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1.
Nature ; 597(7876): 360-365, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526707

RESUMEN

Fish and other aquatic foods (blue foods) present an opportunity for more sustainable diets1,2. Yet comprehensive comparison has been limited due to sparse inclusion of blue foods in environmental impact studies3,4 relative to the vast diversity of production5. Here we provide standardized estimates of greenhouse gas, nitrogen, phosphorus, freshwater and land stressors for species groups covering nearly three quarters of global production. We find that across all blue foods, farmed bivalves and seaweeds generate the lowest stressors. Capture fisheries predominantly generate greenhouse gas emissions, with small pelagic fishes generating lower emissions than all fed aquaculture, but flatfish and crustaceans generating the highest. Among farmed finfish and crustaceans, silver and bighead carps have the lowest greenhouse gas, nitrogen and phosphorus emissions, but highest water use, while farmed salmon and trout use the least land and water. Finally, we model intervention scenarios and find improving feed conversion ratios reduces stressors across all fed groups, increasing fish yield reduces land and water use by up to half, and optimizing gears reduces capture fishery emissions by more than half for some groups. Collectively, our analysis identifies high-performing blue foods, highlights opportunities to improve environmental performance, advances data-poor environmental assessments, and informs sustainable diets.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Alimentos Marinos , Desarrollo Sostenible , Animales , Acuicultura/tendencias , Cambio Climático , Dieta , Ecología , Política Ambiental , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/métodos , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Humanos , Moluscos , Nitrógeno , Fósforo , Alimentos Marinos/provisión & distribución , Algas Marinas , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias
3.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113712, 2021 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537559

RESUMEN

Marine aquaculture is expanding offshore, where the environmental interactions are not yet fully understood. We performed a benthic environmental assessment of an offshore fish farm on unconsolidated sediment. The physicochemical variables showed marked changes just under the fish farm, although the structure of the community and its bioturbation potential were not influenced. Under no or minimum influence from the fish farm, the physicochemical variables, including acid-volatile sulphides and redox, were notably different to those found in unaffected coastal areas. For this reason, classifications of the environmental status based on physicochemical variables should be adapted to offshore areas. Despite the low degree of impact detected, the organic matter carrying capacity should be carefully determined to avoid environmental drawbacks in terms of fine-grained offshore sediments. Offshore aquaculture could have a lower environmental impact than other types of aquaculture located closer to the coast, but further research is needed to obtain conclusive results.


Asunto(s)
Explotaciones Pesqueras , Sedimentos Geológicos , Acuicultura , Ambiente , Monitoreo del Ambiente
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5413, 2021 09 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526495

RESUMEN

Numerous studies have focused on the need to expand production of 'blue foods', defined as aquatic foods captured or cultivated in marine and freshwater systems, to meet rising population- and income-driven demand. Here we analyze the roles of economic, demographic, and geographic factors and preferences in shaping blue food demand, using secondary data from FAO and The World Bank, parameters from published models, and case studies at national to sub-national scales. Our results show a weak cross-sectional relationship between per capita income and consumption globally when using an aggregate fish metric. Disaggregation by fish species group reveals distinct geographic patterns; for example, high consumption of freshwater fish in China and pelagic fish in Ghana and Peru where these fish are widely available, affordable, and traditionally eaten. We project a near doubling of global fish demand by mid-century assuming continued growth in aquaculture production and constant real prices for fish. Our study concludes that nutritional and environmental consequences of rising demand will depend on substitution among fish groups and other animal source foods in national diets.


Asunto(s)
Peces/crecimiento & desarrollo , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Alimentos , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Alimentos Marinos/estadística & datos numéricos , África , Animales , Acuicultura/métodos , Asia , Europa (Continente) , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/métodos , Agua Dulce , Geografía , Salud Global , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , América del Norte , Alimentos Marinos/provisión & distribución , América del Sur
5.
Nature ; 597(7875): 225-229, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497393

RESUMEN

In the past several decades, field studies have shown that woody plants can access substantial volumes of water from the pores and fractures of bedrock1-3. If, like soil moisture, bedrock water storage serves as an important source of plant-available water, then conceptual paradigms regarding water and carbon cycling may need to be revised to incorporate bedrock properties and processes4-6. Here we present a lower-bound estimate of the contribution of bedrock water storage to transpiration across the continental United States using distributed, publicly available datasets. Temporal and spatial patterns of bedrock water use across the continental United States indicate that woody plants extensively access bedrock water for transpiration. Plants across diverse climates and biomes access bedrock water routinely and not just during extreme drought conditions. On an annual basis in California, the volumes of bedrock water transpiration exceed the volumes of water stored in human-made reservoirs, and woody vegetation that accesses bedrock water accounts for over 50% of the aboveground carbon stocks in the state. Our findings indicate that plants commonly access rock moisture, as opposed to groundwater, from bedrock and that, like soil moisture, rock moisture is a critical component of terrestrial water and carbon cycling.


