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1.
J Environ Manage ; 360: 120926, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772227

RESUMEN

In the Republic of Korea, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIAs) precedes development projects to predict and analyze potential environmental effects. Generally, EIA noise evaluations utilize 2D noise prediction equations and correction coefficients. This method, however, offers only a sectional noise evaluation and has limitations in complex environments with diverse noise sources. Moreover, the determination of various variables during the EIA process based on subjective human judgment raises concerns about the reliability of the results. Thus, this study aims to develop software accessible via a web environment for user-friendly EIA noise evaluations. This software supports integrated data management and generates a 3D noise prediction model for more precise and realistic analysis of noise impacts, specifically focusing on road-traffic noise at this stage of development. The 3D noise prediction model and noise map generated by the developed software have been validated against through comparison with the results of onsite noise measurements and commercial EIA software, SoundPLAN. This validation aimed to assess the practical utility of the application.


Asunto(s)
Programas Informáticos , República de Corea , Ruido , Humanos , Ruido del Transporte , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Internet , Ambiente , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
2.
Conserv Biol ; : e14287, 2024 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745504

RESUMEN

In a warming Arctic, circumpolar long-term monitoring programs are key to advancing ecological knowledge and informing environmental policies. Calls for better involvement of Arctic peoples in all stages of the monitoring process are widespread, although such transformation of Arctic science is still in its infancy. Seabirds stand out as ecological sentinels of environmental changes, and priority has been given to implement the Circumpolar Seabird Monitoring Plan (CSMP). We assessed the representativeness of a pan-Arctic seabird monitoring network focused on the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) by comparing the distribution of environmental variables for all known versus monitored colonies. We found that with respect to its spatiotemporal coverage, this monitoring network does not fully embrace current and future environmental gradients. To improve the current scheme, we designed a method to identify colonies whose inclusion in the monitoring network will improve its ecological representativeness, limit logistical constraints, and improve involvement of Arctic peoples. We thereby highlight that inclusion of study sites in the Bering Sea, Siberia, western Russia, northern Norway, and southeastern Greenland could improve the current monitoring network and that their proximity to local populations might allow increased involvement of local communities. Our framework can be applied to improve existing monitoring networks in other ecoregions and sociological contexts.


Una red de monitoreo participativa y ecológica para las aves marinas del Ártico Resumen En un Ártico cada vez más cálido, los programas circumpolares de monitoreo a largo plazo son importantes para potenciar el conocimiento ecológico e informar las políticas ambientales. Existe un llamado generalizado para involucrar de mejor manera a los pueblos árticos en el proceso de monitoreo, aunque dicha transformación de la ciencia ártica todavía está en desarrollo. Las aves marinas resaltan como centinelas del cambio ambiental y se ha priorizado implementar el Plan Circumpolar de Monitoreo de Aves Marinas (CSMP). Comparamos la distribución de las variables ambientales de todas las colonias conocidas de la gaviota tridáctila (Rissa tridactyla) contra las colonias monitoreadas para evaluar la representación de una red pan­ártica de monitoreo enfocada en esta especie. Encontramos que esta red de monitoreo no considera del todo los gradientes ambientales actuales y futuros con respecto a la cobertura espaciotemporal. Para mejorar el esquema actual, diseñamos un método para identificar las colonias cuya inclusión en la red de monitoreo mejorará su representación ecológica, limitará las restricciones logísticas e incrementará la participación de los pueblos árticos. Por lo tanto, resaltamos que la inclusión de los sitios de estudio en el Mar de Bering, Siberia, Rusia occidental, el norte de Noruega y el sureste de Groenlandia mejorarían la red actual de monitoreo. También destacamos que la proximidad de los sitios de estudio con las poblaciones locales podría permitir una mayor participación de estas. Nuestro marco puede aplicarse para mejorar las redes de monitoreo existentes en otros contextos socioecológicos y ecoregiones.

