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1.
Conserv Biol ; 33(4): 832-841, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719749

RESUMEN

In modern aquaculture, animal-production technology is used to increase aquatic food sources. Such controlled rearing of seafood can, in principle, shift the pressure off wild stocks and aquatic ecosystems by reducing fishing activities, which may advance marine conservation goals. We examined resource displacement-the reduced consumption of a resource due to its replacement with a more environmentally benign substitute-in fisheries. We employed panel regression techniques in an analysis of time-series data from 1970 through 2014 to assess the extent to which aquaculture production displaced fisheries captures for all nations for which data were available. We estimated 9 models to assess whether aquaculture production suppresses captures once other factors related to demand have been controlled for. Only 1 model predicted significant suppression of fisheries captures associated with aquaculture systems within nations over time. These results suggest that global aquaculture production does not substantially displace fisheries capture; instead, aquaculture production largely supplements fisheries capture.


La Acuacultura y el Desplazamiento de Capturas de las Pesquerías Resumen En la acuacultura moderna, la tecnología de producción animal se usa para incrementar las fuentes acuáticas de alimento. Tal crianza controlada de peces puede, en principio, modificar la presión que afecta los stocks silvestres y los ecosistemas acuáticos al reducir las actividades de pesca, lo que podría acercarnos a la obtención de las metas de conservación. Examinamos el desplazamiento de recursos - el consumo reducido de un recurso debido a su reemplazo con un sustituto más benigno con el ambiente - en las pesquerías. Empleamos técnicas de regresión de paneles en un análisis de datos de series de tiempo de 1970 a 2014 para evaluar hasta dónde ha llegado el desplazamiento de las capturas de las pesquerías en todos los países que tenían datos disponibles. Estimamos nueve modelos para evaluar si la producción de la acuacultura suprime las capturas una vez que otros factores relacionados con la demanda han sido controlados. Solamente un modelo pronosticó la supresión de las capturas de las pesquerías asociadas con los sistemas de acuacultura en los países a lo largo del tiempo. Estos resultados sugieren que la producción acuícola no desplaza sustancialmente la captura de las pesquerías; en su lugar, la producción acuícola complementa en gran parte a estas capturas.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Animales , Acuicultura , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Peces , Alimentos Marinos
2.
Trab. educ. saúde ; 16(2): 535-559, maio-ago. 2018. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-963002

RESUMEN

Resumo O objetivo da pesquisa foi investigar o letramento em saúde e associação com fatores sociodemográficos, autopercepção da saúde e qualidade de vida em adultos. Tratou-se de estudo transversal com adultos entre 20 e 59 anos, usuários da atenção primária à saúde, realizado em unidades básicas de saúde, de fevereiro a maio de 2015 - amostra probabilística. O letramento em saúde foi avaliado pelo Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Portuguese-Speaking Adults. Realizou-se análise estatística descritiva, análise bivariada (p ≤ 0,20) e regressão logística múltipla (p ≤ 0,05). O letramento em saúde inadequado foi frequente e inicialmente associado a sexo, escolaridade, última série cursada com aprovação, estudo formal mínimo, Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil, plano de saúde, arranjo familiar, importância atribuída à saúde, nota atribuída à própria saúde, frequência de comparecimento à unidade básica de saúde e aos domínios relações sociais e ambiental do teste World Health Organization Quality of Life. No modelo final da regressão logística, somente a escolaridade permaneceu associada ao letramento em saúde, e indivíduos com menor escolaridade tiveram mais chance de ter letramento em saúde inadequado. Os achados sugerem a necessidade do desenvolvimento de estratégias de educação em saúde para os adultos usuários da atenção primária.


Abstract The aim was to investigate health literacy and association with social and demographic factors, self-perception of health and quality of life in adults. This is a cross-sectional study with adults between 20 and 59 years, users of primary health care, conducted in the basic health units, from February to May of 2015 - probability sample. Health literacy was evaluated by means of Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Portuguese-speaking Adults. Descriptive statistical analysis, bivariate analysis (p ≤ 0.20) and multiple logistic regression (p ≤ 0.05) were performed. Inadequate health literacy was recurrent and initially associated with sex, schooling, last grade concluded with approval, minimum formal study, Brasil Economic Classification Criterion, health insurance, family arrangement, importance attributed to health, grade attributed to own health, attendance to the basic health unit and two domains of the test World Health Organization Quality of Life (social relations and environmental). In the final model of logistic regression, only schooling remained associated with health literacy, in a way that individuals with less schooling had more chance of having inadequate health literacy. The findings suggest the need to develop health education strategies for adult users of primary care.