Asunto(s)
Mapeo Geográfico , Agua Subterránea , Transpiración de Plantas , Plantas/metabolismo , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Recursos Hídricos/provisión & distribución , Madera , California , Ciclo del Carbono , Sequías , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Texas , Estados Unidos
6.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371918

RESUMEN

Effective actions for the fishery and aquaculture sectors to contribute toward improving nutrition rely on an understanding of the factors influencing fish intake, particularly amongst vulnerable populations. This scoping review synthesises evidence from 33 studies in the African Great Lakes Region to examine the influence of food environments on fish acquisition and consumption. We identified only two studies that explicitly applied a food environment framework and none that linked policy conditions with the contribution of fish to diets. Economic access to fish was represented in the largest number of included studies (21 studies), followed by preferences, acceptability and desirability of fish (17 studies) and availability and physical access (14 studies). Positive perceptions of taste and low cost, relative to other animal-source foods, were drivers of fish purchases in many settings; however, limited physical and economic access were frequently identified as preventing optimal intake. In lakeside communities, fish were increasingly directed toward external markets which reduced the availability and affordability of fish for local households. Few studies considered intra-household variations in fish access according to age, gender or physiological status, which represents an important knowledge gap. There is also scope for future research on seasonal influences on fish access and the design and rigorous evaluation of programmes and policies that address one or more constraints of availability, cost, convenience and preferences.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Peces , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Alimentos Marinos , África del Sur del Sahara , Animales , Explotaciones Pesqueras/economía , Cadena Alimentaria , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/economía , Humanos , Lagos , Valor Nutritivo , Ingesta Diaria Recomendada , Alimentos Marinos/economía , Factores Socioeconómicos
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 171: 112766, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330000

RESUMEN

Southwest Nova Scotia (SWNS) is Canada's most productive lobster (Homarus americanus) fishing region. Abandoned, lost, and discarded fishing gear (ALDFG) is widespread. This baseline study provides the first preliminary assessment of environmental and economic impacts of ALDFG on the commercial lobster industry in SWNS. Fishers conducted 60 retrieval trips, searched ~1523 km2 of the seafloor and removed 7064 kg of ALDFG (comprising 66% lobster traps and 22% dragger cable). Results showed that lost traps continued to capture target and non-target species until gear degraded. A total of 15 different species were released from retrieved ALDFG, including 239 lobsters (67% were market-sized) and seven groundfish (including five species-at-risk). The present findings, combined with information on regional fishing effort and market prices, estimate that commercial losses from ALDFG can exceed $175,000 CAD annually. This baseline assessment provides useful data for government and commercial fishing stakeholders to improve ALDFG management.


Asunto(s)
Explotaciones Pesqueras , Nephropidae , Animales , Industrias , Nueva Escocia , Alimentos Marinos
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299949

RESUMEN

Fisheries products are some of the most traded commodities world-wide and the potential for fraud is a serious concern. Fish fraud represents a threat to human health and poses serious concerns due to the consumption of toxins, highly allergenic species, contaminates or zoonotic parasites, which may be present in substituted fish. The substitution of more expensive fish by cheaper species, with similar morphological characteristics but different origins, reflects the need for greater transparency and traceability upon which which the security of the entire seafood value-chain depends. Even though EU regulations have made significant progress in consumer information by stringent labelling requirements, fraud is still widespread. Many molecular techniques such as DNA barcoding provide valuable support to enhance the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) in the protection of consumer interests by unequivocally detecting any kind of fraud. This paper aims to highlight both the engagement of EU fishery policy and the opportunity offered by new biotechnology instruments to mitigate the growing fraud in the globalized fish market and to enforce the food security system to protect consumers' health. In this paper, after a presentation of EU rules on fish labeling and a general overview on the current state of the global fish market, we discuss the public health implications and the opportunities offered by several techniques based on genetics, reporting a case study to show the efficacy of the DNA barcoding methodology in assessing fish traceability and identification, comparing different species of the Epinephelus genus, Mottled Grouper (Mycteroperca rubra) and Wreckfish (Polyprion americanus), often improperly sold with the commercial name of "grouper".


