Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.261
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244494, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285607

RESUMEN

Abstract Since water is one of the essentials for life, the presence and quality of water in the habitat is extremely important. Therefore, water quality change and management of Lake Aygır was investigated in this study. For this, water samples collected from the lake and the irrigation pool between May 2015 and May 2016 were analyzed monthly. Spectrophotometric, titrimetric and microbiological methods were used to determine the water quality. According to some water quality regulations, HCO3, NH4, Cu, Mo, Br, fecal coliform and total suspended solid (TSS) values were found above the limit values. The other 29 parameters comply with Turkish national and international legislations. Lake Aygır was negatively affected by the surrounding settlements and agricultural activities. It is thought that the water resource should be monitored periodically and remedial studies should be done to prevent parameters exceeding the limits. However, Lake Aygır was generally suitable for drinking, use, fishing and irrigation.


Resumo Como a água é um dos elementos essenciais para a vida, a presença e a qualidade da água no habitat são extremamente importantes. Portanto, a mudança da qualidade da água e a gestão do lago Aygır foram investigadas neste estudo. Para isso, amostras de água coletadas no lago e na piscina de irrigação entre maio de 2015 e maio de 2016 foram analisadas mensalmente. Métodos espectrofotométricos, titulométricos e microbiológicos foram usados para determinar a qualidade da água. De acordo com alguns regulamentos de qualidade da água, os valores de HCO3, NH4, Cu, Mo, Br, coliformes fecais e total sólido suspenso (TSS) foram encontrados acima dos valores limite. Os outros 29 parâmetros estão em conformidade com as legislações nacionais e internacionais turcas. O lago Aygır foi afetado negativamente pelos assentamentos e atividades agrícolas ao redor. Pensa-se que o recurso hídrico deve ser monitorado periodicamente e estudos corretivos devem ser feitos para evitar que os parâmetros ultrapassem os limites. No entanto, o lago Aygır era geralmente adequado para beber, usar, pescar e irrigar.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149679, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454146

RESUMEN

River eco-environmental value assessment is indispensable for the optimal allocation of watershed water resources. In this study, river eco-environmental values were divided into the values inside and outside the river based on the energy transfer and transformation of the water cycle. Their spatial distribution characteristics (spatial distribution map, spatial autocorrelation, and spatial aggregation) of 67 regions (states, leagues, and cities) in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) were analysed by combining emergy theory and GeoDa 1.14 software (emergy-GeoDa), and the significance of the results was tested. The results showed that: (1) the eco-environmental values inside the river were higher than those outside in the YRB, proving that eco-environmental water inside the river should be guaranteed and water consumption outside the river should not occupy water inside the river from the perspective of value; (2) the spatial distributions of eco-environmental values inside and outside the river were uneven, but obvious spatial aggregations were observed; (3) high- and low-value aggregations of eco-environmental values were observed inside the river in the lower and upper reaches of the YRB, respectively; (4) high- and low-value aggregations of eco-environmental values were observed outside the river in the middle and upper reaches of the YRB, respectively. It was suggested that ecological conservation and high-quality development should be considered as the goals for consolidating the river eco-environmental values in high-value areas and promoting in low-value areas, and low-value areas should be improved by high-value areas while allocating water resources in the YRB. These results provide suggestions for the sustainable development of river eco-environmental system in the YRB from a spatial perspective. In addition, the analysis method is also applicable for studying the spatial distribution characteristics of the values generated by the water and energy cycles of other regions.


