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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145664, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940752

RESUMEN

The need for international cooperation in marine resource management and conservation has been reflected in the increasing number of agreements aiming for effective and well-connected networks of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). However, the extent to which individual MPAs are connected remains mostly unknown. Here, we use a biophysical model tuned with empirical data on species dispersal ecology to predict connectivity of a vast spectrum of biodiversity in the European network of marine reserves (i.e., no-take MPAs). Our results highlight the correlation between empirical propagule duration data and connectivity potential and show weak network connectivity and strong isolation for major ecological groups, resulting from the lack of direct connectivity corridors between reserves over vast regions. The particularly high isolation predicted for ecosystem structuring species (e.g., corals, sponges, macroalgae and seagrass) might potentially undermine biodiversity conservation efforts if local retention is insufficient and unmanaged populations are at risk. Isolation might also be problematic for populations' persistence in the light of climate change and expected species range shifts. Our findings provide novel insights for management directives, highlighting the location of regions requiring additional marine reserves to function as stepping-stone connectivity corridors.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Ecosistema , Animales , Biodiversidad , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804855

RESUMEN

The development of high-throughput screening methodologies may decrease the need for laboratory animals for toxicity testing. Here, we investigate the potential of assessing immunotoxicity with high-throughput screening data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ToxCast program. As case studies, we analyzed the most common chemicals added to food as well as per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) shown to migrate to food from packaging materials or processing equipment. The antioxidant preservative tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) showed activity both in ToxCast assays and in classical immunological assays, suggesting that it may affect the immune response in people. From the PFAS group, we identified eight substances that can migrate from food contact materials and have ToxCast data. In epidemiological and toxicological studies, PFAS suppress the immune system and decrease the response to vaccination. However, most PFAS show weak or no activity in immune-related ToxCast assays. This lack of concordance between toxicological and high-throughput data for common PFAS indicates the current limitations of in vitro screening for analyzing immunotoxicity. High-throughput in vitro assays show promise for providing mechanistic data relevant for immune risk assessment. In contrast, the lack of immune-specific activity in the existing high-throughput assays cannot validate the safety of a chemical for the immune system.


Asunto(s)
Ensayos Analíticos de Alto Rendimiento , Pruebas de Toxicidad , Animales , Alimentos , Medición de Riesgo , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805548

RESUMEN

Predicting the spatio-temporal evolution characteristics and trade-off/synergy relationships of ecosystem service value (ESV) under different policy scenarios is of great significance for realizing regional sustainable development. This study established a framework and used the geographical simulation and optimization systems-future land use simulation (GeoSOS-FLUS) model and bivariate local autocorrelation analysis to stimulate and predict the impact of land use change on the ESV of Anyang City from 1995 to 2025. We also explored the trade-offs and synergy among ecosystem services under three policy scenarios (natural evolution, cultivated land protection, and ecological protection) in 2025. Results show that (1) the land use change in Anyang from 1995 to 2025 was significant, and the degree of land use change under the cultivated land and ecological protection scenarios was more moderate than that under the natural evolution scenario; (2) The total ESV decreased between 1995 and 2015, amounting to losses of 1126 million yuan, and the decline from 2015 to 2025 under the natural evolution scenario was more significant than those under the cultivated land protection and ecological protection scenarios; and (3) an obvious synergy was observed between various ecosystem services in Anyang City under different scenarios in 2025, and the most significant synergy was observed under the natural evolution scenario. In terms of spatial distribution, the agglomeration of "high-high" synergy in the west and "low-low" synergy in the central region was significant. Local areas showed "high-low" and "low-high" trade-off relationships scattered between their built land and woodland or cultivated land. The proposed framework can provide certain scientific support for regulating land use and ecosystem services in rapidly urbanized areas.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , China , Ciudades , Desarrollo Sostenible
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806099

