/análisis , China , Humanos
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674383

RESUMEN

Global climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) from anthropogenic activities have already become the focus of the world. A more systematic and comprehensive analysis on the factors influencing the changes of global GHGs transferring via trade have not been fully discussed. To this end, employing spatial econometric regression models and multi-regional input-output models, this paper reveals factors influencing the GHGs transferring via trade changes in 39 major economies, so as to develop the relevant GHGs reduction policies. The results indicate that regions with the highest net outflow of GHGs transferring via trade are primarily Russia and Canada, and the adverse effects of promoting GHGs reduction on the national economy could be avoided by these regions owing to trade relations. Additionally, factors influencing the changes in GHGs transferring via trade have significant spatial autocorrelation, and population size and energy structure exert significant spatial spillover effects on the changes in the GHGs transferring via trade. On this basis, this paper suggests that one more effective way to prevent trade from the rigorous demands of environmental governance measures while preserving the economic benefits of international trade may be to facilitate cooperation between countries on GHGs mitigation. Further, we articulate more balanced environment governance policies, including conducting the sharing of advanced energy technologies and developing clearer production technologies.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Canadá , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Política Ambiental , Efecto Invernadero , Internacionalidad , Federación de Rusia
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674426

RESUMEN

This article attempts to investigate the impacts of bilateral trade on the environment by estimating the embodied carbon emissions between China and Germany over the period 1999-2018. The above impacts are broadly explored in the literature both under the framework of theoretical and empirical analysis. However, there exist fewer empirical studies exploring the nonlinear relationship between trade volumes and carbon emissions between a well-developed and emerging economies. By applying the multiregional input-output (MRIO) model, this article aims to reveal the impacts of trade on the environment in the case of China-Germany. Specifically, trade amounts between China and Germany rank high with a similarly increasing trend and both of them are large net exporting countries. However, China experienced much larger carbon emissions embodied in its exports to Germany. Despite potential concerns on the carbon leakage issue of China from Germany, we find that the bilateral trades fit an inverse U-shape in the embodied carbon emissions, which suggests that the trade between the two countries can finally reduce carbon intensity without obstructing economic development particularly in the long-term. This paper guides policy-makers to quantify the issue of CO2 transfer among bilateral trades in order to achieve the target of trading sustainability.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Comercio , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , China , Alemania
13.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229544, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084234

RESUMEN

Pallets are the most common equipment for transporting and storing goods. More and more companies are willing to rent pallets. Pallet rental companies need to transport pallets from their pallet rental service stations to customers and take these pallets back when they are unloaded. Hence, managers should scientifically configure vehicles for their pallet rental service stations. The fleet size, which indicates the amount and types of vehicles, can significantly affect the efficiency and costs of empty pallet allocation. Therefore, an optimization model for fleet sizing and empty pallet allocation is proposed using the methods of mixed-integer programming and stochastic programming. The objectives of this model are to maximize the profits of pallet rental companies and minimize carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from vehicles. A particle swarm optimization algorithm with inertia weight (IPSO) is developed to solve the proposed model because IPSO can avoid becoming trapped in local optima and is able to find a globally optimal solution within a reasonable number of iterations. A numerical example proves the effectiveness of the proposed model and IPSO. The results of numerical tests show that the amount of CO2 emissions from vehicles can affect the decision on fleet sizing and empty pallet allocation. However, if the price, rental fees, or idle costs of the vehicles with low CO2 emissions are too high, managers would not choose them.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/métodos , Estaciones de Transporte/economía , Estaciones de Transporte/organización & administración , Algoritmos , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Modelos Económicos , Emisiones de Vehículos
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877860

