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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251197, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350305

RESUMEN

Abstract Birds are among the best bio-indicators, which can guide us to recognize some of the main conservation concerns in ecosystems. Anthropogenic impacts such as deforestation, habitat degradation, modification of landscapes, and decreased quality of habitats are major threats to bird diversity. The present study was designed to detect anthropogenic causative agents that act on waterbird diversity in Tarbella Dam, Indus River, Pakistan. Waterbird censuses were carried out from March 2019 to February 2020 in multiple areas around the dam. A total of 2990 waterbirds representing 63 species were recorded. We detected the highest waterbird richness and diversity at Pehure whereas the highest density was recorded at Kabbal. Human activity impacts seemed to be the main factor determining the waterbird communities as waterbirds were negatively correlated with the greatest anthropogenic impacts. Waterbirds seem to respond rapidly to human disturbance.


Resumo As aves estão entre os melhores bioindicadores, o que pode nos orientar a reconhecer algumas das principais preocupações de conservação dos ecossistemas. Impactos antrópicos como desmatamento, degradação de habitat, modificação de paisagens e diminuição da qualidade dos habitats são as principais ameaças à diversidade de aves. O presente estudo foi desenhado para detectar agentes causadores antropogênicos que atuam na diversidade de aves aquáticas na Represa de Tarbella, rio Indus, Paquistão. Censos de aves aquáticas foram realizados de março de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020 em várias áreas ao redor da barragem. Um total de 2.990 aves aquáticas representando 63 espécies foi registrado. Detectamos a maior riqueza e diversidade de aves aquáticas em Pehure, enquanto a maior densidade foi registrada em Kabbal. Os impactos da atividade humana parecem ser o principal fator determinante das comunidades de aves aquáticas, uma vez que as aves aquáticas foram negativamente correlacionadas com os maiores impactos antrópicos. As aves aquáticas parecem responder rapidamente às perturbações humanas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Ecosistema , Ríos , Pakistán , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243666, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339361

RESUMEN

Abstract Brazil is the world's richest country in biodiversity, including mammal species. In the Brazilian Cerrado biome, mammalian diversity is vast, with about 251 species, 32 of them are endemic and 22 listed as threatened species. In this work, we investigated species diversity of medium- and large-sized mammals in the private protected area RPPN Pontal do Jaburu (RPPN-PJ) and its surroundings, which is a flooded area located in an important biological corridor in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone zone, a priority area for biodiversity conservation in Brazil. We used camera-trapping, active search (night and day), and track survey during dry season (Apr - Aug 2016). We recorded 29 mammal species, being the Carnivora order the most representative with 11 species. Regarding threat status, 35.7% of the recorded species were listed as threatened in Brazil and 32.1% worldwide. We highlight the high relative frequency of threatened species records such as Tapirus terrestris, Panthera onca, Blastocerus dichotomus, Pteronura brasiliensis, Priodontes maximus, and other, as well as the presence of the newly described aquatic mammal species Inia araguaiaensis. We stress the importance of RPPN-PJ and its surroundings for mammal conservation, which include complex habitats (wetlands) located in an important ecotone zone.


Resumo O Brasil é o país mais rico em biodiversidade no mundo, incluindo espécies de mamíferos. No bioma Cerrado, a diversidade de mamíferos é enorme, com cerca de 251 espécies, sendo 32 delas endêmicas e 22 listadas como ameaçadas de extinção. Neste estudo, investigamos a diversidade de espécies de mamíferos de médio e grande porte da RPPN Pontal do Jaburu (RPPN-PJ) e seu entorno, que é uma floresta de inundação localizada em um importante corredor biológico na zona de ecótono Cerrado-Amazonia, uma área prioritária para conservação da biodiversidade no Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por armadilhas fotográficas, busca ativa (noturna e diurna) e identificação de pegadas durante a estação seca (abril - agosto de 2016). Registramos um grande número de espécies de mamíferos (n = 29), sendo a ordem carnívora a mais representativa com 11 espécies. Com relação ao status de ameaça, 34,5% das espécies registradas foram listadas como ameaçadas na lista vermelha do Brasil e 20,7% na lista vermelha da IUCN. Destacamos a alta frequência relativa de registros de espécies ameaçadas como Tapirus terrestris, Panthera onca, Blastocerus dichotomus, Pteronura brasiliensis, Priodontes maximus, bem como a presença da recém descrita espécie de mamífero aquático Inia araguaiaensis. Nós discutimos a importância da RPPN-PJ e seus arredores para a conservação de espécies de mamíferos, onde inclui habitats complexos (áreas de inundação) localizados em uma importante zona de ecótono.. Os resultados reforçam a relevância desta área para a conservação de mamíferos.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Humedales , Mamíferos , Brasil , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Biodiversidad
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246002, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285612

