Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 55.438
Filtrar
1.
Science ; 372(6537): 84-87, 2021 04 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795456

RESUMEN

Human activities and climate change threaten marine biodiversity worldwide, though sensitivity to these stressors varies considerably by species and taxonomic group. Mapping the spatial distribution of 14 anthropogenic stressors from 2003 to 2013 onto the ranges of 1271 at-risk marine species sensitive to them, we found that, on average, species faced potential impacts across 57% of their ranges, that this footprint expanded over time, and that the impacts intensified across 37% of their ranges. Although fishing activity dominated the footprint of impacts in national waters, climate stressors drove the expansion and intensification of impacts. Mitigating impacts on at-risk biodiversity is critical to supporting resilient marine ecosystems, and identifying the co-occurrence of impacts across multiple taxonomic groups highlights opportunities to amplify the benefits of conservation management.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Actividades Humanas , Océanos y Mares , Animales , Organismos Acuáticos , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Ambiente , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Peces , Humanos , Estrés Fisiológico
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805794

RESUMEN

This paper examines the current state of the art of commercially available outdoor footfall sensor technologies and defines individually tailored solutions for the walking trails involved in an ongoing research project. Effective implementation of footfall sensors can facilitate quantitative analysis of user patterns, inform maintenance schedules and assist in achieving management objectives, such as identifying future user trends like cyclo-tourism. This paper is informed by primary research conducted for the EU funded project TrailGazersBid (hereafter referred to as TrailGazers), led by Donegal County Council, and has Sligo County Council and Causeway Coast and Glens Council (NI) among the 10 project partners. The project involves three trails in Ireland and five other trails from Europe for comparison. It incorporates the footfall capture and management experiences of trail management within the EU Atlantic area and desk-based research on current footfall technologies and data capture strategies. We have examined 6 individual types of sensor and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each. We provide key learnings and insights that can help to inform trail managers on sensor options, along with a decision-making tool based on the key factors of the power source and mounting method. The research findings can also be applied to other outdoor footfall monitoring scenarios.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Turismo , Caminata , Europa (Continente) , Irlanda
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 240, 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791866

RESUMEN

Against the backdrop of the almost total failure of conventional physical fences to prevent deaths due to human-elephant conflict and elephant-train collision, management of the problem requires novel approaches. The elephant is a giant and intelligent animal, who, as has been observed through experience, cannot be effectively confined to an area by physical barriers, most of which are built without even considering long-established elephant passes. Instead, human habitats and facilities, including highways, should be pre-planned following an overall strategy to suitably assign natural resources to each party such that natural habitats are disturbed as little as possible. Hence, we envisage the need for a virtual elephant fence as part of the aforesaid strategy to warn elephants that a certain area is not appropriate for them to be present in or best for the safety of the herd. The present study involved in-depth experimentation to investigate the effects of multiple stimuli on real elephants based on the known elephant responses to such stimuli. The proposed system is an autonomous system that detects the presence of elephants, generates alarms for concerned parties, and coordinatively and tactically repels the animals back to safer areas. Experiment results indicated that the sound of a drone and the sound of tiger growls can both exert a strong deterrent effect on elephants. The sound of bees and the low-frequency burst yielded similar results in terms of encounter and withdrawal reactions. The resulting insights may lay a foundation for a novel approach toward the management of human-elephant conflict and elephant-train collisions.


Asunto(s)
Elefantes , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Recursos Naturales
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1785, 2021 03 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741981

RESUMEN

Tropical secondary forests sequester carbon up to 20 times faster than old-growth forests. This rate does not capture spatial regrowth patterns due to environmental and disturbance drivers. Here we quantify the influence of such drivers on the rate and spatial patterns of regrowth in the Brazilian Amazon using satellite data. Carbon sequestration rates of young secondary forests (<20 years) in the west are ~60% higher (3.0 ± 1.0 Mg C ha-1 yr-1) compared to those in the east (1.3 ± 0.3 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). Disturbances reduce regrowth rates by 8-55%. The 2017 secondary forest carbon stock, of 294 Tg C, could be 8% higher by avoiding fires and repeated deforestation. Maintaining the 2017 secondary forest area has the potential to accumulate ~19.0 Tg C yr-1 until 2030, contributing ~5.5% to Brazil's 2030 net emissions reduction target. Implementing legal mechanisms to protect and expand secondary forests whilst supporting old-growth conservation is, therefore, key to realising their potential as a nature-based climate solution.