3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(7)2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610576

RESUMEN

Direct observation is a ground-truth measure for physical behavior, but the high cost limits widespread use. The purpose of this study was to develop and test machine learning methods to recognize aspects of physical behavior and location from videos of human movement: Adults (N = 26, aged 18-59 y) were recorded in their natural environment for two, 2- to 3-h sessions. Trained research assistants annotated videos using commercially available software including the following taxonomies: (1) sedentary versus non-sedentary (two classes); (2) activity type (four classes: sedentary, walking, running, and mixed movement); and (3) activity intensity (four classes: sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous). Four machine learning approaches were trained and evaluated for each taxonomy. Models were trained on 80% of the videos, validated on 10%, and final accuracy is reported on the remaining 10% of the videos not used in training. Overall accuracy was as follows: 87.4% for Taxonomy 1, 63.1% for Taxonomy 2, and 68.6% for Taxonomy 3. This study shows it is possible to use computer vision to annotate aspects of physical behavior, speeding up the time and reducing labor required for direct observation. Future research should test these machine learning models on larger, independent datasets and take advantage of analysis of video fragments, rather than individual still images.


Asunto(s)
Computadores , Trabajo de Parto , Adulto , Humanos , Embarazo , Femenino , Programas Informáticos , Ambiente , Aprendizaje Automático
4.
San Salvador; MINSAL; abr. 3, 2024. 75 p. ilus, tab. graf. Mapas.
No convencional en Español | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1553566

RESUMEN

La enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) constituye un importante problema de salud pública en el mundo y la región de las Américas, teniendo una prevalencia poblacional del 10% al 13%. Generalmente la ERC se atribuye a causas tradicionales principalmente diabetes mellitus, hipertensión arterial y obesidad. El país actualmente se enfrenta a una doble carga de enfermedad renal crónica, una debida a causas tradicionales como diabetes, hipertensión y obesidad, entre otros y de otra carga debida a causas no tradicionales. En el caso de la ERC, que afecta a las comunidades agrícolas salvadoreñas, el fenómeno se hace más complejo porque está sustentado sobre profundas raíces sociales que generan esta enfermedad en interacción con factores ambientales y ocupacionales


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) constitutes an important public health problem in the world and the region of the Americas, with a population prevalence of 10% to 13%. CKD is generally attributed to traditional causes, mainly diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure and obesity. The country currently faces a double burden of chronic kidney disease, one due to traditional causes such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, among others, and another burden due to non-traditional causes. In the case of CKD, which affects Salvadoran agricultural communities, the phenomenon becomes more complex because it is based on deep social roots that generate this disease in interaction with environmental and occupational factors


Asunto(s)
Programación de Servicios de Salud , El Salvador
5.
Conserv Biol ; : e14282, 2024 Apr 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38660922

RESUMEN

Payments for ecosystem services (PES) are widely applied incentive-based instruments with diverse objectives that increasingly include biodiversity conservation. Yet, there is a gap in understanding of how to best assess and monitor programs' biodiversity outcomes. We examined perceptions and drivers of engagement related to biodiversity monitoring through surveys among current PES participants in 7 communities in Mexico's Selva Lacandona. We conducted workshops among survey participants that included training and field deployment of tools used to monitor biodiversity and land cover, including visual transects, camera traps, acoustic recorders, and forest cover satellite images. We conducted pre- and postworkshop surveys in each community to evaluate changes in respondents' perceptions following exposure to biodiversity monitoring training and related field activities. We also reviewed existing research on participatory environmental management and monitoring approaches. One quarter of current PES participants in the study area participated in our surveys and workshops. The majority stated interest in engaging in diverse activities related to the procedural aspects of biodiversity monitoring (e.g., planning, field data collection, results dissemination) and acknowledged multiple benefits of introducing biodiversity monitoring into PES (e.g., knowledge and capacity building, improved natural resource management, and greater support for conservation). Household economic reliance on PES was positively associated with willingness to engage in monitoring. Technical expertise, time, and monetary constraints were deterrents. Respondents were most interested in monitoring mammals, birds, and plants and using visual transects, camera traps, and forest cover satellite images. Exposure to monitoring enhanced subsequent interest in monitoring by providing respondents with new insights from their communities related to deforestation and species' abundance and diversity. Respondents identified key strengths and weaknesses of applying different monitoring tools, which suggests that deploying multiple tools simultaneously can increase local engagement and produce complementary findings and data. Overall, our findings support the relevance and usefulness of incorporating participatory biodiversity monitoring into PES.