RESUMEN

Corporate green innovation is an effective way to achieve energy conservation and emission reduction. Enterprises' willingness to pursue green innovation is increasingly affected by external factors. By using a quasi-natural experiment of China's Stock Connect program, we investigate the impact of stock market liberalization on corporate green innovation. We find that stock market liberalization increases enterprises' green innovation, especially for state-owned enterprises. We also find that stock market liberalization plays a stronger role in promoting the green invention patents of enterprises whose managers have overseas experience and enterprises in areas with a higher degree of openness. Our mechanism analysis suggests that stock market liberalization attracts the attention of securities analysts and increases managers' focus on environmental protection, thereby promoting corporate green innovation. Our findings show that stock market liberalization plays an important role in the governance of firms' non-financial behavior, which has important theoretical and practical implications.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Organizaciones , China , Invenciones
6.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112400, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823436

RESUMEN

Over the past century, the decline in biodiversity due to climate change and habitat loss has become unprecedentedly serious. Multiple drivers, including climate change, land-use/cover change, and qualitative change in habitat need to be considered in an integrated approach, which has rarely been taken, to create an effective conservation strategy. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate and map the combined impacts of those multiple drivers on biodiversity in the Republic of Korea (ROK). To this end, biodiversity persistence (BP) was simulated by employing generalized dissimilarity modeling with estimates of habitat conditions. Habitat Condition Index was newly developed based on national survey datasets to represent the changes in habitat quality according to the land cover changes and forest management, especially after the ROK's National Reforestation Programme. The changes in habitat conditions were simulated for a period ranging from the 1960s to the 2010s; additionally, future (2050s) spatial scenarios were constructed. By focusing on the changes in forest habitat quality along with climate and land use, this study quantitatively and spatially analyzed the changes in BP over time and presented the effects of reforestation and forest management. The results revealed that continuous forest management had a positive impact on BP by offsetting the negative effects of past urbanization. Improvements in forest habitat quality also can effectively reduce the negative impacts of climate change. This quantitative analysis of successful forest restoration in Korea proved that economic development and urbanization could be in parallel with biodiversity enhancement. Nevertheless, current forest management practices were found to be insufficient in fully offsetting the decline in future BP caused by climate change. This indicates that there is a need for additional measures along with mitigation of climate change to maintain the current biodiversity level.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Cambio Climático , Ecosistema , Bosques , República de Corea
7.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112333, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823446

RESUMEN

Intensifying competition for water induces the growth of water markets in several countries for sharing water between rural communities and cities. While there is a growing recognition that adoption of market mechanisms in environmental governance relies on the state and different institutional arrangements, much less is known about how the interconnections among the state, market-tools, and the community work in practice. In China's distinctive political system, the central government has adopted a 'Two-Hands' approach () to water governance - a combination of strong central regulation and infrastructure development on the one hand, and adoption of market principles on the other to improve water reallocation. A recent study has explored the policy evolution underpinning this transition. However, no studies have systematically examined the implementation of the Two-Hands approach to reveal the underlying institutional hybrid patterns in environmental governance. This study fills this research gap by employing a Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) to analyze how the interplay of the central government, market, and local governance shapes water rights trading patterns. A total of 29 water-scarce cities using water rights trading with 385 transactions were investigated for the period between 2000 and 2019 by combining evidence from fsQCA and qualitative case-studies. The implications drawn from interpreting the results are as follows: (1) the central government shapes the development of the market and its transactions but this is expressed in multiple ways through pilot projects and the national water exchange platform; (2) establishing water markets and investing in water infrastructure are mutually reinforcing, rather than mutually exclusive; and (3) local governments employ different property rights arrangements to adapt water markets in China's centralized politically institutional context.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Política Ambiental , China , Ciudades , Agua
8.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112478, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823451