Asunto(s)
Secuestro de Carbono , Carbono/metabolismo , Cambio Climático , Bosques , Clima Tropical , Algoritmos , Biomasa , Brasil , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Ecosistema , Fuego , Agricultura Forestal , Geografía , Modelos Teóricos , Imágenes Satelitales/métodos , Árboles/crecimiento & desarrollo , Árboles/metabolismo
7.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112239, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662753

RESUMEN

Mapping and assessing landscape aesthetic quality (LAQ) at the national level can provide valuable insights to scientists and policymakers about the general condition of targeted cultural ecosystem service (CES). A generalised view based on unified methodological standards allows comparing LAQ between countries, thus facilitating international environmental management policies. LAQ can be assessed by combining subjective and objective metrics. This approach makes it challenging to map and assess the LAQ at national scale since it requires consensus-based methodologies to be reliably applicable in a broader geographic region. The national-scale studies related to LAQ are not common since they require high computational resources and differ in data accessibility. However, it is crucial to conduct broader LAQ studies to reveal the more general picture of LAQ condition and support (adjust) policy implementation at the national scale. More studies are needed to assess LAQ at the national level. This study aims to map and assess LAQ in Lithuania on the national scale. To achieve this aim, we adapted a LAQ mapping and assessment approach previously applied in Germany at the national scale. Based on previous work, we tested the methodology's transferability by applying it in a different geographical region by using local datasets. In this study, we partially modified sub-indicators calculation methods and performed an additional in-depth analysis to gather more information on LAQ accessibility and condition in Lithuania. Geographic Information Systems modeling and spatial statistics analysis allowed for achieving this aim. The results revealed that agricultural and urban areas had the lowest landscape diversity, naturalness, uniqueness, and LAQ in general, while areas with high ruggedness, forests, protected areas, natural monuments, and heritage sites had the highest LAQ scores. Viewshed analysis showed that a significant part of Lithuanian territory with the highest LAQ values have limited visibility due to terrain energy and undulation. Curonian spit and Nemunas riverbanks are few of high LAQ areas with high visual accessibility potential. The patches with high LAQ were clustered in protected areas, while the lowest LAQ values were observed in agricultural lands and urbanised areas. LAQ CES assessment is critical for higher quality environmental management regulation practices. High LAQ areas may need a better protection and provide wellbeing for the population, while low LAQ areas may require additional restoration effort. It also provides a better understanding of the LAQ condition and contributes to achieve national, European, and global goals related to landscape planning, management, and sustainable development.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Estética , Alemania , Lituania
8.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112191, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667822

RESUMEN

The sustainable land management program (SLMP) of Ethiopia aims to improve livelihoods and create resilient communities and landscape to climate change. Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration is one of the key co-benefits of the SLMP. The objective of this study was to estimate the spatial dynamics of SOC in 2010 and 2018 (before and after SLMP) and identify the SOC sequestration hotspots at landscape scale in four selected SLMP watersheds in the Ethiopian highlands. The specific objectives were to: 1) comparatively evaluate SOC sequestration estimation model building strategies using either a single watershed, a combined dataset from all watersheds, and leave-one-watershed-out using Random Forest (RF) model; 2) map SOC stock of 2010 and 2018 to estimate amount of SOC sequestration and potential; 3) evaluate the impacts of SLM practices on SOC in four SLMP watersheds. A total of 397 auger composite samples from the topsoil (0-20 cm depth) were collected in 2010, and the same number of samples were collected from the same locations in 2018. We used simple statistics to assess the SOC change between the two periods, and machine learning models to predict SOC stock spatially. The study showed that statistically significant variation (P < 0.05) of SOC was observed between the two years in two watersheds (Gafera and Adi Tsegora) whereas the differences were not significant in the other two watersheds (Yesir and Azugashuba). Comparative analysis of model-setups shows that a combined dataset from all the four watersheds to train and test RF outperform the other two strategies (a single watershed alone and a leave-one-watershed-out to train and test RF) during the testing dataset. Thus, this approach was used to predict SOC stock before (2010) and after (2018) land management interventions and to derive the SOC sequestration maps. We estimated the sequestrated, achievable and target level of SOC stock spatially in the four watersheds. We assessed the impact of SLM practices, specifically bunds, terraces, biological and various forms of tillage practices on SOC using partial dependency algorithms of prediction models. No tillage (NT) increased SOC in all watersheds. The combination of physical and biological interventions ("bunds + vegetations" or "terraces + vegetations") resulted in the highest SOC stock, followed by the biological intervention. The achievable SOC stock analysis showed that further SOC stock sequestration of up to 13.7 Mg C ha--1 may be possible in the Adi Tsegora, 15.8 Mg C ha-1 in Gafera, 33.2 Mg C ha-1 in Azuga suba and 34.7 Mg C ha-1 in Yesir watersheds.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Suelo , Agricultura , Secuestro de Carbono , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Etiopía
9.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112251, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677339