Explorando las percepciones locales y los impulsores de la participación en el monitoreo de la biodiversidad entre participantes de esquemas de pagos por servicios ambientales en el sureste de México Resumen Los pagos por servicios ambientales (PSA) son instrumentos basados en incentivos ampliamente aplicados cuyos diversos objetivos incluyen cada vez más la conservación de la biodiversidad. Sin embargo, existe una brecha en la comprensión de cómo evaluar y monitorear los resultados de los programas en materia de biodiversidad. Examinamos las percepciones y los impulsores de la participación relacionados al monitoreo de la biodiversidad a través de encuestas entre participantes actuales de PSA en siete comunidades de la Selva Lacandona de México. Realizamos talleres entre los participantes de las encuestas que incluyeron capacitación y despliegue en campo de herramientas utilizadas para monitorear la biodiversidad y la cobertura del suelo, incluidos transectos visuales, cámaras trampa, grabadores acústicos e imágenes satelitales de la cobertura forestal. Realizamos encuestas antes y después del taller en cada comunidad para evaluar los cambios en las percepciones de los participantes tras su involucramiento en la capacitación de monitoreo de biodiversidad y las actividades de campo relacionadas. También revisamos la investigación existente sobre enfoques de monitoreo y gestión ambiental participativa. Una cuarta parte de los participantes actuales de PES en el área de estudio participaron en nuestras encuestas y talleres. La mayoría declaró interés en participar en diversas actividades relacionadas con los aspectos procesales del monitoreo de la biodiversidad (por ejemplo, planificación, recopilación de datos de campo, difusión de resultados) y reconoció múltiples beneficios de introducir el monitoreo de la biodiversidad en los PSA (por ejemplo, creación de conocimientos y capacidades, mejora de la gestión de los recursos naturales, y mayor apoyo a la conservación). La dependencia económica de los hogares de los PSA se asoció positivamente con la voluntad de participar en el monitoreo. Los factores inhibidores fueron la experiencia técnica, el tiempo y las limitaciones monetarias. Los encuestados estaban más interesados en monitorear mamíferos, aves y plantas y en utilizar transectos visuales, cámaras trampa e imágenes satelitales de la cubierta forestal. La exposición al monitoreo aumentó el interés posterior en el monitoreo al brindar a los encuestados nuevos conocimientos de sus comunidades relacionados con la deforestación y la abundancia y diversidad de especies. Los encuestados identificaron fortalezas y debilidades clave al aplicar diferentes herramientas de monitoreo, lo que sugiere que implementar múltiples herramientas simultáneamente puede aumentar la participación local y producir hallazgos y datos complementarios. En general, nuestros hallazgos respaldan la relevancia y utilidad de incorporar el monitoreo participativo de la biodiversidad en los PSA.

6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(20): 29334-29356, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573579

RESUMEN

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is widely used to evaluate product's life cycle environmental impact and identify the environmental weaknesses. However, it is difficult for existing LCA software to perform flexible LCA analysis based on the product life cycle characteristics and industry background. Meanwhile, under the existing LCA research model, product designers and manufacturers are usually not LCA evaluators, resulting in a certain time gap between the evaluation results and product improvement. Designers with less experience in green design often find it difficult to identify high environmental impact links in products at different life cycle stages and product levels, and updated products are challenging to meet various environmental restrictions. This paper establishes a multi-module product life cycle analysis model that combines product industry background that includes basic information, assessment information, structural information, and restriction information to achieve the multi-scenario of product LCA in different dimensions in a typical domain. The calculated mechanism of the dynamic power emission factor is built according to the service time and space dimensions. The proposed method forms an integrated environmental performance evaluation of household appliance (EPEHA) system. A software assessment and an optimization method are proposed to improve the EPEHA system. The results of this study show that these proposed methods can improve the timeliness and diversity of results analysis of product LCA in the field of household appliances in China. The universal data exchange format and simple operation interface of the EPEHA system enable people related to the product to quickly understand the environmental impact of the product in different scenarios, even if they lack green design knowledge and professional software training.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Televisión , Industrias , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Programas Informáticos
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 201: 116254, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484536