RESUMEN

Abstract Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a new concept in forest management. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services (PES). Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate eco-tourism and carbon stock services of the Maindam valley, District Swat, Pakistan. For the carbon stock calculation, a sample size of 155 plots of 0.1 hectare (Ha) was taken using preliminary survey at 95% confidence interval and 10% allowable error. The data for tourism services was collected from owners of all the hotels, 100 tourists and key informants of the area at 10% sampling intensity on pretested questionnaire for twenty years period (1997-2017). Results showed that Miandam valley has carbon stock worth US$ 16,306,000 while the value of eco-tourism was US$ 1,578,458 on annual basis. The results also showed that trend of tourism has drastically declined after the 9/11 incident for foreigners and locals and the situation was further deteriorated during the era of Talibanization or militancy from 2008-2011. This study recommends implementation of PES strategy at the rate of 5%, thus a total of US$ 78,922 can be earned from eco-tourism and carbon crediting in the study area annually, which could play important role in sustainable forest management.


Resumo A valoração econômica dos serviços ecossistêmicos é um novo conceito no manejo florestal. A avaliação econômica fornece base para o pagamento por serviços ecossistêmicos (PES). Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o ecoturismo e os serviços de estoque de carbono do vale de Miandam, distrito Swat, Paquistão. Para o cálculo do estoque de carbono, um tamanho de amostra de 155 parcelas de 0,1 hectare (ha) foi tirado, usando pesquisa preliminar com intervalo de confiança de 95% e erro admissível de 10%. Os dados para serviços de turismo foram coletados de proprietários de todos os hotéis, 100 turistas e informantes-chave da área em 10% de intensidade de amostragem em questionário pré-testado para um período de 20 anos (1997-2017). Os resultados mostraram que o vale de Miandam tem estoque de carbono no valor de US$ 16.306.000, enquanto o valor do ecoturismo foi de US$ 1.578.458 anualmente. Os resultados também mostraram que a tendência do turismo diminuiu drasticamente para estrangeiros e locais após o incidente de 11 de Setembro, e a situação se agravou ainda mais durante a era da talibanização ou militância de 2008-2011. Este estudo recomenda a implementação da estratégia de PES na taxa de 5%, portanto um total de US$ 78.922 pode ser ganho com ecoturismo e crédito de carbono na área de estudo anualmente, o que pode desempenhar um papel importante no manejo florestal sustentável.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Pakistán , Carbono/análisis , Bosques
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246180, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278550

RESUMEN

Abstract In fisheries, the phenomenon known as fishing down food webs is supposed to be a consequence of overfishing, which would be reflected in a reduction in the trophic level of landings. In such scenarios, the resilience of carnivorous, top predator species is particularly affected, making these resources the first to be depleted. The Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, exemplifies a predator resource historically targeted by artisanal fisheries on the Brazilian coast. The present work analyzes landings in three periods within a 50-year timescale on the Parana coast, Southern Brazil, aiming to evaluate whether historical production has supposedly declined. Simultaneously, the diet was analyzed to confirm carnivorous habits and evaluate the trophic level in this region. Surprisingly, the results show that from the 1970's to 2019 Serra Spanish mackerel production grew relatively to other resources, as well as in individual values. The trophic level was calculated as 4.238, similar to other Scomberomorus species, consisting of a case where landings increase over time, despite the high trophic level and large body size of the resource. The results agree with a recent global assessment that has demystified a necessary correlation between high trophic level and overexploitation, but possible factors acting on the present findings are discussed.