RESUMEN

Forest and Landscape Restoration (FLR) has been defined as a planned process that aims to regain ecological functionality and enhance human well-being in degraded landscapes. Several governments and organizations worldwide rose to the challenge of halting degradation and restoring landscapes. Commitments are ambitious, thus a synthesis of current experiences with and strategies for implementation is important to inform future actions. To guide successful implementation, the Global Partnership on FLR put forward six principles, namely, the conservation and enhancement of ecosystems at landscape scales, the restoration of multiple functions, the engagement of multiple stakeholders, with allowances for context dependency and adaptive management. Non-governmental organizations, acting globally, regionally and (or) at national and local scales, play a fundamental role in supporting governments fulfill their commitments. Therefore, we gathered the perceptions of actors within non-governmental organizations engaged in FLR across countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America about what FLR is and their perceived challenges and strategies for implementation. We employed the six principles of FLR to organize and evaluate the responses. Results show that the principles of landscape scale, ecosystem conservation and enhancement, and multi stakeholder engagement are all considered by interviewees as core components of an FLR program. Yet several restoration projects shared by interviewees still required further evidence of a landscape vision, and the integration of actors beyond local communities and the environmental government sectors. Context dependency was evident in the clear incorporation of local natural resource governance norms, such as tribal and community management in project structure, yet few projects appeared to be designed by local actors. The principle of "adaptive management" was mostly missing from the responses, perhaps because most projects had not had sufficient time to learn from intervention outcomes. Key financial challenges for FLR implementation were the short duration and availability of funding, high-up front costs and few short-term returns. To overcome these challenges, promising strategies relate to the development of tangible economic returns for local actors engaged in productive restorative actions that are planned alongside conservation and ecological restoration actions in the landscape. The challenges of negotiating actions with a multitude of actors and the lack of supportive policies highlighted in the interviews require organizations to focus efforts on leveraging the enactment and enforcement of legislations that look beyond jurisdictional boundaries and support landscape management with clear, long term incentive mechanisms and cross-sectoral collaboration. In addition, implementation can be further supported with the scientifically robust sharing of results on how different FLR projects move forward in meeting the social and environmental objectives of a successful, integrative restoration of degraded landscapes.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , África , Asia , Bosques , Gobierno , Humanos , América Latina , Percepción
10.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112228, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677341