RESUMEN

This study conducts experimental and numerical simulations and analyzes the effects of the air bubble barrier (ABB) on the oil spill spread prevention efficiency regarding the varying aperture diameter, air discharge, and pollutant type. In a computational fluid dynamics simulation, a multiphase flow is studied using the finite volume method with the volume of fluid technique in the Star CCM+ software. The pipe generating air bubbles is fixed at the bottom of the tank at 1.8 m from the side of the experimental setup. The distinctive points of the study are the experiments conducted on different pollutants and the utilization of a novel adjustable air nozzle positioned on the air feed pipe. The effectiveness of the ABB in mitigating the spread of marine pollution is contingent on the aperture size, air discharge, and pollutant type. This study demonstrates that the ABB's feasibility for preventing the oil spill spread has improved.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Contaminación por Petróleo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Contaminación por Petróleo/prevención & control , Simulación por Computador , Programas Informáticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
8.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 37(1): 22-24, 2024 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448235

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) improve primary care by addressing issues that matter to clinicians. Building trust between researchers and care teams is essential to this process, which often requires visiting practices to cultivate relationships and perform research activities. However, in a recent study using practice facilitation to improve the delivery of a preventive service, the COVID-19 pandemic prompted us to convert all planned facilitation from an in-person to virtual format. This eliminated the need to commute by automobile to and from practices across the state, greatly reducing the carbon footprint of the study. METHODS: From practice facilitator field notes that detailed practice locations and number of sessions, we calculated the total number of driving miles averted by virtual facilitation. We then determined metric tons of carbon dioxide we avoided producing using the Environmental Protection Agency Greenhouse Gases Equivalencies Calculator. During post-intervention interviews, we assessed practices' perspectives and experiences with the virtual format. RESULTS: Three practice facilitators provided an average of 3.4 sessions for 64 practices. Virtual facilitation averted 32,574.8 drive miles and prevented the release of 12.7 metric tons of carbon dioxide, an offset equivalent to growing 210 trees for 10 years. Practices reported that virtual facilitation fostered greater engagement and allowed more clinicians and staff to attend sessions. DISCUSSION: Climate change poses a significant threat to the health of people and communities. Given their commitment to improving population health, it may be time for PBRNs to routinely assess their environmental impact and minimize preventable environmental costs.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Atención Primaria de Salud , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Servicios Preventivos de Salud , Ambiente
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e42140, 2024 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319701

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Health care providers worldwide are rapidly adopting electronic medical record (EMR) systems, replacing paper record-keeping systems. Despite numerous benefits to EMRs, the environmental emissions associated with medical record-keeping are unknown. Given the need for urgent climate action, understanding the carbon footprint of EMRs will assist in decarbonizing their adoption and use. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate and compare the environmental emissions associated with paper medical record-keeping and its replacement EMR system at a high-volume eye care facility in southern India. METHODS: We conducted the life cycle assessment methodology per the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 14040 standard, with primary data supplied by the eye care facility. Data on the paper record-keeping system include the production, use, and disposal of paper and writing utensils in 2016. The EMR system was adopted at this location in 2018. Data on the EMR system include the allocated production and disposal of capital equipment (such as computers and routers); the production, use, and disposal of consumable goods like paper and writing utensils; and the electricity required to run the EMR system. We excluded built infrastructure and cooling loads (eg. buildings and ventilation) from both systems. We used sensitivity analyses to model the effects of practice variation and data uncertainty and Monte Carlo assessments to statistically compare the 2 systems, with and without renewable electricity sources. RESULTS: This location's EMR system was found to emit substantially more greenhouse gases (GHGs) than their paper medical record system (195,000 kg carbon dioxide equivalents [CO2e] per year or 0.361 kg CO2e per patient visit compared with 20,800 kg CO2e per year or 0.037 kg CO2e per patient). However, sensitivity analyses show that the effect of electricity sources is a major factor in determining which record-keeping system emits fewer GHGs. If the study hospital sourced all electricity from renewable sources such as solar or wind power rather than the Indian electric grid, their EMR emissions would drop to 24,900 kg CO2e (0.046 kg CO2e per patient), a level comparable to the paper record-keeping system. Energy-efficient EMR equipment (such as computers and monitors) is the next largest factor impacting emissions, followed by equipment life spans. Multimedia Appendix 1 includes other emissions impact categories. CONCLUSIONS: The climate-changing emissions associated with an EMR system are heavily dependent on the sources of electricity. With a decarbonized electricity source, the EMR system's GHG emissions are on par with paper medical record-keeping, and decarbonized grids would likely have a much broader benefit to society. Though we found that the EMR system produced more emissions than a paper record-keeping system, this study does not account for potential expanded environmental gains from EMRs, including expanding access to care while reducing patient travel and operational efficiencies that can reduce unnecessary or redundant care.