Resumo Na pesca, o fenômeno fishing down food webs, ou 'pescando teias tróficas abaixo', expressa a redução do nível trófico na composição das capturas, e tem origem tradicionalmente atribuída à sobrepesca. Sob intenso extrativismo, a resiliência das espécies carnívoras, predadoras de topo, é particularmente afetada, sendo seus estoques os primeiros a entrarem em depleção. A cavala, ou serra, ou sororoca, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, é exemplo de recurso predador historicamente alvo da pesca artesanal, de pequena escala, na costa brasileira. O presente trabalho analisa os valores de desembarque do recurso em três períodos ao longo de 50 anos na costa paranaense, sul do Brasil, com objetivo de avaliar se sua produção tem efetivamente diminuído. Ainda, estuda-se a dieta da espécie na região, para confirmar seus hábitos carnívoros e avaliar o nível trófico na região. Os resultados mostram que, surpreendentemente, dos anos 1970 para 2019 a produção de S. brasiliensis tem aumentado em valores absolutos, bem como relativamente à de outros recursos, em que pese o nível trófico 4,238, similar a outras espécies do gênero. Constata-se que a pesca da cavala na região de estudo constitui um caso de aumento nos desembarques a despeito de elevado nível trófico e grande tamanho corpóreo. Os resultados concordam com recente levantamento em nível mundial, que nega existir correlação necessária entre sobrepesca e nível trófico alto, mas fatores que podem explicar os resultados do presente trabalho são discutidos.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Perciformes , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Brasil , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Cadena Alimentaria
6.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 3797765, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089958

RESUMEN

With the depletion of global resources and the deterioration of the ecological environment, the implementation of green reverse logistics management has become a necessary means. Green reverse logistics is a new type of reverse logistics that aims to improve resource utilization and protect the ecological environment. While promoting sustainable development, "green reverse logistics" also has certain social and economic significance. This paper compared the green reverse logistics system based on blockchain with the current green reverse logistics system. Taking drug recycling as an example, this paper mainly analyzed the waste rate, utilization rate, and enterprise income. The comparison results showed that the efficiency of drug recycling based on blockchain has increased by 20.1% compared with the current stage, and the waste rate has decreased by 16%. The utilization rate has increased by 14%, and corporate income has also increased by 19.5%. It is greatly indicated that green reverse logistics based on blockchain is of great significance to enterprise income and environmental protection, which also produces great social benefits.


Asunto(s)
Cadena de Bloques , Desarrollo Sostenible , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Eficiencia , Reciclaje
7.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 5107325, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089969

RESUMEN

Traditional historical buildings carry the culture and spirit of China for thousands of years and have a unique charm that modern buildings do not have. However, traditional historical buildings have gradually declined over time, and their restoration not only takes time and materials but also causes certain harm to the environment. Therefore, this paper has aimed to explore how traditional historical buildings can develop in a sustainable and ecologically adaptive image in modern times. For traditional historical buildings, this paper has taken traditional cave dwellings in northern Shaanxi as an example to analyze their ecological adaptability, and based on the analysis results, traditional cave dwellings have been transformed. Specifically, this paper has taken the comfort of residential houses as the evaluation standard and has selected the thermal stability of the building and the energy consumption of heat supply as indicators to compare and analyze the traditional cave dwellings and the renovated cave dwellings. The experimental results of this paper have found that the traditional historical buildings are the crystallization of the wisdom of the ancients for thousands of years. However, due to the limitation of technology, the lighting and thermal stability of traditional cave dwellings are not high. After scientific design, the lighting and thermal stability of the transformed cave are 100% and 30% higher than those of the traditional cave, respectively, and the heating energy consumption is reduced by 50%.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Iluminación , China
8.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 4056713, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093504

RESUMEN

Cities are gradually developed on the basis of adapting and transforming the natural environment. In a certain urban area, human activities, natural environment, and other factors and their mutual influence constitute the urban ecological environment. Therefore, the evaluation of urban ecological environment quality is of great significance to the analysis of urban development. This paper takes a city in Western China as the evaluation object, uses AHP to determine the index weight, reasonably analyzes the current situation of the urban ecological environment, and further comprehensively evaluates the quality of the urban ecological environment. The study shows that from 2013 to 2018, the comprehensive capacity of the city's ecological environment quality showed a steady upward trend, except that the natural disasters of floods and mudslides in 2014 had a certain degree of fluctuation. The comprehensive index of ecological environment quality has increased from 0.337 in 2013 to 0.412 in 2018. The overall level is still low, but the development speed is relatively stable. The urban ecological environment has been gradually improved, and society, economy, and nature have maintained a certain degree of sustainable development.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Remodelación Urbana , China , Ciudades , Humanos , Desarrollo Sostenible
9.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 2178579, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120138