RESUMEN

Biomass production generates land use impacts in the form of emissions from Forestry and Other Land Use (FOLU), i.e. due to changes in ecosystem carbon stocks. Recently, consumption-based accounting (CBA) approaches have emerged as alternatives to conventional production-based accounts, quantifying FOLU emissions associated with biomass consumption, for example, of particular territories. However, the quantification and allocation of FOLU emissions to individual biomass products, a fundamental part of CBA approaches, is a complex endeavour. Existing studies make diverging methodological choices, which are rarely critically discussed. In this study, we provide a structured overview of existing CBA approaches to estimating FOLU emissions. We cluster the literature in a two-by-two grid, distinguishing the primary element under investigation (impacts of changing consumption patterns in a region vs. impacts of consumption on production landscapes) and the analytical lens (prospective vs retrospective). Further, we identify three distinct dimensions which characterise the way in which different studies allocate FOLU emissions to biomass products: the choice of reference system and the spatial and temporal scales. Finally, we identify three frontiers that require future attention: (1) overcoming structural biases which underestimate FOLU emissions from territories that experienced deforestation in the distant past, (2) explicitly tackling the interdependence of proximate causes and ultimate drivers of land use change, and (3) assessing uncertainties and understanding the effects of land management. In this way, we enable a critical assessment of appropriate methods, support a nuanced interpretation of results from particular approaches as well as enhance the informative value of CBA approaches related to FOLU emissions. Our analysis contributes to discussions on sustainable land use practices with respect to biomass consumption and has implications for informing international climate policy in scenarios where consumption-based approaches are adopted in practice.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Ecosistema , Biomasa , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos
11.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112189, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677342

RESUMEN

Fire is one of the most powerful modifiers of the Amazonian landscape and knowledge about its drivers is needed for planning control and suppression. A plethora of factors may play a role in the annual dynamics of fire frequency, spanning the biophysical, climatic, socioeconomic and institutional dimensions. To uncover the main forces currently at play, we investigated the area burned in both forested and deforested areas in the outstanding case of Brazil's state of Acre, in southwestern Amazonia. We mapped burn scars in already-deforested areas and intact forest based on satellite images from the Landsat series analyzed between 2016 and 2019. The mapped burnings in already-deforested areas totalled 550,251 ha. In addition, we mapped three forest fires totaling 34,084 ha. Fire and deforestation were highly correlated, and the latter occurred mainly in federal government lands, with protected areas showing unprecedented forest fire levels in 2019. These results indicate that Acre state is under increased fire risk even during average rainfall years. The record fires of 2019 may continue if Brazil's ongoing softening of environmental regulations and enforcement is maintained. Acre and other Amazonian states must act quickly to avoid an upsurge of social and economic losses in the coming years.


Asunto(s)
Fuego , Incendios Forestales , Brasil , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Bosques , Árboles
12.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112276, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677344

RESUMEN

Human-wildlife conflicts are a challenge in parks and protected areas around the world. Facilitating quality wildlife viewing experiences that minimize negative impacts to people and animals is often complicated by distance-related human behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine how people's distance-related norms varied as a function of proximity from wildlife, wildlife species, and physical landscape features. By using virtual reality technology and simulations, this study assessed how physical landscape features (i.e., an open field, deadfall, and a paved road) impact wildlife viewing norms and also compared norms among three different wildlife species (i.e., bison, bear, and elk). Data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA to explore how these factors influenced acceptability ratings of distances between people and wildlife. Results revealed a significant interaction between distance to wildlife and landscape features. Recommendations for improving the management of humanwildlife conflicts and future research directions are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Animales
13.
Science ; 371(6533): 1042-1045, 2021 03 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674492

RESUMEN

Uncertainty remains regarding the role of anthropogenic climate change in declining insect populations, partly because our understanding of biotic response to climate is often complicated by habitat loss and degradation among other compounding stressors. We addressed this challenge by integrating expert and community scientist datasets that include decades of monitoring across more than 70 locations spanning the western United States. We found a 1.6% annual reduction in the number of individual butterflies observed over the past four decades, associated in particular with warming during fall months. The pervasive declines that we report advance our understanding of climate change impacts and suggest that a new approach is needed for butterfly conservation in the region, focused on suites of species with shared habitat or host associations.


Asunto(s)
Mariposas Diurnas , Extinción Biológica , Calentamiento Global , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Densidad de Población , Estaciones del Año , Estados Unidos
14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(4): 2089-2100, 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742844