Asunto(s)
Huella de Carbono , Registros Electrónicos de Salud , Hospitales Especializados , Registros Médicos , Papel , Clima , Programas Informáticos , Ambiente , India , Oftalmología , Sector de Atención de Salud , Cambio Climático
11.
Health Care Anal ; 32(2): 141-164, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38285121

RESUMEN

The term 'environment' is not uniformly defined in the public health sciences, which causes crucial inconsistencies in research, health policy, and practice. As we shall indicate, this is somewhat entangled with diverging pathogenic and salutogenic perspectives (research and policy priorities) concerning environmental health. We emphasise two distinct concepts of environment in use by the World Health Organisation. One significant way these concepts differ concerns whether the social environment is included. Divergence on this matter has profound consequences for the understanding of health and disease, for measures derived from that understanding targeting health promotion and disease prevention, and consequently, for epistemic structures and concept development in scientific practice. We hope to improve the given situation in public health by uncovering these differences and by developing a fruitful way of thinking about environment. Firstly, we side with the salutogenic conception of environment as a health resource (as well as a source of health risks). Secondly, we subdivide the concept of environment into four health-oriented environmental categories (viz., natural, built-material, socio-cultural, and psychosocial) and we link these with other theoretical notions proposed in the health sciences literature. Thirdly, we propose that in public health 'environment' should be understood as consisting of all extrinsic factors that influence or are influenced by the health, well-being, and development of an individual. Consequently, none of the four categories should be excluded from the concept of environment. We point out the practical relevance and fruitfulness of the conception of environment as a health source and frame this in causal terms, representing individual health environments as causal networks. Throughout, we side with the view that for the design of human health-promoting settings, increased attention and consideration of environmental resources of salutogenic potential is particularly pressing.


Asunto(s)
Salud Pública , Humanos , Medio Social , Ambiente , Salud Ambiental , Política de Salud , Promoción de la Salud
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(2): 207, 2024 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38280056

RESUMEN

The manufacturing of wooden furniture is extensive in Thailand's east. Hazardous chemicals were used in the wooden furniture industry's manufacturing process. Hazardous substances released into the surrounding atmosphere appear to have an impact on the environment and individuals. The ALOHA model is frequently used to assess hazardous chemicals released into the environment; this simulation model is an effective tool for modeling chemical compounds and detecting chemical disasters. It has a tremendous potential for preventing mishaps in potentially hazardous or emergency situations. Acetone and butyl acetate were extracted from the hardwood furniture business to identify accidents such as leaking, spillage, and evaporation. It is described as a highly poisonous, combustible, and explosive material. Toxic accident releases have negative implications for the surrounding areas. The goal of this work was to examine each accident using ALOHA software, and the computation of acetone and butyl acetate accidents was shown in this study. This project provides critical data for the furniture plant's chemical emergency rescue strategy as well as recommendations for emergency evacuation site decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Acetatos , Acetona , Sustancias Peligrosas , Humanos , Diseño Interior y Mobiliario , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Programas Informáticos
13.
Chemosphere ; 350: 141086, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38163464

RESUMEN

The rising demand from consumer goods and pharmaceutical industry is driving a fast expansion of newly developed chemicals. The conventional toxicity testing of unknown chemicals is expensive, time-consuming, and raises ethical concerns. The quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) is an efficient computational method because it saves time, resources, and animal experimentation. Advances in machine learning have improved chemical analysis in QSPR studies, but the real-world application of machine learning-based QSPR studies was limited by the unexplainable 'black box' feature of the machine learnings. In this study, multi-encoder structure-to-toxicity (S2T)-transformer based QSPR model was developed to estimate the properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Simplified molecular input line entry systems (SMILES) and molecular descriptors calculated by the Dragon 6 software, were simultaneously considered as input of QSPR model. Furthermore, an attention-based framework is proposed to describe the relationship between the molecular structure and toxicity of hazardous chemicals. The S2T-transformer model achieved the highest R2 scores of 0.918, 0.856, and 0.907 for logarithm of octanol-water partition coefficient (Log KOW), octanol-air partition coefficient (Log KOA), and bioconcentration factor (Log BCF) estimation of PCBs, respectively. Moreover, the attention weights were able to properly interpret the lateral (meta, para) chlorination associated with PCBs toxicity and environmental impact.