Asunto(s)
Biología Computacional , Código de Barras del ADN Taxonómico , Animales , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Peces , Humanos , Alimentos Marinos
11.
Conserv Biol ; 2021 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115408

RESUMEN

Land-use change is considered one of the greatest human threats to marine ecosystems globally. Given limited resources for conservation, we adapted and scaled up a spatially explicit, linked land-sea decision support tool using open access global geospatial data sets and software to inform the prioritization of future forest management interventions that can have the greatest benefit on marine conservation in Vanuatu. We leveraged and compared outputs from two global marine habitat maps to prioritize land areas for forest conservation and restoration that can maximize sediment retention, water quality, and healthy coastal/marine ecosystems. By combining the outputs obtained from both marine habitat maps, we incorporated elements unique to each and provided higher confidence in our prioritization results. Regardless of marine habitat data source, prioritized areas were mostly located in watersheds on the windward side of the large high islands, exposed to higher tropical rainfall, upstream from large sections of coral reef and seagrass habitats, and thus vulnerable to human-driven land use change. Forest protection and restoration in these areas will serve to maintain clean water and healthy, productive habitats through sediment retention, supporting the wellbeing of neighboring communities. The nationwide application of this linked land-sea tool can help managers prioritize watershed-based management actions based on quantitative synergies and trade-offs across terrestrial and marine ecosystems in data-poor regions. The framework developed here will guide the implementation of ridge-to-reef management across the Pacific region and beyond.

12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(39): 55003-55013, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125382

RESUMEN

Environmental and ecological issues have led to the development of new sustainable channels for the recovery of dredged sediments. One of the major difficulties of sediment valorization lies in particular in its very heterogeneous composition. For example, the presences of heavy metals and organic matter have a significant influence on the environmental impact of materials formulated with sediment. Some heavy metals such as antimony, mercury, lead, and cadmium in high concentrations are dangerous to the body. Trace metals trapped in sediments are transformed through complex biogeochemical processes. They subsequently associate with organic matter to form clay-humic groups that define the degree of sediment pollution. The Harbour Dredging Sediments (HDSs) used were classified as non-hazardous waste in accordance with Directive 12/12/14/EC. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental impact of the use of HDS from active lagoon in the formulation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with the objective of incorporating a high sediment content, obtaining materials with a low environmental impact and ensuring compressive strength of a C25/30 class concrete. Three HDSs are being studied that have a significant impact their difference by their fines content at 125 µm. Sediments recovered from the active lagooning process have not undergone any physical, chemical, or thermal treatment. The DMDA (Densified Mixture Design Algorithm) method is used to optimize the composition of "sediment" SSCs. The communication focuses on mortars equivalent to these "sediment" SCCs (SCMs). Sediment represents about 20% of the granular composition with a sediment-to-cement ratio of 80%. Compressive strengths are greater than 25 MPa and tensile strengths are in the range of 3 to 8 MPa at 28 days of curing. From an environmental point of view, all heavy metals are stabilized except nickel. In particular, there has been a considerable decrease in the levels of sulfate, total organic carbon, and chloride. The different SCMs are classified as inert, clinker hydration produces hydrates that capture and stabilize heavy metals in the cementitious matrix. The results obtained show that HDSs could be used as a secondary raw material in the formulation of self-compacting concretes.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Sedimentos Geológicos , Eliminación de Residuos
13.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0251882, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086695

RESUMEN

Many environmental organizations use photographic images to engage donors and supporters. While images play a role in fundraising, visual framing remains understudied in the environmental field. Few real-world experiments have examined which types of images result in higher donations to biodiversity conservation. We examined the role of images in conservation fundraising through a public experiment at Zoomarine, a marine park located in southern Portugal. Zoomarine runs a program called Dolphin Emotions where visitors pay to learn about dolphin biology and to interact with dolphins. We placed a donation box and a large informational poster about the Marine Megafauna Foundation, a conservation partner, in the lounge of the Dolphin Emotions program, which is open to participants and their families. The text on the poster, which solicited donations for the Marine Megafauna Foundation, was held constant, while four different image conditions were tested: dolphins, ocean wildlife, children, and people staring out from the poster (i.e., "watching eyes"). Each image condition was displayed for three days at a time and was on display for at least seven randomly assigned three-day periods over the course of 91 days. 20,944 visitors passed the donation box and the four poster conditions during this time and a total of € 952.40 was collected. The differences in mean donations in € per visitor per 3-day period were not statistically significant, F(3, 25) = 0.745, p = 0.54. Thus, we did not find that different images had a significant influence on donations to conservation. This may be due to our choice of visual frames or to the use of a donation box, which is a passive fundraising channel. Future research should examine how visual framing influences donations in other public settings and should test the influence of other visual frames on philanthropic behavior.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Obtención de Fondos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Biodiversidad , Niño , Delfines/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Organizaciones , Fotograbar/métodos , Portugal , Adulto Joven
14.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(2): e20190715, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076036