RESUMEN

A scientific performance evaluation of the regional water ecological civilization construction and clarifying the obstacle factor are key points to improve the performance of regional water ecological civilization construction theory. This study analyzes the coupling relationship between humans and regional water ecology by applying the thinking logic of "driving force-pressure-state-influence-response-management." The regional water ecological civilization construction performance evaluation index system based on the DPSIRM model was established. Combining the unascertained measurement model and obstacle diagnosis model, the water ecological civilization construction performance of Shizuishan City during the past 10 years was empirically evaluated, and the obstacle factors affecting local construction performance were diagnosed and analyzed. The analytical results reveal the following points:First, the performance of the water ecological civilization construction in Shizuishan City gradually increased annually and revealed three development stages:the site visit and slow improvement (2010-2014), intermediate but fast improvement (2015-2017) and good and fast improvement (2018-2019). Second, each subsystem performance index trend varied, but generally, the fluctuations rose. Third, from 2010 to 2014, the average obstacle degree of the subsystem state, subsystem response, and subsystem pressure reached 58.81%, which became the main obstacles restricting the performance of the local water ecological civilization construction. From 2015 to 2017, the average pressure barrier degree reached 21.73%, which was the most significant obstacle to the construction performance. From 2018 to 2019, the average pressure barrier degree remained the largest obstacle by reaching 24.49%. Lastly, the index barrier of the obstacle degree among the top five factors are primarily distributed in the pressure subsystem. A comprehensive frequency ranking of the obstacles, the irrigation water use coefficient, and the pressure of the water consumption per ten thousand yuan of value-added by industry as a representative subsystem are the key directions to future construction. In this paper, the concepts and methods of the research can provide a theoretical reference for the performance evaluation of regional water ecological civilization construction and its obstacle factor diagnosis analysis.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Agua , China , Ciudades , Civilización , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecología , Humanos , Industrias
15.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 33(1)2021 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693895

RESUMEN

The challenges for health care continue to grow and in the 21st century healthcare policymakers and providers will need to respond to the developing impact of global warming and the environmental impact of healthcare service delivery. This cannot be viewed apart from the current Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which is likely to be linked to the climate crisis.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Calidad de la Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Pandemias
16.
Ambio ; 50(4): 914-928, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677806

RESUMEN

This study addresses the effect of political transition and subsequent timber bans on forest loss in Myanmar, in the context of identified drivers. Cook's Distance (CD) was applied to remotely sensed time-series forest loss dataset to measure the effect of the events. Forest loss derived fragmentation metrics were linked to drivers at a landscape scale. Results show that at the national level, the political transition in 2011 had maximum effect (CD 0.935) on forest loss while the timber bans decreased forest loss by 612.04 km2 and 213.15 km2 in 2015 and 2017 (CD 0.146 and 0.035), respectively. The effect of the events varied for different States/Regions. The dominant drivers of change shifted from plantations in 2011 to infrastructure development in 2015. This study demonstrates the effects of policy on forest loss at various scales and can inform decision-makers for forest conservation, planning and development of mitigation measures.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Agricultura Forestal , Bosques , Mianmar , Políticas , Árboles
17.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 21, 2021 03 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772033

RESUMEN

Around fifteen thousand fieldworkers annually count breeding birds using standardized protocols in 28 European countries. The observations are collected by using country-specific and standardized protocols, validated, summarized and finally used for the production of continent-wide annual and long-term indices of population size changes of 170 species. Here, we present the database and provide a detailed summary of the methodology used for fieldwork and calculation of the relative population size change estimates. We also provide a brief overview of how the data are used in research, conservation and policy. We believe this unique database, based on decades of bird monitoring alongside the comprehensive summary of its methodology, will facilitate and encourage further use of the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme results.


Asunto(s)
Aves , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Bases de Datos Factuales , Europa (Continente) , Dinámica Poblacional
18.
J Environ Manage ; 287: 112240, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740744