Asunto(s)
Bifenilos Policlorados , Animales , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Octanoles/química , Agua/química , Programas Informáticos , Relación Estructura-Actividad Cuantitativa , Ambiente
15.
Conserv Biol ; 38(1): e14193, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37768190

RESUMEN

There is a growing trend of nation states invoking national security and emergency declarations to build state-sponsored infrastructure projects for border defense, energy production, and transportation. Established laws, regulations, and agreements for the protection of nature and cultural heritage within and between countries are becoming secondary to national security, compromising the function of protected areas, such as national parks, wilderness areas, and biosphere reserves that safeguard biodiversity, climate, and human health. We considered cases where decades-long multinational cross-border endangered species recovery programs have been jeopardized by waivers of environmental protection laws to facilitate rapid construction of border barriers that impede the movement and migration of animals, such as at the US-Mexico and Poland-Belarus borders. Renewable energy megaprojects, such as the Pinacate solar plant in Mexico, coupled with power transmission lines and road networks likewise cast a large footprint on the land and are being carried out with minimal to no environmental compliance under the guise of national security. National sovereignty likewise has been used as justification for bypassing laws to proceed with similar projects, such as Mexico's Dos Bocas refinery and Poland's Vistula Spit canal. Emphasis on security is also apparent in increasing military expenditure by the world's largest economies, which has created a mismatch with improvement in environmental policy stringency. Decisions to prioritize security can undermine democratic principles and environmental review protocols, trivialize humanity's dependence on functioning ecosystems, and contradict the United Nation's resolution on the human right to a healthy environment. Framing infrastructure projects as matters of national security also foments civil and political unrest by the labeling and casting of dissenters, including conservation scientists and environmental defenders, as antinational. World leaders must refrain from misusing extraordinary powers, adhere to laws and international agreements, and consult experts and local people before taking unilateral action on projects that affect ecological and human communities.


Amenazas para la conservación a partir de los intereses nacionales de seguridad Resumen En los países existe una tendencia creciente por invocar la seguridad nacional y las declaraciones de emergencia para construir infraestructuras financiadas por el estado para la defensa de las fronteras, producción de energía y transporte. Las leyes, regulaciones y acuerdos establecidos para la protección de la naturaleza y el patrimonio cultural dentro y entre los países se están relegando por la seguridad nacional, lo que compromete la función de las áreas protegidas (parques nacionales, áreas silvestres y reservas de la biósfera) que resguardan la biodiversidad, el clima y la salud humana. Consideramos los casos en donde se han puesto en peligro los programas longevos y multinacionales de recuperación de especies en peligro por las exenciones a las leyes de protección ambiental para facilitar la construcción rápida de barreras fronterizas que impiden el movimiento y la migración de animales, como es el caso de las fronteras entre EU y México y Polonia y Bielorrusia. Los megaproyectos de energía renovable, como la planta solar del Pinacate en México, en conjunto con las líneas de transmisión eléctrica y las redes de carreteras también dejan una gran huella sobre la tierra y se realizan con el mínimo o ningún cumplimiento bajo el aspecto de la seguridad nacional. La soberanía nacional también se ha usado para justificar la omisión de las leyes para proceder con proyectos similares, como la refinería de Dos Bocas en México y el canal Vistula Spit en Polonia. El énfasis sobre la seguridad también es evidente con el incremento del gasto militar de las mayores economías mundiales, lo que ha creado una desigualdad con las mejoras en la exigencia de la política ambiental. Las decisiones para priorizar la seguridad pueden debilitar los principios democráticos y los protocolos de revisión ambiental, banalizar la dependencia de la humanidad por los ecosistemas funcionales y contradecir la resolución de las Naciones Unidas sobre el derecho humano a un ambiente saludable. Cuando se denominan los proyectos de infraestructura como asuntos de seguridad nacional, también se fomenta el malestar civil y político al etiquetar como antinacionales a los disidentes, incluidos los defensores ambientales y los científicos de la conservación. Los líderes mundiales deben abstenerse de usar indebidamente los poderes extraordinarios, adherirse a las leyes y acuerdos internacionales y consultar con expertos y personas locales antes de actuar de forma unilateral en cuanto a proyectos que afectan las comunidades humanas y ecológicas.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Animales , Humanos , Biodiversidad , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Medidas de Seguridad
16.
Sportis (A Coruña) ; 10(1): 188-211, 2024. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229141