RESUMEN

Under the current theme of environmental protection, the effect of English literature classroom teaching reform cannot be analyzed qualitatively. Based on BP neural network, we present an analytical model of the impact of College English Literature Classroom Teaching Reform on environmental protection based on artificial intelligence technology. We analyze the teaching reform of English literature classrooms with the theme of environmental protection under artificial intelligence technology and explore the concept of "intelligent education" and the construction path of university English ecological teaching mode. Based on the in-depth excavation of teaching information, this paper analyzes the impact of college English literature classroom reform on the theme of environmental protection. Combined with BP neural network, a scientific analytic hierarchy process index system model is established, and the weight relationship of various reform influencing factors is given relatively objectively. The scores of the model based on the BP neural network under the six effect analysis indicators of teaching attitude, teaching tools, reform plan, reform teaching content, classroom organization, and reform rationality are 90.97, 86.3, 80.4, 95.7, 84.8, and 87.4, respectively. The results show that this model has a good ability for analysis and evaluation, which also provides some new ideas and entry points for the reform of the current English classroom teaching model. This study has a certain contribution to the breakthrough of college English teaching goals.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos , Tecnología , Universidades
10.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 5901718, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120145

RESUMEN

The ecological problems faced by China's environmental protection are becoming more and more serious. Serious haze occurs frequently in some areas. Water pollution, soil pollution, and other new types of pollution are still relatively prominent problems. Therefore, rural architectural planning and landscape optimization design should be based on the premise of ecological environmental protection. This paper puts forward the evaluation of rural architectural planning and landscape in the context of ecological environment protection and uses the analytic hierarchy process to analyze and obtain the evaluation results. This method has a comprehensive and scientific powerful evaluation function. The experimental results of this paper show that after the evaluation of the analytic hierarchy process, it is found that the comprehensive score of the architectural planning and landscape of village A is not very high. The highest weight is 0.3210, the landscape diversity score of street A is 1.28, and the landscape diversity score of street D is 1.76. This is the highest score, indicating that the architectural planning and landscape of the village cannot meet the needs of contemporary ecological environmental protection. Aiming at the problems existing in the landscape, the corresponding measures are also given at the end of the experiment, which has certain significance for the landscape optimization design.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema
11.
Lancet Planet Health ; 6(9): e769-e773, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087607

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has devastated global communities and economies. The pandemic has exposed socioeconomic disparities and weaknesses in health systems worldwide. Long-term health effects and economic recovery are major concerns. Ecosystem restoration-ie, the repair of ecosystems that have been degraded-relates directly to tackling the health and socioeconomic burdens of COVID-19, because stable and resilient ecosystems are fundamental determinants of health and socioeconomic stability. Here, we use COVID-19 as a case study, showing how ecosystem restoration can reduce the risk of infection and adverse sequelae and have an integral role in humanity's recovery from COVID-19. The next decade will be crucial for humanity's recovery from COVID-19 and for ecosystem repair. Indeed, in the absence of effective, large-scale restoration, 95% of the Earth's land could be degraded by 2050. The UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (2021-30) declaration reflects the growing urgency and scale at which we should repair ecosystems. Importantly, ecosystem restoration could also help to combat the health and socioeconomic issues that are associated with COVID-19, yet it is poorly integrated into current responses to the disease. Ecosystem restoration can be a core public health intervention and assist in COVID-19 recovery if it is closely integrated with socioeconomic, health, and environmental policies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Ecosistema , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Política Ambiental , Humanos
12.
J Environ Manage ; 321: 115896, 2022 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104878

RESUMEN

This study examines the link from the stringency of environmental regulation to facility level employment. Much of the literature examining the effects of regulation on employment finds no significant links. However, this literature fails to distinguish between production labor and environmental labor. Our study contributes to this literature by (1) distinguishing workers based on their purpose, jointly estimating these separate outcomes (while controlling for facility heterogeneity), and using cross-equation tests to assess the need for separation, (2) theoretically identifying causal mechanisms linking environmental regulation to employment, and (3) examining the effects of the enforcement of environmental regulation, rather than its imposition, while exploring the heterogeneity of effects by specific enforcement tool. Empirical results reveal that greater enforcement of environmental regulation reduces both production employment and environmental employment. Despite this commonality, cross-equation tests reveal that environmental enforcement differentially affects production and environmental employment, implying that the estimation of overall employment appears misspecified.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Empleo , Humanos
14.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5476, 2022 Sep 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115865