RESUMEN

The spatiotemporal dislocation of urbanization and ecological construction may lead to differences in the spatiotemporal pattern and matching of the ecosystem service supply and demand, which are significantly important in altering the ecosystem service supply and demand equilibrium. This study quantified and mapped the supply and demand of carbon sequestration services in the Xiangjiang River Basin (XRB) from 1990 to 2015 using the InVEST and population distribution models and identified the spatial distribution characteristics and changes in the supply and demand relationship on the sub-basin scale using the spatial autocorrelation method and Z-scores. The results show that the expansion of land urbanization greater than 50% was concentrated in the midstream and downstream, while the ecological construction was mainly distributed in the upstream. On the whole-basin scale, the supply of carbon sequestration services slightly decreased by 21.62%, while the demand sharply increased by 376.86%. The carbon sequestration services supply-demand ratio (CSDR) reduced from 0.16 (1990) to -0.03 (2015). This meant that the status of the supply and demand in the XRB had changed from oversupply to overdemand, and this tide turned in 2005 (-0.01). Furthermore, the spatial distribution pattern of the sub-basins' CSDR in the upstream was the High-High cluster, while it was the Low-Low cluster in the downstream. These results revealed the high spatial distribution consistency between the CSDR and urbanization and ecological construction. The slight increase in the carbon sinks caused by the ecological construction in the upstream could not offset the rapidly increased carbon emissions from the downstream for urbanization. Meanwhile, the lack of ecological concern during the urbanization process had led to a persistent reduction in the carbon sinks in the downstream, which also exacerbated the disequilibrium of the ecosystem service supply and demand in the XRB. Consequently, this study suggests that the scale and speed of the urbanization of land should be reasonably controlled and that the ecological construction in rapid urbanization regions should be strengthened to meet the demand for ecosystem services.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Urbanización , Carbono , Secuestro de Carbono , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ríos
9.
Science ; 372(6539): 300-303, 2021 04 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859037

RESUMEN

The study of deep-time ecological dynamics has the ability to inform conservation decisions by anticipating the behavior of ecosystems millions of years into the future. Using network analysis and an exceptional fossil dataset spanning the past 21 million years, we show that mammalian ecological assemblages undergo long periods of functional stasis, notwithstanding high taxonomic volatility due to dispersal, speciation, and extinction. Higher functional richness and diversity promoted the persistence of functional faunas despite species extinction risk being indistinguishable among these different faunas. These findings, and the large mismatch between functional and taxonomic successions, indicate that although safeguarding functional diversity may or may not minimize species losses, it would certainly enhance the persistence of ecosystem functioning in the face of future disturbances.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Ecosistema , Fósiles , Mamíferos , Distribución Animal , Animales , Biodiversidad , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Extinción Biológica , Especiación Genética , Mamíferos/clasificación , Dinámica Poblacional
10.
Elife ; 102021 04 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821799

RESUMEN

Combining spatial and temporal data is helping researchers to understand how deforestation influences the risk of malaria.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Malaria , Bosques , Humanos , Incidencia , Laos , Malaria/epidemiología
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(2): e20201604, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852672

RESUMEN

The Program for Biodiversity Research (PPBio) is an innovative program designed to integrate all biodiversity research stakeholders. Operating since 2004, it has installed long-term ecological research sites throughout Brazil and its logic has been applied in some other southern-hemisphere countries. The program supports all aspects of research necessary to understand biodiversity and the processes that affect it. There are presently 161 sampling sites (see some of them at Supplementary Appendix), most of which use a standardized methodology that allows comparisons across biomes and through time. To date, there are about 1200 publications associated with PPBio that cover topics ranging from natural history to genetics and species distributions. Most of the field data and metadata are available through PPBio web sites or DataONE. Metadata is available for researchers that intend to explore the different faces of Brazilian biodiversity spatio-temporal variation, as well as for managers intending to improve conservation strategies. The Program also fostered, directly and indirectly, local technical capacity building, and supported the training of hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students. The main challenge is maintaining the long-term funding necessary to understand biodiversity patterns and processes under pressure from global environmental changes.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Brasil , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos , Conocimiento
12.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 30(4): 387-394, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908200