Asunto(s)
Ríos , Recursos Hídricos , China , Ciudades , Análisis Espacial , Desarrollo Sostenible
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149903, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525695

RESUMEN

Large-scale invasion modifies watershed hydrology by changing surface runoff and lowering the seasonal availability of water to native plants. Due to costly field-based evapotranspiration (ET) measurements, which are highly localized and occasionally subject to instrument failure, landscape-scale water use assessments of invasive plants are infrequent. Therefore, the extent to which plant invaders alter water allocation between native and non-native vegetation in a given landscape is rarely assessed. We used a remote sensing-based ET modeling approach to measure the hydrologic response of an invasive shrub, Ligustrum sinense, across forests of the Charlotte Metropolitan Area, North Carolina. We hypothesized that this invader's widespread occurrence and dominant plant physiology significantly competes with native forests for water resources. We tested this hypothesis by comparing inter- and intra-annual variations in ET from invaded and uninvaded sites estimated using the surface-energy-balance system (SEBS) model and cloud-free Landsat images for the wettest (2003), driest (2007), and normal (2005 and 2011) water years. Our findings suggest that the water demand of L. sinense is higher than native forests (deciduous and evergreen) for most of the year except during the early spring and after high precipitation events. The daily ET flux of L. sinense was significantly different than evergreen vegetation during the driest year (2007) that, five years later (2011 - normal water year), was significantly different than both deciduous and evergreen vegetation types. This suggests that L. sinense consumes more water than native forest types, particularly during dry and normal precipitation years with increasing canopy cover over time making it a strong competitor with native vegetation for water resources in urban forests. Therefore, accounting for the hydrologic response of invasive plants and potential water savings from their removal from forests, particularly in water-scarce regions, may enable land managers and decision-makers to prioritize areas for monitoring and control efforts.


Asunto(s)
Bosques , Hidrología , Plantas , Estaciones del Año , Recursos Hídricos
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150075, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520911

RESUMEN

Water quantity and quality are two key factors affecting the performance of integrated watershed management. Conventional water resources assessment of rivers often deals with water quantity and quality separately. However, how to make an objective and impartial assessment of water resources by incorporating both water quantity and quality remains unclear, especially in watersheds with significant human activity impacts and high spatiotemporal variations in flows. In such areas, the nonmonotonic relationship between the water quality and discharge rate of a river, in contrast to near-natural conditions, is often ignored. To resolve this problem, this paper develops a new framework for the integrated evaluation of water quantity and quality by incorporating a new index, namely, the water quality improvement degree (WQID). The WQID is proposed to quantify the disturbance degree of human activities to the near-natural relationship between the water quality and discharge rate of a river. The Yihe River in Northern China is selected as a case study to apply the proposed framework. The results show that the observed flow discharge rates of some abnormal months after a specific time of change-point are greater than the estimated discharges under the river's near-natural condition. The WQID values in these abnormal months are less than 1, resulting in a decrease in the modified water resources surplus (WRS*) or an increase in the modified water resources deficit (WRD*). This indicates that the WQID can take into account the near-natural law between water quantity and quality to make a more objective evaluation of integrated water resources management for the months of interest. The proposed framework can serve as a useful and reliable tool for a comprehensive assessment of the watershed management performance of a river system.


Asunto(s)
Ríos , Calidad del Agua , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Recursos Hídricos
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150192, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520924

RESUMEN

An appropriate agricultural water-land nexus can help to effectively take advantage of limited water and land resources, which is of great significance for guaranteeing food security. An R index was proposed to evaluate the regional agricultural water-land nexus from a green-blue water perspective in the current paper. The effects of irrigation on the agricultural water-land nexus were revealed for the first time based on this index in evaluations of all (Rt) and irrigated (Ri) arable land in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities (PAMs) of China during 1999-2018. The national annual average values of Rt and Ri were 1.94 and 3.55 m3/m2, respectively; the former was steady during the observed period, while the latter showed a significant decreasing trend (P < 0.01) from 4.35 m3/m2 in 1999 to 2.66 m3/m2 in 2018. The values of both Rt and Ri values in South China were higher than those in North China. The maximum values of Rt and Ri appeared in Xizang (Rt = 99.15 m3/m2; Ri = 201.99 m3/m2), while the minimum values occurred in Ningxia (Rt = 0.30 m3/m2; Ri = 0.44 m3/m2). The Gini coefficient for Ri (Gi) in each year was higher than that for Rt (Gt), demonstrating that the agricultural water-land nexus in irrigated arable land was highly imbalanced during the last two decades. From the perspective of the equitable distribution of irrigation water, irrigation facilities should be developed in the Southeast and Southwest PAMs to improve the effective irrigation rate. In addition, the government should simultaneously implement water transfer plans to reduce the agricultural water pressure in the PAMs in the North China Plain and Northeast China.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Agua , China , Recursos Hídricos , Abastecimiento de Agua
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e249745, 2022. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278496