RESUMEN

In implementing carbon emission trading schemes (ETSs), the cost of carbon embedded in raw materials further complicates supplier selection and order allocation. Firms have to make decisions by comprehensively considering the cost and the important intangible performance of suppliers. This paper uses an analytic network process-integer programming (ANP-IP) model based on a multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach to solve the above issues by first evaluating and then optimizing them. The carbon embedded in components, which can be used to reflect the carbon competitiveness of a supplier, is integrated into the ANP-IP model. In addition, an international large-scale electronic equipment manufacturer in China is used to validate the model. Different scenarios involving different carbon prices are designed to analyze whether China's current ETS drives firms to choose more low-carbon suppliers. The results show that current carbon constraints are not stringent enough to drive firms to select low-carbon suppliers. A more stringent ETS with a higher carbon price could facilitate the creation of a low-carbon supply chain. The analysis of the firm's total cost and of the total cost composition indicates that the impact of a more stringent ETS on the firm results mainly from indirect costs instead of direct costs. The indirect cost is caused by the suppliers' transfer of part of the low-carbon investment in the product, and arises from buying carbon permits with high carbon prices. Implications revealed by the model analysis are discussed to provide guidance to suppliers regarding the balance between soft competitiveness and low-carbon production capability and to provide guidance to the firm on how to cooperate with suppliers to achieve a mutually beneficial situation.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Toma de Decisiones , China , Comercio , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Equipos y Suministros Eléctricos
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694282

RESUMEN

China has remained top among the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitting countries in the world, while it has a significant contribution to world trade after World Trade Organization (WTO) reforms in China. The dramatic increase in CO2 emissions has been witnessed. This study examines the linkages between trade openness, CO2 emissions, and healthcare expenditures in China using time series data for the period 1990-2017. The study extended a theoretical model by adding healthcare expenditures, CO2 emissions, and trade openness with some constraints. We used simultaneous equation method for the analysis, and the outcomes suggest that trade is significantly affecting the CO2 emissions in the country, resulting in an increase of healthcare expenditures. The government needs reforms and trade policy embodied green energy consumption in the industrial sector, especially in export sector industries. In addition, carbon tax may be an important tool to reduce CO2 emissions and it may compensate the healthcare spending in the country.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Comercio/clasificación , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , China
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4947, 2019 10 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666528

RESUMEN

In a globalized economy, production of goods can be disrupted by trade disputes. Yet the resulting impacts on carbon dioxide emissions and ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) related premature mortality are unclear. Here we show that in contrast to a free trade world, with the emission intensity in each sector unchanged, an extremely anti-trade scenario with current tariffs plus an additional 25% tariff on each traded product would reduce the global export volume by 32.5%, gross domestic product by 9.0%, carbon dioxide by 6.3%, and PM2.5-related mortality by 4.1%. The respective impacts would be substantial for the United States, Western Europe and China. A freer trade scenario would increase global carbon dioxide emission and air pollution due to higher levels of production, especially in developing regions with relatively high emission intensities. Global collaborative actions to reduce emission intensities in developing regions could help achieve an economic-environmental win-win state through globalization.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Comercio , Internacionalidad , Mortalidad Prematura , Material Particulado , Impuestos , Carbono , China , Disentimientos y Disputas , Europa (Continente) , Producto Interno Bruto , Humanos , Estados Unidos
17.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224153, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661503

RESUMEN

Fairness concern behavior is extremely common in social life, and many scholars are beginning to pay attention to this behavior. In this study, we investigate a two-echelon construction supply chain that consists of a general contractor and a subcontractor under cap-and-trade policy. We study the carbon emission reduction decisions and profit distribution mechanism in the construction supply chain with fairness concern and cap-and-trade. We use the Nash bargaining model to describe the fairness concerns of the construction supply chain members and use the co-opetition model to portray the profit distribution. We show that the fairness concern can impose an adverse influence on firms' profits and decrease the magnitude of their carbon emission reductions. The subcontractor's fairness concern causes greater losses to the construction supply chain's profit. We further demonstrate the impact of fairness concern on the optimal decisions of the general contractor and the subcontractor through numerical analysis.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Carbono/análisis , Comercio , Industria de la Construcción/economía , Comportamiento del Consumidor/economía , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Toma de Decisiones , Carbono/economía , Competencia Económica , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366011