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: After storing blood for a period of time, the structure and properties of the red blood cells (RBC) will change, which results in a decrease in the oxygen-carrying capacity, and further has a certain impact on their exosomes. OBJECTIVES: Effective oxygen uptake (Q), P50, 2,3-DPG, and Na+-K+-ATP of RBC after different storage times were detected. Electron microscopy was used to observe the morphology of RBC and the characteristics of secreting exosomes. Western blot was used to detect the expression of phenotypes CD63 and CD81 of exosomes, and the expression of mitochondrial riboprotein MRPS35 of exosomes was also detected to explore the mechanism of decreased function of RBC with the extension of preservation time. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After the RBC suspension was prepared, the effective oxygen-carrying capacity (Q) and P50, as well as 2,3-DPG and Na+-K+-ATP were prepared. This was followed by morphology observation of erythrocyte exosomes using transmission electron microscope (TEM), and by western blot analysis of exosome phenotypes CD63 and CD81. RESULTS: Erythrocytes secrete exosomes, which results in abnormal expression of related proteins in mitochondria. This leads to increased ROS production, mitochondrial apoptosis and, finally, changes in or damage to erythrocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the rheological properties and oxygen-carrying functions of erythrocytes during preservation are all observable manifestations, underlying which lie mechanisms of damage at the molecular level of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes secrete exosomes, which results in abnormal expression of related proteins in mitochondria, increasing ROS production, mitochondrial apoptosis and, finally, changes or damage to erythrocytes.


Asunto(s)
Exosomas , Oxígeno , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Eritrocitos , Sodio
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 5620-5628, 2021 05 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851533

RESUMEN

For decades, we have known that chemicals affect human and wildlife behavior. Moreover, due to recent technological and computational advances, scientists are now increasingly aware that a wide variety of contaminants and other environmental stressors adversely affect organismal behavior and subsequent ecological outcomes in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. There is also a groundswell of concern that regulatory ecotoxicology does not adequately consider behavior, primarily due to a lack of standardized toxicity methods. This has, in turn, led to the exclusion of many behavioral ecotoxicology studies from chemical risk assessments. To improve understanding of the challenges and opportunities for behavioral ecotoxicology within regulatory toxicology/risk assessment, a unique workshop with international representatives from the fields of behavioral ecology, ecotoxicology, regulatory (eco)toxicology, neurotoxicology, test standardization, and risk assessment resulted in the formation of consensus perspectives and recommendations, which promise to serve as a roadmap to advance interfaces among the basic and translational sciences, and regulatory practices.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecotoxicología , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Ecosistema , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799614

RESUMEN

The estrogen receptors α (ERα) are transcription factors involved in several physiological processes belonging to the nuclear receptors (NRs) protein family. Besides the endogenous ligands, several other chemicals are able to bind to those receptors. Among them are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that can trigger toxicological pathways. Many studies have focused on predicting EDCs based on their ability to bind NRs; mainly, estrogen receptors (ER), thyroid hormones receptors (TR), androgen receptors (AR), glucocorticoid receptors (GR), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPARγ). In this work, we suggest a pipeline designed for the prediction of ERα binding activity. The flagged compounds can be further explored using experimental techniques to assess their potential to be EDCs. The pipeline is a combination of structure based (docking and pharmacophore models) and ligand based (pharmacophore models) methods. The models have been constructed using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data encompassing a large number of structurally diverse compounds. A validation step was then achieved using two external databases: the NR-DBIND (Nuclear Receptors DataBase Including Negative Data) and the EADB (Estrogenic Activity DataBase). Different combination protocols were explored. Results showed that the combination of models performed better than each model taken individually. The consensus protocol that reached values of 0.81 and 0.54 for sensitivity and specificity, respectively, was the best suited for our toxicological study. Insights and recommendations were drawn to alleviate the screening quality of other projects focusing on ERα binding predictions.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos/química , Receptor alfa de Estrógeno/química , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Sitios de Unión , Bases de Datos de Compuestos Químicos , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Disruptores Endocrinos/clasificación , Disruptores Endocrinos/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrógeno/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligandos , Unión Proteica , Proyectos de Investigación , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Relación Estructura-Actividad , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802705