RESUMEN

Despite the recognized important ecological role that cetaceans play in the marine environment, their protection is still scarcely enforced in the Mediterranean Sea even though this area is strongly threatened by local human pressures and climate change. The piecemeal of knowledge related to cetaceans' ecology and distribution in the basin undermines the capacity of addressing cetaceans' protection and identifying effective conservation strategies. In this study, an Ecosystem-Based Marine Spatial Planning (EB-MSP) approach is applied to assess human pressures on cetaceans and guide the designation of a conservation area in the Gulf of Taranto, Northern Ionian Sea (Central-eastern Mediterranean Sea). The Gulf of Taranto hosts different cetacean species that accomplish important phases of their life in the area. Despite this fact, the gulf does not fall within any area-based management tools (ABMTs) for cetacean conservation. We pin down the Gulf of Taranto being eligible for the designation of diverse ABMTs for conservation, both legally and non-legally binding. Through a risk-based approach, this study explores the cause-effect relationships that link any human activities and pressures exerted in the study area to potential effects on cetaceans, by identifying major drivers of potential impacts. These were found to be underwater noise, marine litter, ship collision, and competition and disturbance on preys. We draw some recommendations based on different sources of available knowledge produced so far in the area (i.e., empirical evidence, scientific and grey literature, and expert judgement) to boost cetaceans' conservation. Finally, we stress the need of sectoral coordination for the management of human activities by applying an EB-MSP approach and valuing the establishment of an ABMT in the Gulf of Taranto.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Humanos , Mar Mediterráneo , Navíos
19.
J Environ Manage ; 287: 112314, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740747

RESUMEN

Globally, community-based initiatives are effective in protecting ecosystems and the species within them. In this paper, we analyze the emergence and large-scale expansion of a community-based environmental protection system (the Voluntary Environmental Agents Program - VEA Program) in the Brazilian Amazon and identify factors that have determined its success since its inception, 25 years ago. Collective actions to protect the environment in the region have been undertaken by local people for at least 40 years, before their legal regulation in 2001 by the federal government of Brazil, and by the Amazonas state in 2007. The system is based on territorial surveillance and monitoring, and on guidelines for the better use of the territory and its natural resources. Between 1995 and 2020, the VEA Program expanded into the two protected areas where it was first implemented reaching approximately 9 thousand km2 of area protected by the system. The number of people participating also grew in this period by around 2050%, as did the participation of women, which grew by 5600%. The system was replicated in 37 protected areas in central Amazonia, and currently covers almost 200 thousand km2 of Amazon rainforest. From our analyses we unveil four main factors that may have allowed the VEA Program to expand and flourish: (a) the communities' previous demand for an effective control system, (b) its legal formalization and regulation, (c) the support from external institutions, and (d) the consolidation of community-based management programs to fund actions. These factors shall be further investigated as to confirm their critical role in the success of the VEA Program. We demonstrate that this community-based environmental protection system has established itself as a legitimate form of social control, and as a mechanism of socio-environmental governance in the areas in which it operates. By allowing more effective protection of territories, it generates consensus amongst users for the adequate management of natural resources, especially in contexts where government's actions are absent or inefficient. We claim that this system can be replicated in various parts of the world.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Brasil , Política Ambiental , Femenino , Humanos
20.
J Environ Manage ; 287: 112289, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740748

RESUMEN

Protected areas (PAs) are the cornerstone of global conservation policy and have expanded dramatically over the last century. Though unequivocally beneficial for biodiversity, gazetting land for protecting nature can also be seen as an 'opportunity cost' that some politicians are unwilling to pay. One of the most effective strategies to increase the political resilience of PAs in the face of such threats is to demonstrate their broader value to society. This is one of the objectives of the recently proposed 'PA asset framework'. The framework conceptualizes PAs as being composed of suites of biophysical, human, infrastructure, institutional and cultural assets that interact with individuals and institutions to generate different forms of tangible and intangible value. Here, we test the utility of the framework by conducting an asset-based analysis of Brazilian National Parks (NPs) at two different scales (NP system and NP unit). Assets were identified at the system level through a systematic review of 49 Management Plans (MPs) using a typology of PA asset classes as a tool for characterising the presence and state of assets in or associated with NPs. At the NP unit level, assets were identified through semi-structured interviews with local managers of the Chapada Diamantina National Park. Biophysical and infrastructure assets were the most represented asset classes at both scales. Our analysis successfully revealed: (i) which assets can be managed to generate wider forms of values at local scale (e.g. natural spectacles, iconic species, park volunteers) (ii) relational values between assets (e.g. trails and outdoor recreational features), and (iii) value generating practices (VGPs) to capture values from the interaction between different assets (i.e. restoration of degraded areas through voluntary programmes, etc.). We conclude by discussing how the PA asset framework can be operatively integrated into NP management to improve the future allocation of limited financial resources.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Parques Recreativos , Biodiversidad , Brasil , Humanos
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...