RESUMEN

This paper studies a low-carbon dual-channel supply chain in which a manufacturer sells products through the direct channel and traditional channel, and a retailer sells products through the traditional channel. The manufacturer considers carbon emission reduction and has fairness concern behavior. The retailer provides sales service in the traditional channel and considers fairness concern behavior. The objective of this paper is to analyze the effects of different parameter values on the price stability and utility of the supply chain system emphatically using 2D bifurcation diagram, parameter plot basin, the basins of attraction, chaos attractor and sensitivity to the initial value, etc. The results find that the retailer's fairness concern behavior shrinks the stability of the supply chain system more than that of the manufacturer's fairness concern behavior. The system stability region decreases with the increase of carbon emission reduction level and the retailer's fairness concern. The customers' preference for the direct channel decreases the stable range of the direct channel, while it enlarges the stable range of the traditional channel. The supply chain system enters into chaos through flip bifurcation with the increase of price adjustment speed. In a stable state, the manufacture improving customer's preference for the direct channel and the retailer choosing the appropriate fairness concern level can achieve the maximum utility separately. In a chaotic state, the average utilities of the manufacturer and retailer all decline, while that of the retailer declines even more. By selecting appropriate control parameter, the low-carbon dual-channel supply chain system can return to a stable state from chaos again. The research of this paper is of great significance to price decisions of participants and supply chain operation management.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Comercio , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Toma de Decisiones , Humanos , Modelos Económicos , Análisis de Sistemas
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167400

RESUMEN

In this paper, we developed a dynamic price game model for a low-carbon, closed-loop supply chain system in which (1) the manufacturer had fairness concern and carbon emission reduction (CER) behaviors, and market share and profit maximization were their objectives, and (2) the retailer showed fairness concern behaviors in market competition and provided service input to reduce return rates. The retailer recycled old products from customers, and the manufacturer remanufactured the recycled old products. The effects of different parameter values on the stability and utility of the dynamic price game model were determined through analysis and numerical simulation. Results found that an increasing customer loyalty to the direct marketing channel decreased the stable region of the manufacturer's price adjustment and increase that of the retailer. The stable region of the system shrank with an increase of CER and the retailer's service level, which expanded with return rates. The dynamic system entered into chaos through flip bifurcation with the increase of price adjustment speed. In the chaotic state, the average utilities of the manufacturer and retailer all declined, while that of the retailer declined even more. Changes to parameter values had a great impact on the utilities of the manufacturer and retailer. By selecting appropriate control parameters, the dynamic system can return to a stable state from chaos again. The research of this paper is of great significance to participants' price decision-making and supply chain operation management.


Asunto(s)
Carbono/análisis , Comercio , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Investigación Operativa , Reciclaje/métodos , Toma de Decisiones , Humanos , Reciclaje/economía
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(24): 24380-24394, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230232

RESUMEN

Economic policy uncertainty (EPU) will affect the external business environment of economic entities, which in turn affects the decision-making of economic entities. Meanwhile, carbon emissions are closely related to the production decisions of microeconomic entities. Thus, studying the relationship between EPU and carbon emissions helps to clarify the impact of institutional factors behind carbon emissions, which is significant for achieving green development. Based on US sector data, we apply a novel parametric test of Granger causality in quantiles to analyze the relationship between EPU and carbon emissions (its growth and uncertainty). We find that there is an outstanding pattern of Granger-causality from the US EPU to the growth of carbon emissions in the tails of the growth distributions of carbon emissions in the industrial sector, residential sector, electric power sector, and transportation sector, except in the commercial sector. That is, carbon emissions are affected by EPU when the growth of carbon emissions is in a higher or lower growth period. Lastly, we find that the US EPU affects carbon emissions uncertainty over the entire conditional distribution for all sectors.


Asunto(s)
Carbono/análisis , Economía , Contaminación Ambiental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Comercio , Desarrollo Económico , Contaminación Ambiental/economía , Industrias , Transportes , Incertidumbre , Estados Unidos
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