RESUMEN

Abstract Today, most of the world's population faces water scarcity, while global warming, urbanization, industrialization and population increases continue to increase the severity of the pressure on water resources. Management of water resources plays a key role in the sustainability of agricultural production. The water footprint (WF) is different in comparison to other water statistics because it takes direct and indirect water consumption into account, and helps in the management of water resources. Within this context, the WF of Van province, which is Turkey's most easterly located arid region, was calculated from 2004 to 2019. The study area covers lake Van, which is Turkey's largest lake, and the Van basin with an area of 23.334 km2 and a population of 1.136.757 (2019). In the calculations, crop (WFcrop), livestock (WFlivestock), and domestic and industrial water footprints (WFdomestic+industrial) were evaluated separately, and blue and green water footprints (WFblue and WFgreen) were analyzed in detail. According to the results, the average WF of Van province was found to be 8.73 billion m3 year-1. Throughout the province, 87.6% of the WF is composed of WFcrop, 4.9% is WFlivestock and 7.5% is WFdomestic+industrial. Of the WFcrop, 62.5% depends on WFblue, i.e., freshwater. Most of the WFlivestock consisted of dairy cattle (49%) and sheep (38%). The average WFdomestic+industrial for 2004 to 2019 was 0.64 billion m3 year-1. The average per capita water footprint of Van province was found to be 889.9 m3 year-1 capita-1. In addition, the province is classified as severe water scarcity (257%). This study is one of the first province-based calculations of WF in Turkey and is the first study to bring a different aspect to published literature by including residual soil moisture from the winter months. As a result of this study, the WFblue of the WFcrop is above the worldwide average and should be reduced by changing the crop pattern or synchronizing the planting and harvest dates of the crops to a period that benefits from precipitation. In addition, this study is expected to contribute to new studies for calculating the provincial scale WF and will have positive effects on agricultural planning, water allocation and the sustainability of water resources.


Resumo Hoje, a maior parte da população mundial enfrenta a escassez de água, enquanto o aquecimento global, a urbanização, a industrialização e o crescimento da população continuam a aumentar a gravidade da pressão sobre os recursos hídricos. A gestão dos recursos hídricos desempenha papel fundamental na sustentabilidade da produção agrícola. A pegada hídrica (WF) é diferente em comparação com outras estatísticas hídricas porque leva em consideração o consumo direto e indireto de água e auxilia na gestão dos recursos hídricos. Nesse contexto, o WF da província de Van, que é a região árida localizada mais a leste da Turquia, foi calculado de 2004 a 2019. A área de estudo cobre o lago Van, que é o maior lago da Turquia, e a bacia de Van, com uma área de 23,334 km2 e uma população de 1.136.757 (2019). Nos cálculos, as pegadas hídricas de safra (WFcrop), pecuária (WFlivestock) e doméstica e industrial (WFdomestic+industrial) foram avaliadas separadamente, e as pegadas hídricas azul e verde (WFblue e WFgreen) foram analisadas em detalhes. De acordo com os resultados, o WF médio da província de Van foi encontrado em 8,73 bilhões de m3 ano-1. Em toda a província, 87,6% do WF são compostos por WFcrop, 4,9% são WFlivestock e 7,5% são WFdomestic+industrial. Do WFcrop, 62,5% dependem do WFblue, ou seja, de água doce. A maior parte do gado WFlivestock era composto por gado leiteiro (49%) e ovelhas (38%). O WFdomestic+industrial médio de 2004 a 2019 foi de 0,64 bilhão de m3 ano-1. A pegada hídrica per capita média da província de Van foi encontrada em 889,9 m3 ano-1 capita-1. Além disso, a região é classificada como grave escassez de água (257%). Este estudo é um dos primeiros cálculos de WF baseados em províncias na Turquia e é o primeiro estudo a trazer um aspecto diferente para a literatura publicada, incluindo a umidade residual do solo dos meses de inverno. Como resultado deste estudo, o WFblue do WFcrop está acima da média mundial e deve ser reduzido alterando o padrão de cultivo ou sincronizando as datas de plantio e colheita das safras para um período que se beneficie da precipitação. Além disso, espera-se que este estudo contribua para novos estudos para o cálculo da escala provincial WF e terá efeitos positivos no planejamento agrícola, alocação de água e a sustentabilidade dos recursos hídricos.