Resumen El objeto fue investigar la alfabetización en salud y asociación con factores sociodemográficos, autopercepción de salud y calidad de vida. Este es un estudio transversal de adultos entre 20 y 59 años, usuarios de atención primaria de salud, que se realizó en unidades básicas de salud, de febrero a mayo de 2015 - muestra de probabilidad. La alfabetización en salud se evaluó mediante el Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Portuguese-speaking Adults. Un análisis estadístico descriptivo, análisis bivariado (p ≤ 0,20) y regresión logística múltiple (p ≤ 0,05) fue realizada. La alfabetización en salud inadecuada fue frecuente y en principio asociada con sexo, escolaridad, grado más alto con aprobación, estudio formal mínimo, Criterio de Clasificación Económica Brasil, seguro de salud, estructura familiar, importancia asignada a propia salud, puntuación para propia salud, frecuencia en la unidade básica de salud y dominios relaciones sociales y ambiental de la prueba World Health Organization Quality of Life. En el modelo final de regresión logística, sólo escolaridad se mantuvo asociado con alfabetización en salud, de modo que personas con menos escolaridad eran más propensas a tener alfabetización en salud inadecuada. Los hallazgos sugieren necesidad de desarrollar estrategias de educación en salud para adultos de atención primaria.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Condiciones Sociales , Sistema Único de Salud , Salud del Adulto , Educación en Salud , Alfabetización en Salud
3.
Malar. j. (Online) ; 8(74): 1-7, 2009. Tab., Fig.
Artículo en Inglés | RSDM, AIM | ID: biblio-1352633

RESUMEN

Background: Protection against clinical malaria episodes is acquired slowly after frequent exposure to malaria parasites. This is reflected by a decrease with increasing age in both parasite density and incidence of clinical episodes. In many settings of stable malaria transmission, the presence of asymptomatic malaria parasite carriers is common and the definition of clinical malaria remains uncertain. Methods: Between February 2002 and April 2003, a country-wide malaria survey was conducted in 24 districts of Mozambique, aiming to characterize the malaria transmission intensities and to estimate the proportion of fever cases attributable to malaria infections in order to establish the malaria case definition. A total of 8,816 children less than ten years of age were selected for the study. Axillary temperature was measured in all participating subjects and finger prick blood collections were taken to prepare thick and thin films for identification of parasite species and determination of parasite density. The proportion of fever cases attributable to malaria infection was estimated using a logistic regression of the fever on a monotonic function of the parasite density and, using bootstrap facilities, bootstrapped estimated confidence intervals, as well as the sensitivity and specificity for different parasite density cut-offs were produced. Results: Overall, the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum was 52.4% (4,616/8,816). The prevalence of fever (axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C) was 9.4% (766/8,816). Fever episodes peaked among children below 12 months of life [15.1% (206/1,517)]. The lowest fever prevalence of 5.9% (67/ 1,224) was recorded amongst children between five and seven years of age. Among 4,098 parasitized children, 498/4,098 (13.02%) had fever. The prevalence of malaria infections associated with fever peaked among children in the less than twelve months age group and thereafter decreased rapidly with increasing age (p < 0.001). High parasite densities were significantly associated with fever (p < 0.04). The proportion of fever attributed to malaria was 37.8% (95% CI 32.9% ­ 42.7%). An age-specific pattern was observed with significant variations across different regions in the country. In general, among children less than 12 months of life, the proportion of fever attributed to malaria infection Page 1 of 7 (page number not for citation purposes)Malaria Journal 2009, 8:74 http://www.malariajournal.com/content/8/1/74 was 43.5% (95% CI 25.8% ­ 61.2%), in children aged between 12 and 59 months of age was 39.6% (95% CI 30.3% ­ 48.9%), and among children aged between 5 and 10 years old was 21.5% (95% CI 11.6% ­ 31.4%). Conclusion: This study confirms that malaria remains a major cause of febrile illness during childhood. It also defines the relation between parasite density and fever and how this varies with age and region. This may help guide case definition for clinical trials of preventive tools, as well as provide definitions that may improve the precision of measurement of the burden of disease.


Asunto(s)
Lactante , Malaria/sangre , Malaria/epidemiología , Parásitos/genética , Plasmodium falciparum , Temperatura , Sangre/diagnóstico por imagen , Intervalos de Confianza , Modelos Logísticos , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Costo de Enfermedad , /métodos , Principio de la Precaución , Fiebre/diagnóstico , Dedos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Infecciones , Microscopía , Mozambique , Grupos de Edad
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