RESUMEN

Sustainable utilization of grassland resources was an important topic concerned by worldwide countries and regions, and ecological compensation had gradually become the main policy tool for grassland environmental management and ecological protection. This study adopted face-to-face interviews and questionnaires, and multiordered Logit model was then used to explore herdsmen's satisfaction with Grassland Ecological Conservation Subsidy and Reward Policy (GECSRP) focusing on identifying the key factors behind it. Results showed that herdsmen were not satisfied with GECSRP on the whole, while value perception, environmental regulation and their interaction played a positive role on improving the satisfaction. Specifically, economic benefits had the strongest promotion impacts, followed by social identity in the two-dimensional variables of value perception. The guiding regulation had stronger promoting impacts, followed by the incentive regulation in the two-dimensional variables of environmental regulation. Interestingly, incentive regulation played an enhanced interaction on the influence of economic benefits and environmental value on herdsmen's satisfaction, yet the interaction between guiding regulation and environmental value was not significant. These indicated that herdsmen paid more attention to substantial subsidies and rewards in the process of ecological livestock husbandry, and environmental regulation formulated by government had a phenomenon of "relative system failure". Thus, the grassland ecological environment policy should be further adjusted and improved to promote the economic development of pastoral areas.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Pradera , Animales , China , Ecosistema , Percepción , Satisfacción Personal , Políticas
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804281

RESUMEN

Globally, the livelihoods of over a billion people are affected by changes to marine ecosystems, both structurally and systematically. Resources and ecosystem services, provided by the marine environment, contribute nutrition, income, and health benefits for communities. One threat to these securities is ciguatera poisoning; worldwide, the most commonly reported non-bacterial seafood-related illness. Ciguatera is caused by the consumption of (primarily) finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins, potent neurotoxins produced by benthic single-cell microalgae. When consumed, ciguatoxins are biotransformed and can bioaccumulate throughout the food-web via complex pathways. Ciguatera-derived food insecurity is particularly extreme for small island-nations, where fear of intoxication can lead to fishing restrictions by region, species, or size. Exacerbating these complexities are anthropogenic or natural changes occurring in global marine habitats, e.g., climate change, greenhouse-gas induced physical oceanic changes, overfishing, invasive species, and even the international seafood trade. Here we provide an overview of the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century regarding the many facets of ciguatera, including the complex nature of this illness, the biological/environmental factors affecting the causative organisms, their toxins, vectors, detection methods, human-health oriented responses, and ultimately an outlook towards the future. Ciguatera research efforts face many social and environmental challenges this century. However, several future-oriented goals are within reach, including digital solutions for seafood supply chains, identifying novel compounds and methods with the potential for advanced diagnostics, treatments, and prediction capabilities. The advances described herein provide confidence that the tools are now available to answer many of the remaining questions surrounding ciguatera and therefore protection measures can become more accurate and routine.


Asunto(s)
Intoxicación por Ciguatera , Intoxicación por Ciguatera/epidemiología , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Humanos , Investigación Interdisciplinaria , Océanos y Mares
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808181

RESUMEN

The global illegal wildlife trade directly threatens biodiversity and leads to disease outbreaks and epidemics. In order to avoid the loss of endangered species and ensure public health security, it is necessary to intervene in illegal wildlife trade and promote public awareness of the need for wildlife conservation. Anthropomorphism is a basic and common psychological process in humans that plays a crucial role in determining how a person interacts with other non-human agents. Previous research indicates that anthropomorphizing nature entities through metaphors could increase individual behavioral intention of wildlife conservation. However, relatively little is known about the mechanism by which anthropomorphism influences behavioral intention and whether social context affects the effect of anthropomorphism. This research investigated the impact of negative emotions associated with a pandemic situation on the effectiveness of anthropomorphic strategies for wildlife conservation across two experimental studies. Experiment 1 recruited 245 college students online and asked them to read a combination of texts and pictures as anthropomorphic materials. The results indicated that anthropomorphic materials could increase participants' empathy and decrease their wildlife product consumption intention. Experiment 2 recruited 140 college students online and they were required to read the same materials as experiment 1 after watching a video related to epidemics. The results showed that the effect of wildlife anthropomorphization vanished if participants' negative emotion was aroused by the video. The present research provides experimental evidence that anthropomorphic strategies would be useful for boosting public support for wildlife conservation. However, policymakers and conservation organizations must be careful about the negative effects of the pandemic context, as the negative emotions produced by it seems to weaken the effectiveness of anthropomorphic strategies.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Epidemias , Animales , Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Empatía , Especies en Peligro de Extinción
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799984