7.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113778, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571472

RESUMEN

Land development poses challenges to the sustainable use of resources and environmental health in regions. This study explores the coupling relationship and its spatial-temporal evolution trend between land development intensity and resources environment carrying capacity of 31 provinces in China from 2005 to 2017. The information entropy method, coupling degree model, and coupling coordination degree model are used to calculate the index weight, coupling degree, and coupling coordination degree. The results show that: (1) Three change types of resources environment carrying capacity are presented with land development intensity increasing: first decrease and then increase; first increase and then decrease; and alternating fluctuations. (2) The proportion of construction land, GDP per land, and population density are dominate determinants of land development intensity, while the water resources per capita, energy consumption per unit of GDP, and per capita cultivated land area are that of resources environment carrying capacity. (3) From the perspective of temporal evolution, both coupling and coordination relationship were found to have continuously strengthened. (4) In terms of spatial evolution, the coupling level presented a constantly narrowing inter-regional gap, and the coordination level has changed from initial two-level differentiation to final regional gap narrowing. These findings can provide evidence in support for integrating land development with resources environmental protection to promote regional coordinated development.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Recursos Hídricos , China , Ciudades , Desarrollo Económico , Entropía
8.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113893, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634725

RESUMEN

Amongst different climatic and anthropogenic drivers, water resources management can cause massive changes to the natural regime of a lake after its regulation, thereby affecting the quantity and quality of water intended for satisfying the multiple basin water requirements. Here, we investigate the multi-decadal variation of the water levels and outflows of Lake Garda, the largest in Italy, where the dam operational rules and the related basin water needs heavily altered the annual and seasonal trend of the lake regime since its regulation in 1951. Daily lake levels and outflows were first collected and digitized for the period 1888-2020, thus providing a unique database of 133 years that allowed a consistent comparison between natural and regulated periods. Statistical analyses highlighted a significant change of the inter-annual trend of the lake outflows, which passed from upward to downward after regulation, against a constant increasing trend of the water levels. Conversely, water levels showed a more remarkable shifts on a seasonal scale if compared to the outflows, revealing the influence of summer and winter basin water needs. Additional analyses on the inter-annual variation of the main downstream water demands regulated by the dam, i.e. the irrigation, hydropower and fluvial ecosystem requirements, outlined their relevance in changing the lake regime, influencing dam operational policies, which progressively limited the share of water released for ecosystem integrity. A comparison between the lake levels and outflows recorded for the pre-regulation and post-regulation periods of some selected European perialpine lakes finally highlighted different effects on the lake regime, drawing attention to the importance of defining the role of the dam operational policies within the current scenario of climate change and changing water demands.


Asunto(s)
Lagos , Recursos Hídricos , Cambio Climático , Ecosistema , Agua
9.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113884, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607140

RESUMEN

Allocation of water over its six dimensions of quantity, quality, timing, location, price, and cost remains an ongoing challenge facing water resource planning worldwide. This challenge is magnified with growing evidence of climate change and related water supply stressors. This stress will challenge food, energy, and water systems as climate adaptation policy measures see continued debate. Despite numerous achievements made many by previous works, few attempts have scanned the literature on economic optimization analysis for water resources planning to discover affordable climate adaptation measures. This paper aims to fill that gap by reviewing the literature on water resource optimization analysis at the basin scale to guide discovery of affordable climate adaptation measures. It does so by posing the question "What principles, practices, and recent developments are available to guide discovery of policy measures to improve water resource system adaptions to growing evidence of climate water stress?" It describes past achievements and identifies improvements needed for optimization analysis to inform policy debates for crafting plans to improve climate resilience. It describes an economic conceptual framework as well as identifying data needs for conducting economic optimization exercises to support river basin planning faced by the challenge of managing the six water dimensions described above. It presents an example from an ongoing issue facing water planners in the Middle East. Conclusions find considerable utility in the use of economic optimization exercises to guide climate water stressadaptation. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Recursos Hídricos , Abastecimiento de Agua , Ríos
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126080, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628008