RESUMEN

El desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) ateroscleróticas comienza en edades tempranas y está influenciado por factores genéticos y ambientales. La literatura actual propone el entrenamiento de fuerza (EF) como un medio para reducir el riesgo de ECV y mejorar el perfil lipídico en niños y adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad. Con el objetivo de examinar los efectos de un programa de EF en este grupo de población, se realizó una revisión sistemática utilizando el protocolo PRISMA y se buscaron estudios en cinco bases de datos (Pubmed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, Embase y Web of Science). Un total de 11 estudios cumplieron los criterios finales de inclusión. Los resultados de esta revisión indicaron que las intervenciones de EF supervisadas y realizadas al menos 3 días a la semana con una duración de 8 semanas, mejoraron significativamente los parámetros lipídicos del colesterol (CT) y las lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL). Los programas de EF pueden ser considerados como un tratamiento no farmacológico adecuado para mejorar el perfil lipídico y la salud cardiovascular de niños y adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad (AU)


The development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) begins early in life and is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Resistance training (RT) is proposed as a means to reduce CVD risk and improve lipid profile in overweight and obese children and adolescents. In order to examine the effects of an RT programme in this population group, a systematic review was conducted using the PRISMA and protocol and using a total of five databases (Pubmed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science). A total of 11 studies met the final inclusion criteria. The results of these studies indicated that supervised PE interventions performed at least 3 days per week with lasting 8 weeks significantly improved lipid parameters of cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Consequently, it was concluded that RT programmes can be considered as a suitable non-pharmacological treatment to improve the lipid profile and cardiovascular health of overweight and obese children and adolescents (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Niño , Entrenamiento de Fuerza , Lípidos/sangre , Sobrepeso/sangre , Obesidad/sangre
17.
Sci Robot ; 8(85): eadd8662, 2023 12 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38055805

RESUMEN

In early 2016, we had the opportunity to test a pair of sprawling posture robots, one designed to mimic a crocodile and another designed to mimic a monitor lizard, along the banks of the Nile River in Uganda, Africa. These robots were developed uniquely for a documentary by the BBC called Spy in the Wild and fell at the intersection of our interests in developing robots to study animals and robots for disaster response and other missions in challenging environments. The documentary required that these robots not only walk and swim in the same harsh, natural environments as the animals that they were modeled on and film up close but also move and even look exactly like the real animals from an aesthetic perspective. This pushed us to take a fundamentally different approach to the design and building of biorobots compared with our typical laboratory-residing robots, in addition to collaborating with sculpting artists to enhance our robots' aesthetics. The robots needed to be designed on the basis of a systematic study of data on the model specimens, be fabricated rapidly, and be reliable and robust enough to handle what the wild would throw at them. Here, we share the research efforts of this collaboration, the design specifications of the robots' hardware and software, the lessons learned from testing these robots in the field first hand, and how the eye-opening experience shaped our subsequent work on disaster response robotics and biorobotics for challenging amphibious scenarios.