RESUMEN

Zero-deforestation supply chain policies that leverage the market power of commodity buyers to change agricultural producer behavior can reduce forest clearing in regions with rapid commodity expansion and weak forest governance. Yet leakage-when deforestation is pushed to other regions-may dilute the global effectiveness of regionally successful policies. Here we show that domestic leakage offsets 43-50% of the avoided deforestation induced by existing and proposed zero-deforestation supply chain policies in Brazil's soy sector. However, cross-border leakage is insignificant (<3%) because soybean production is displaced to existing U.S. farmland. Eliminating deforestation from the supply chains of all firms exporting Brazilian soy to the EU or China from 2011-2016 could have reduced net global deforestation by 2% and Brazilian deforestation by 9%. Thus, if major tropical commodity importers (e.g., the EU) require traders to eliminate deforestation from their supply chains, it could help bend the curve on global forest loss.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Soja , Agricultura , Brasil , Bosques
15.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 64(8): 540-544, 2022.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117489

RESUMEN

Background  Mental capacity, the criterion used today to determine who can make decisions independently, is under pressure from the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Aim  To outline the prevailing view, the view of the UN Convention and a middle ground. To formulate steps to apply the spirit of the UN Convention today. Method  Essay starting from the most relevant international human rights sources within the United Nations and the Council of Europe, supplemented by secondary literature on these sources. Results  The UN Convention abandons mental capacity as the criterion to determine whether a patient can make decisions autonomously. At the same time, it rejects any form of coercion applied directly or indirectly because of mental illness. Conclusion  The UN Convention does not offer a clear alternative, so the future is uncertain. Nevertheless, the important principles of the UN Convention should not be forgotten; they can already be implemented today by being aware of the role of human rights in mental health care, by placing the quality of decision-making at the center and by making less and more conscious use of coercion.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Salud Mental , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Incertidumbre , Naciones Unidas
17.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 1811896, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36105517

RESUMEN

To realize the sustainable development of the environment from the perspective of green economy, it is necessary to effectively utilize the communication channels of environmental sustainability under the rule of law. As a new driving force for economic growth and ecological environment, green economy is analyzed from the perspective of coordinating economic and environmental development. This paper fully analyzes the impact of green economy on economic growth and ecological environment. Based on the inherent relationship, the rule of law and environmental sustainability are conducive to promoting economic growth and also play a continuous role in environmental improvement. Areas with a high level of economic development also have a higher proportion of resource consumption. Driven by technological innovation, green economy can effectively reduce the impact of the environment, promote sustainability, and further promote the coordinated development of the economy and the environment. The results of the case analysis show that, in the proportion of the green economy with a large amount of investment, compared with the traditional policies and regulations, it greatly reduces the aggravation of environmental sustainability and has a positive role in promoting the long-term development of the Chinese economy. It can not only effectively accelerate economic growth, but also realize the reflection from the perspective of green economy and promote the optimization of economic structure.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Energéticos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Comunicación , Desarrollo Económico , Desarrollo Sostenible
18.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 535, 2022 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050331

RESUMEN

Chanodichthys erythropterus is a fierce carnivorous fish widely found in East Asian waters. It is not only a popular food fish in China, it is also a representative victim of overfishing. Genetic breeding programs launched to meet market demands urgently require high-quality genomes to facilitate genomic selection and genetic research. In this study, we constructed a chromosome-level reference genome of C. erythropterus by taking advantage of long-read single-molecule sequencing and de novo assembly by Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) and Hi-C. The 1.085 Gb C. erythropterus genome was assembled from 132 Gb of Nanopore sequence. The assembled genome represents 98.5% completeness (BUSCO) with a contig N50 length of 23.29 Mb. The contigs were clustered and ordered onto 24 chromosomes covering roughly 99.49% of the genome assembly with Hi-C data. Additionally, 33,041 (98.0%) genes were functionally annotated from a total of 33,706 predicted protein-coding sequences by combining transcriptome data from seven tissues. This high-quality assembled genome will be a precious resource for future molecular breeding and functional genomics research of C. erythropterus.


Asunto(s)
Peces , Genoma , Animales , Cromosomas/genética , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Peces/genética , Anotación de Secuencia Molecular , Filogenia
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