RESUMEN

This case study is part of a circular bioeconomy project for a winery company aiming to integrate a microalgae-based system within the existing facilities of the winery WWTP, promoting nutrient recovery and transformation into valuable products and bioenergy. Microalgae were used for wastewater treatment, removing N-NH4+ (97%) and P-PO4-3 (93%). A pilot anaerobic reactor was used for batch anaerobic mono-digestion of secondary sludge (WAS) and for co-digestion of WAS and algal biomass. The methane yield using WAS from two different wine production seasons was 155.4 and 132.9 NL CH4 kg VS-1. Co-digestion led to the highest methane yield (225.8 NL CH4 kg VS-1). The application of the bio-wastes for fertilization was assessed through plant growth bioassays: mono- and co-digestion digestates and dry algal biomass enhanced plant biomass accumulation (growth indexes of 163%, 155% and 121% relative to those of the control - commercial amendment, respectively), demonstrating a lack of phytotoxicity.


Asunto(s)
Microalgas , Purificación del Agua , Anaerobiosis , Biocombustibles , Reactores Biológicos , Digestión , Metano , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Aguas Residuales , Recursos Hídricos
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770165

RESUMEN

Wet-dry encounters between basins and regions have an important impact on the allocation of water resources. This study proposes a multi-objective allocation model for basin water resources under full probability scenarios considering wet-dry encounters (FPS-MOWAM) to solve the problem of basin water resource allocation. In the FPS-MOWAM model, the sub-regions were merged by precipitation correlation analysis. Next, the joint probability distribution of basin runoff and region precipitation was constructed using copula functions. The possible wet-dry encounter scenarios and their probabilities were then acquired. Finally, the multi-objective allocation model of water resources was constructed using the full probability scenario for wet-dry encounters in each region. The FPS-MOWAM is calculated by the NSGA-II algorithm and the optimal water resource allocation scheme was selected using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Using the Yellow River Basin as an example, the following conclusions were obtained: (1) the Yellow River Basin can be divided into four sub-regions based on precipitation correlations: Qh-Sc (Qinghai, Sichuan), Sg-Nx-Nmg (Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia), Sxq-Sxj (Shaanxi, Shanxi), and Hn-Sd (Henan, Shandong), (2) the inconsistencies in synchronous-asynchronous encounter probabilities in the Yellow River Basin were significant (the asynchronous probabilities were 0.763), whereas the asynchronous probabilities among the four regions were 0.632, 0.932, and 0.763 under the high, medium, and low flow conditions in the Yellow River Basin respectively, and (3) the allocation of water resources tends to increase with time, allocating the most during dry years. In 2035, the expected economic benefits are between 11,982.7 billion CNY and 12,499.6 billion CNY, while the expected water shortage rate is between 2.02% and 3.43%. In 2050, the expected economic benefits are between 21,291.4 billion CNY and 21,781.3 billion CNY, while the expected water shortage rate is between 1.28% and 6.05%.