RESUMEN

Wetland ecosystems play one of the most crucial roles in the world. Wetlands have the functions of ecological water storage, water supply, and climate regulation, which plays an indispensable role in global environmental security. The Pumqu River Basin (PRB) is located in an area with extremely vulnerable ecological environment, where climate change is obvious. Understanding wetland distribution, changes and causes in the PRB are of great importance to the rational management and protection of wetlands. Using the Landsat series satellite images, wetlands of this area in 2000, 2010, and 2018 were extracted. The results showed that (1) there were obvious regional differences in wetland types and their distribution patterns in the basin. Wetlands were mainly distributed in areas with slopes less than 12° and at elevations between 4000 m and 5500 m. (2) During the past 20 years, the wetland area in the basin decreased, and the changing trend of wetlands was different. Palustrine wetlands decreased tremendously, riverine and lacustrine wetlands first decreased and then increased, while floodplain wetlands first increased and then decreased. Palustrine wetlands were reclaimed to cultivated land, but the proportion of reclamation is small. (3) Climate dominated wetland changes in the PRB. The changes in riverine and lacustrine wetlands were mainly affected by the warm-season average temperature, the change in palustrine wetlands was mainly related to the annual precipitation and the warm-season average temperature, and the change in floodplain wetlands was related to the warm-season precipitation. To achieve sustainable development, the government plays a guiding role and actively formulates and implements wetland protection policies, such as restricting or prohibiting grazing on wetlands, which play an important role in wetland protection and restoration.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Humedales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Ríos , Tibet
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802442

RESUMEN

The ecological system is the basis of human survival and global environmental protection. In the process of development, countries will pay close attention to the changing state of the ecosystem. Taking the ecosystem pattern as the research object, a three-layer analysis method was proposed. The transfer matrix and landscape index were used as the first layer to analyze the basic changes. Grey correlation, range-coupling coordination and relative priority were used as the second layer to analyze the reasons of the change. The interval-entropy weight, TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution), was used as the third layer to evaluate the quality of the change. The ten counties in the worst-hit areas of the Wenchuan earthquake were analyzed from different angles, with county region, intensity zone and ecosystem as the objects, and the following results were obtained: (1) Taking Mianzhu City as an example, from 2000 to 2010 and 2018, the conversion ratio of forest, grassland and farmland is 54.24, 59.19, 17.21, 20.06, 37.39 and 52.86%, which were distributed in the north, central and southern parts, respectively. (2) Taking the ninth intensity zone as an example, the forest landscape fragmentation increased, disturbance decreased, and species diversity increased. There is a high influence and restriction relationship between ecosystem and landscape pattern in the total landscape area change. Additionally, the relationship between them tends to develop in a benign way. As of 2018, it is in the change state of moderate imbalance-ecosystem lag. (3) Taking the county ecosystem change as an example, urban type is the best in the counties of ecosystem change, of which Shifang is the best and Pingwu is the worst. The results show that this method can effectively compare and analyze the changes in the multi-regional ecosystem pattern, which has the characteristics of universality and can also be applied to the research of ecosystem pattern change in special regions.


Asunto(s)
Desastres , Terremotos , China , Ciudades , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Humanos
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802489

RESUMEN

Chinese government policy officially identify the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) as one of regional green development strategies firstly in 2014. This strategy can be regarded as quasi-natural experiment, this paper aims to test its impact on regional environmental total factor productivity (TFP). First, slack-based measure model is used to calculate the environmental TFP from 2005 to 2017 at provincial level. Second, based on Chinese official statistics, differences-in-differences (DID) method is applied to construct an evaluation model of policy effect, combining with the kernel matching in propensity score matching (PSM) method. The results show that environmental TFP of YREB has significant spatial differences, with characteristic of high-east and low-west, its average level is 11.69 percentage points higher than the national average. YREB strategy promotes regional economic growth, but it does no effect on the regional environmental TFP yet. Modelling suggests that YREB strategy may play a role in the short term. From the significance of the control variables, infrastructure construction level is positively correlated with environmental TFP, while per capita GDP, financial development and energy consumption intensity have negative effect on environmental TFP. Based on this, policymakers should focus on green development, promoting industrial transformation, and enhancing environmental protection.


Asunto(s)
Ríos , Desarrollo Sostenible , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Desarrollo Económico
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