RESUMEN

Spiny lobsters (Family Palinuridae) are a popular seafood in Brazil. We characterize the fishing activity and analyze the population of lobster species captured in the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. We monitored the landings of lobster fishermen at the start of the fishing season, from May 24 to November 21, in 2010, at Pirangi beach, the main landing point in the metropolitan area of Natal. The lobster fisherman in the region use small vessels and a compressor to dive in artificial reefs known as marambaias. The artisanal fishermen are engaged in several illegal practices and revealed a greater capture of lobsters categorized as small-sized for the market (11-13.95cm tail length). The capture area led to different fishing pressures for each species. For P. laevicauda, fishing pressure occurred for all size classes, while for P. meripurpuratus, pressure occurred partially, only for a few population cohorts. On regional scale, fishing involved a demand-supply trade balance centered on the size of capture vs. abundance, regardless of the natural interespecific differences on body size and the preferential distribution area. Our results provide key information for future decision making involving the fishing of spiny lobster.


Asunto(s)
Decápodos , Palinuridae , Animales , Brasil , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Alimentos Marinos
15.
Conserv Biol ; 2021 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114682

RESUMEN

Coastal zones, which connect terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, are among the most resource-rich regions globally and home to nearly 40% of the global human population. Because human land-based activities can alter natural processes in ways that affect adjacent aquatic ecosystems, land-sea interactions are increasingly recognized as critical to coastal conservation planning and governance. However, the complex socioeconomic dynamics inherent in coastal and marine socioecological systems (SESs) have received little consideration. Drawing on knowledge generalized from long-term studies in Caribbean Nicaragua, we devised a conceptual framework that clarifies the multiple ways socioeconomically driven behavior can link the land and sea. In addition to other ecosystem effects, the framework illustrates how feedbacks resulting from changes to aquatic resources can influence terrestrial resource management decisions and land uses. We assessed the framework by applying it to empirical studies from a variety of coastal SESs. The results suggest its broad applicability and highlighted the paucity of research that explicitly investigates the effects of human behavior on coastal SES dynamics. We encourage researchers and policy makers to consider direct, indirect, and bidirectional cross-ecosystem links that move beyond traditionally recognized land-to-sea processes.

16.
Mar Environ Res ; 169: 105399, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175523

RESUMEN

Overfishing is a key stressor in many coral reefs, affecting their function and ecosystem services. In the Gulf of California, 50 years of artisanal and recreational fishing have removed most of the largest and most vulnerable fish species, the Espiritu Santo Archipelago (ESA) is a marine protected area (MPA) where artisanal and recreational fishing are allowed in most of the natural reefs, while the artificial reefs (wrecks) are fully protected. An important question under such circumstances is whether artificial reefs can serve as surrogate habitats for the natural reefs. To address this question, we characterized the fish community (species richness, abundance, differences in taxonomic structure) and analyzed the obtained data by multivariate ordination and similarity analysis. The highest species richness was found in the artificial reefs, with total of 83 species, of which 21 species were exclusive. Contrary to the species richness, the total fish abundance was 20% higher at the natural reefs. The fish assemblages of the artificial reefs differ significantly from those of the natural reefs. The natural reefs of the ESA are dominated by few fish species from families of lower trophic levels. In contrast, the studied shipwrecks provide refuge to commercially important fish species (such as Snappers, Triggerfish, Jacks, and Groupers) including threatened species. The different fish compositions on the natural and artificial reefs is likely to be the outcome of differential fishing pressure. The non-fished areas (wrecks) of the ESA may represent a good strategy for reef restoration, enhanced fishing grounds (via spillover) and fishing management. However, the fish community structure of the artificial reefs differs from natural rocky reefs of the ESA, and therefore, should not be considered as surrogate habitats for natural reefs. The results point out the need to reassess the management effectiveness of the natural reefs of the ESA.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Animales , Arrecifes de Coral , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Peces , Alimentos Marinos
17.
J Environ Manage ; 293: 112831, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082347