Asunto(s)
Ríos , Recursos Hídricos , Probabilidad , Asignación de Recursos , Agua
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769602

RESUMEN

Water conservation areas play an important role in regional ecological security patterns. The Funiu Mountain water conservation area is located in the densely populated central region of China, where human disturbance to the ecosystem is strong and ecosystem services are facing a very serious situation. Identifying and evaluating the factors leading to changes in the ecosystem service value (ESV) of the Funiu Mountain water conservation area can provide scientific guidance for ecological management and sustainable development. Using multi-source data and machine learning methods, our research reveals the characteristics of the spatio-temporal variation in the ESV, constructs a system of ESV influencing factors from the comprehensive perspectives of the natural environment and human activities, and discusses the comprehensive effects of the influencing factors on the Funiu Mountain area from 2000 to 2015. The results are as follows. (1) From 2000 to 2005, the ESV increased 375 million yuan, and from 2005 to 2015, it decreased 154 million yuan. (2) Hydrological regulation, biodiversity maintenance, soil conservation, gas regulation, and climate regulation were the main types of ecosystem services in the Funiu Mountain area. (3) The ESV was influenced by the comprehensive effects of the natural environment and human activities. Population was the most important influencing factor of the ESV; in addition, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), precipitation, and economic factors had important influences on the ESV. (4) With the intensification of human activities, humanistic factors have surpassed the relatively stable natural factors, becoming the main factors of the ESV. With economic development, the effect of human activities on the ESV may be further intensified in the future.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Hídricos , Ecosistema , Biodiversidad , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769713

RESUMEN

Sanitary landfills are considered one of the main sources of contamination of water resources due to the generation of leachate with a high content of dissolved organic matter (DOM), inorganic material, and toxic elements. This study aimed to determine the influence of leachate on the physicochemical quality and hydrogeochemical processes which determine the chemical composition of groundwater in an area near a municipal sanitary landfill site. In situ parameters (pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, ORP), physicochemical parameters (HCO3-, PO43-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+), and dissolved organic matter were analyzed. The content of dissolved organic matter (DOM) was determined by 3D fluorescence microscopy. The presence of Cl-, NO3-, NH4+, PO43-, BOD, and COD indicated the presence of contamination. The significant correlation between NO3- and PO43- ions (r = 0.940) and DOM of anthropogenic origin in the 3D fluorescence spectra confirm that its presence in the water is associated with the municipal landfill site in question. The type of water in the area is Mg-HCO3, with a tendency to Na-HCO3 and Na-SO+-Cl. The water-rock interaction process predominates in the chemical composition of water; however, significant correlations between Na+ and Ca2+ (r = 0.876), and between K+ and Mg2+ (r = 0.980) showed that an ion exchange process had taken place. Likewise, there is enrichment by HCO3- and SO42- ions due to the mineralization of the organic matter from the leachate. The groundwater quality that supplies the study area is being affected by leachate infiltration from the sanitary landfill.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Recursos Hídricos
14.
J Water Health ; 19(5): 864-871, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665778

RESUMEN

Acanthamoeba spp. is a free-living amoeba that can cause major infections in humans, including keratitis and granulomatous encephalitis. Thus, water resources play an important role in transmitting Acanthamoeba spp. infection to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in public swimming pools from three cities of Kerman Province, southeastern Iran. Eighty water samples of 20 public indoor swimming pools were taken from Kerman, Jiroft, and Kahnauj cities. Water temperature (°C), pH, and free chlorine concentration (ppm) were measured. Filtration and cultivation were applied on non-nutrient agar medium. The polymerase chain reaction was applied by using the genus-specific primers (JDP1 and JDP2) on positive samples; these primers can amplify the 423-551 bp fragment. Eighteen of the 20 swimming pools (including 32/80; 40% samples) were contaminated with Acanthamoeba spp. All swimming pools of Jiroft and Kahnauj and 88.2% of swimming pools in Kerman were contaminated. As such, all 32 Acanthamoeba isolates were amplified using the JDP primer pairs. Two genotypes, T3 and T4, were also identified. The present research is the first to report Acanthamoeba spp. in public swimming pools from Kerman Province. Due to high occurrence of this protozoan, it is recommended to use warning signs around swimming pools to create awareness of this infection.