Asunto(s)
Robótica , Animales , Programas Informáticos , Computadores , Natación , Ambiente
18.
Environ Health Perspect ; 131(12): 127003, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38039140

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies across the globe generally reported increased mortality risks associated with particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5µm (PM2.5) exposure with large heterogeneity in the magnitude of reported associations and the shape of concentration-response functions (CRFs). We aimed to evaluate the impact of key study design factors (including confounders, applied exposure model, population age, and outcome definition) on PM2.5 effect estimates by harmonizing analyses on three previously published large studies in Canada [Mortality-Air Pollution Associations in Low Exposure Environments (MAPLE), 1991-2016], the United States (Medicare, 2000-2016), and Europe [Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), 2000-2016] as much as possible. METHODS: We harmonized the study populations to individuals 65+ years of age, applied the same satellite-derived PM2.5 exposure estimates, and selected the same sets of potential confounders and the same outcome. We evaluated whether differences in previously published effect estimates across cohorts were reduced after harmonization among these factors. Additional analyses were conducted to assess the influence of key design features on estimated risks, including adjusted covariates and exposure assessment method. A combined CRF was assessed with meta-analysis based on the extended shape-constrained health impact function (eSCHIF). RESULTS: More than 81 million participants were included, contributing 692 million person-years of follow-up. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause mortality associated with a 5-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 were 1.039 (1.032, 1.046) in MAPLE, 1.025 (1.021, 1.029) in Medicare, and 1.041 (1.014, 1.069) in ELAPSE. Applying a harmonized analytical approach marginally reduced difference in the observed associations across the three studies. Magnitude of the association was affected by the adjusted covariates, exposure assessment methodology, age of the population, and marginally by outcome definition. Shape of the CRFs differed across cohorts but generally showed associations down to the lowest observed PM2.5 levels. A common CRF suggested a monotonically increased risk down to the lowest exposure level. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP12141.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Humanos , Anciano , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Canadá/epidemiología
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38131721

RESUMEN

Language development starts during the fetal period when the brain is sensitive to endocrine disruptions from environmental contaminants. This systematic review aims to systematically summarize the existing literature on early-life exposure to PFAS and children's language and communication development, which is an indicator of neurocognitive development. A structured literature search was conducted using three databases, PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL, last updated in April 2023. The population was defined as children and young adults. PFAS exposure was assessed pre- or postnatally. The outcome was defined as a language and communication ability assessed with validated instruments, parental self-reports, or clinical language disorder diagnoses. In total, 15 studies were identified for subsequent analyses. Thirteen were performed in background-exposed populations and two in highly exposed populations. There were some indications of potential adverse effects; however, these were not consistent across child sex, age of assessment, or PFAS exposure levels. No systematic effect of early-life PFAS exposure on language and communication development was found. These inconclusive findings may partly be explained by the use of general test instruments with limited validity as to children's language and communication development. Further studies over a wider exposure range using specific language test instruments are needed.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Alcanesulfónicos , Contaminantes Ambientales , Fluorocarburos , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Niño , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Humanos , Lenguaje Infantil , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/epidemiología , Desarrollo del Lenguaje , Comunicación
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(12): 1535, 2023 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38008816

RESUMEN

Computer-aided (in silico) prediction has shown good potential to support the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pharmaceutical emerging contaminants (PECs), allowing low-cost, animal-free, high-throughput screening of multiple potential risks posed by a wide variety of pharmaceuticals in the environment based on insufficient toxicity data. This review provided recent insights regarding the application of in silico approaches in prediction for environmental risks of PECs. Based on the review of 20 included articles from 8 countries published since 2018, we found that the researchers' interest and concern in this research topic were sharply aroused since 2021. Recently, in silico approaches have been widely used for the prediction of bioaccumulation and biodegradability, lethal endpoints, developmental toxicity, mutagenicity, other eco-toxicological effects such as ototoxicity and hematological toxicity, and human health hazards of exposure to PECs. Particular attention has been given to the simultaneous discernment of multiple environmental risks and health effects of PECs based on mechanistic data of pharmaceuticals using advanced bioinformatic methods such as transcriptomic analysis and network pharmacology prediction. In silico software platforms and databases used in the included studies were diversified, and there is currently no standardized and accepted in silico model for ERA of PECs. Date suggested that in silico prediction of the environmental risks posed by PECs is still in its infancy. Considerable critical challenges need to be addressed, including consideration of environmental exposure concentration for PECs, interactions among mixtures of PECs and other contaminants coexisting in environments, and development of in silico models specific to ERA of PECs.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Simulación por Computador , Programas Informáticos , Medición de Riesgo , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas
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