RESUMEN

Recreational sea angling is a popular activity generating significant socio-economic benefits but can impact on fish stocks. The motivations of recreational sea anglers go beyond catch, with a diverse range of motivations relating to physical health and well-being. Heterogenous motives and the popularity of catch and release practices mean that applying commercial fisheries management goals (maximum sustainable yield) to recreational fisheries could result in reduced participation, increased non-compliance, and a subsequent loss of both market and non-market values generated through recreational angling activities. Hence, assessment of sea angler preferences for management is important for the development of appropriate management strategies. In this study, a choice experiment was conducted to assess sea anglers' preferences for changes in UK sea angling management measures. Stated preferences for catching, keeping, and releasing fish due to bag limits and minimum-landing sizes were assessed. Willingness to pay (WTP) estimates for marginal changes of catching the first sea bass on a trip were between £11 and £31 depending on whether the fish could be kept or released and between £11 and £28 for cod, respectively. WTP was much higher for fish caught and kept than caught and released suggesting that consumption of fish was an important motivation. Minimum size was the most considered choice attribute for respondents, while cost was less commonly considered. The implications of the findings are discussed in the context of future management of recreational fisheries.


Asunto(s)
Explotaciones Pesqueras , Recreación , Animales , Peces , Alimentos Marinos , Reino Unido
18.
J Environ Manage ; 293: 112868, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089960

RESUMEN

Although mining is essential for human economic development, is amongst the most polluting anthropogenic sources that influence seriously in water resources. Thus, understanding the presence and concentration of heavy metals in water and sediment in the vicinity of mines is important for the sustainability of the ecosystem. In this work, a multidisciplinary approach was developed to characterize the contamination level, source apportionment, co-existence, and degree of ecological and human health risks of HMs on water resources in the Vatukoula Goldmine region (VGR), Fiji. The outcomes suggested significant contamination by Cd (range: 0.01-0.95 g/L), Pb (range: 0.03-0.53 g/L), and Mn (range: 0.01-3.66 g/L) in water samples surpassed the level set by Fiji and international laws, whereas higher concentration of Cd (range: 2.60-23.16 mg/kg), Pb (range: 28.50-200.90 mg/kg) and Zn (range: 36.50-196.66 mg/kg) were detected in sediment samples. Lead demonstrated a strong significant co-existence network with other metals (e.g., Mn, Ni). Source apportionment recognized four source patterns (Cd, Pb, Ni, and Mn) for water and (Cr, Cd-Pb, Mn, and Zn) for sediment which was further confirmed by principal component analysis. The mine inputs source mainly contributed to Cd (66.07%) for water, while mineral processing mostly contributed to Zn (76.10%) for sediment. High non-carcinogenic (>1) and carcinogenic (>10-4) health risks, particularly in children, are related to the elevated Cd, Pb and Cr contents from the VGR. Uncertainty analysis demonstrates that the 90th quantile of Cd led to higher carcinogenic risk. Pollution indices disclosed a moderate to extremely contamination status mainly along the Toko dam which poses high ecological risks identified by index calculation. However, sediment quality indicators based on probable effect levels showed that there was a 75% of likelihood that the concentrations of Cd and Pb adjacent to the VGR have a severe toxic impact on aquatic lives.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Niño , China , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Fiji , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Recursos Hídricos
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3875, 2021 06 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162891

RESUMEN

The conservation of ecosystems and their biodiversity has numerous co-benefits, both for local societies and for humankind worldwide. While the co-benefit of climate change mitigation through so called blue carbon storage in coastal ecosystems has raised increasing interest in mangroves, the relevance of multifaceted biodiversity as a driver of carbon storage remains unclear. Sediment salinity, taxonomic diversity, functional diversity and functional distinctiveness together explain 69%, 69%, 27% and 61% of the variation in above- and belowground plant biomass carbon, sediment organic carbon and total ecosystem carbon storage, respectively, in the Sundarbans Reserved Forest. Functional distinctiveness had the strongest explanatory power for carbon storage, indicating that blue carbon in mangroves is driven by the functional composition of diverse tree assemblages. Protecting and restoring mangrove biodiversity with site-specific dominant species and other species of contrasting functional traits would have the co-benefit of maximizing their capacity for climate change mitigation through increased carbon storage.


Asunto(s)
Avicennia/metabolismo , Biodiversidad , Secuestro de Carbono , Carbono/metabolismo , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Algoritmos , Avicennia/crecimiento & desarrollo , Biomasa , Ecosistema , Sedimentos Geológicos , Modelos Teóricos
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