Asunto(s)
Acanthamoeba , Piscinas , Acanthamoeba/genética , Genotipo , Humanos , Irán , Agua , Recursos Hídricos
15.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(10): 3653-3660, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676727

RESUMEN

Evaluating the impacts of human activity on river runoff has important implications for regional water resource management. Here, we used seven tree-ring width chronologies to establish a regional mean tree-ring width chronology from the northern mountain of Delingha, Qaidam Basin. We conducted the correlation, moving correlation and regression analysis of regional mean tree-ring width chronology with runoff data from Bayin River gauge station. Then, we stimulated the June runoff of Bayin River from 1956 to 2002. The results showed that the highest correlation coefficient was found for June runoff (r=0.63, P<0.01), and their moving correlation coefficient decreased after 1986. Based on the stable relationship between tree-ring width chronology and the June runoff during 1956-1986, we built the reconstruction function, which was explained 50.8% of observed runoff. The stimulated runoff during 1987 to 2002 was significantly higher than the observed runoff (3.01 m3·s-1, P<0.001). These results indicated that human activity from the upper river had significant impacts on Bayin River runoff. Human activity should be considered as an important factor to protect security of sustainable water resource utilization for future water resource development and utilization in Bayin River region.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Humanas , Ríos , China , Humanos , Movimientos del Agua , Recursos Hídricos
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682411

RESUMEN

The coupling and coordination relationship between ecology and the economy in the Yellow River Basin is a hot topic in sustainable development research. Said research has important guiding significance for the ecological security and comprehensive development of the Yellow River Basin. Taking the Yellow River Basin as the object of our study, based on the data of the economy, energy consumption data, ecology data and water resources data, we construct an indicator system of the economic development and ecological status of the Yellow River Basin and use the principal component analysis method to calculate the economic development and ecological status index. Then, we use the evaluation method, the coupling degree model and the coupling coordination degree model to analyze the time and space evolution trends of economic development and ecological state, coupling degree and coupling coordination degree. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2018, the economic development index of the Yellow River Basin rose steadily; the ecological status index showed a slow rise and then a downward trend. (2) The degree of coupling between economic development and ecological state has been considered as intensity coupling after 2005. The coupling trend slowly increased and then decreased, indicating that the interaction effect between the economy and ecology was first significantly enhanced and then slowly weakened. (3) The degree of coupling coordination increased from 0.2994 to 0.6266 and then decreased to 0.5917, reflecting the continuous improvement of the relationship between the regional economy and the ecological environment and the trend toward coordination. From 2015 to 2018, due to the gradual increase in the difference between economic development and ecological conditions, the coupling and coordination between the two decreased. Studies have shown that ecological construction and protection should be strengthened to ease the contradiction between the economy and ecology and achieve coordinated development.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Ríos , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Desarrollo Sostenible , Recursos Hídricos
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(9): 3267-3276, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658213

RESUMEN

Groundwater, one of the important water resources, plays an important role in maintaining sustainable social and economic development. The ecological compensation of groundwater is a beneficial tool for guaranteeing reasonable exploitation and utilization of groundwater resources. However, there is a lack of associated studies, especially compensation budget. We proposed an integrated groundwater compensation standard model, which consisted of four components: base, stimulus and punishment, research and development, and potential risk. The priority level of compensation was estimated by considering regional climate and economic conditions comprehensively. The model was applied to a total of 11 cities in Shanxi Province to calculate the groundwater ecolo-gical compensation standard. The results showed that the base compensation accounted for the largest proportion in the total compensation, with the non-market value contributing more than 60%. Our results indicated that groundwater had a high regulated service value. From 2008 to 2017, the development coefficient of each city had significantly increased, suggesting the improved regional economic level and enhanced compensation capacity. Compensation priority was affected by the non-market value of groundwater and economic level, and obvious difference in the compensation priority existed in all the cities, implying the requirement for the implement of groundwater ecological compensation. Meanwhile, we suggested that groundwater risk compensation system should be improved, special funds should be set up for supporting research projects on groundwater ecological compensation, and long-term effective compensation mechanisms should be established.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Ciudades , Compensación y Reparación , Recursos Hídricos
18.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 107(5): 868-875, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652459

RESUMEN

Wastewater reclamation facilities are known sources of emerging contaminants associated with human health and sanitation. This study evaluated the contribution of trace organic contaminants to a previously unmonitored river by water resource reclamation facilities. Six sampling events were conducted on the Reedy River in South Carolina. Sampling locations included sites upstream and downstream of two WRRFs located on the river to examine potential contributions under drought conditions where WRRF effluents comprise a large proportion of total stream flow. Five target analytes were monitored including atrazine, carbamazepine, 17ß-estradiol, perfluorooctanoic acid, and sulfamethoxazole. On a mass basis, the WRRFs contributed additional loadings of carbamazepine ranging from 5.4 g/d to 7.2 g/d (mean: 6.3 ± 0.4 g/d), PFOA ranging from 8.6 to 31.9 g/d (mean: 20.0 ± 4.9), and sulfamethoxazole ranging from 49.4 g/d to 75.1 g/d (mean: 62.1 ± 4.8). 17ß-estradiol was detected once and atrazine was not detected.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Ríos , South Carolina , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Recursos Hídricos
19.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113664, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488110

RESUMEN

Water, energy, and food resources are indispensable and irreplaceable resources for the survival and development of human society. This study systematically assessed the three resources system in Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao based on constructed direct and nexus-oriented, multi-regional input-output, and ecological network analysis models. Various network analysis (e.g., control, utility, hierarchy, and robustness) was adopted to identify the critical factors of inter-regional resources trade from a perspective of supply-demand. The results indicated that Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao have complex control linkages in the three resources trade network, and Guangdong is the key to improving the three resources network structure. The three resources network existed highly competition and exploitation in the three regions. Industrial development is unbalanced and competitive for the three resources. The wholeness water-energy-food trade network of the three regions stayed in a positive environment, but the positive effect level was relatively weak. The three resources network robustness in the three regions is at a medium level. Hong Kong and Macao's water-energy-food network systems have a high vulnerability, and the lowest system robustness was food-related energy in Hong Kong. Finally, we provide some measures to help the sustainable development of the water-energy-food resource system in the three regions, such as cross-regional coordinated management, integration industries development, seawater toilets-flushing, sea rice, and renewable energy.


Asunto(s)
Recursos Hídricos , Agua , Alimentos , Hong Kong , Humanos , Macao
20.
Water Res ; 204: 117554, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500179

RESUMEN

To reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote resource recovery, many wastewater treatment operators are retrofitting existing plants to implement new technologies for energy, nutrient and carbon recovery. In literature, there is a lack of studies that can unfold the potential environmental and economic impacts of the transition that wastewater utilities are undertaking to transform their treatment plants to water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs). When existing, literature studies are mostly based on simulations rather than real plant data and pilot-scale results. This study combines life cycle assessment and economic evaluations to quantify the environmental and economic impacts of retrofitting an existing wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which already implements energy recovery, into a full-scale WRRF with a series of novel technologies, the majority of which are already implemented full-scale or tested through pilot-scales. We evaluate five technology alternatives against the current performance of the WWTP: real-time N2O control, biological biogas upgrading coupled with power-to-hydrogen, phosphorus recovery, pre-filtration carbon harvest and enhanced nitrogen removal. Our results show that real-time N2O control, biological biogas upgrading and pre-filtration lead to a decrease in climate change and fossil resource depletion impacts. The implementation of the real-time measurement and control of N2O achieved the highest reduction in direct CO2-eq emissions (-35%), with no significant impacts in other environmental categories. Biological biogas upgrading contributed to counterbalancing direct and indirect climate change impacts by substituting natural gas consumption and production. Pre-filtration increased climate change reduction by 13%, while it increased impacts in other categories. Enhanced sidestream nitrogen removal increased climate change impacts by 12%, but decreased marine eutrophication impacts by 14%. The reserve base resource depletion impacts, however, were the highest in the plant configurations implementing biological biogas upgrading coupled with power-to-hydrogen. Environmental improvements generated economic costs for all alternatives except for real-time N2O control. The results expose possible environmental and economic trade-offs and hotspots of the journey that large wastewater treatment plants will undertake in transitioning into resource recovery facilities in the coming years.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Purificación del Agua , Biocombustibles , Aguas Residuales , Recursos Hídricos
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...