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1.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 65-83, oct.-dic. 2024.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-559

RESUMEN

La falta de información sobre el uso de la tecnología en niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) de diferentes perfiles puede dificultar que docentes y alumnos se estén beneficiando del apoyo tecnológico más eficaz y ajustado a sus necesidades. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar y sintetizar la evidencia científica sobre la eficacia de los recursos tecnológicos en la mejora de la comprensión emocional de estudiantes con TEA con perfiles de alto y bajo funcionamiento. Para ello se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones científicas indexadas en algunas de las bases de datos de mayor relevancia siguiendo los criterios establecidos en la declaración PRISMA. En total se analizaron 38 artículos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión preestablecidos. Los resultados muestran la importancia de diseñar sistemas versátiles que puedan personalizarse y adaptarse en tiempo real y en contextos naturales con un enfoque claramente inclusivo. Pero también sugieren que la tecnología puede no ser una herramienta de intervención complementaria adecuada para todos los niños con TEA. Lo que subraya la necesidad de ensayos adicionales bien controlados sobre las características que permitan identificar qué estudiantes podrían o no beneficiarse de diferentes modalidades de tecnología. (AU)


The lack of information on the use of technology in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of different profiles can make it difficult for teachers and students to benefit from the most effective technology support tailored to their needs. The aim of this review was to analyze and synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of technological resources in improving the emotional understanding of students with high and low functioning ASD profiles. A systematic review of the scientific publications indexed in some of the most relevant databases was carried out following the criteria established in the PRISMA declaration. A total of 38 articles that met the pre-established inclusion criteria were analyzed. The results show the importance of designing versatile systems that can be customized and adapted in real time and in natural contexts with a clearly inclusive approach. But they also suggest that technology may not be an appropriate complementary intervention tool for all children with ASD. This underlines the need for additional well-controlled tests on the characteristics that would allow identifying which students might or might not benefit from different technology modalities. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Tecnología Educacional , Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastorno Autístico
2.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 65-83, oct.-dic. 2024.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229229

RESUMEN

La falta de información sobre el uso de la tecnología en niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) de diferentes perfiles puede dificultar que docentes y alumnos se estén beneficiando del apoyo tecnológico más eficaz y ajustado a sus necesidades. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar y sintetizar la evidencia científica sobre la eficacia de los recursos tecnológicos en la mejora de la comprensión emocional de estudiantes con TEA con perfiles de alto y bajo funcionamiento. Para ello se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones científicas indexadas en algunas de las bases de datos de mayor relevancia siguiendo los criterios establecidos en la declaración PRISMA. En total se analizaron 38 artículos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión preestablecidos. Los resultados muestran la importancia de diseñar sistemas versátiles que puedan personalizarse y adaptarse en tiempo real y en contextos naturales con un enfoque claramente inclusivo. Pero también sugieren que la tecnología puede no ser una herramienta de intervención complementaria adecuada para todos los niños con TEA. Lo que subraya la necesidad de ensayos adicionales bien controlados sobre las características que permitan identificar qué estudiantes podrían o no beneficiarse de diferentes modalidades de tecnología. (AU)


The lack of information on the use of technology in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of different profiles can make it difficult for teachers and students to benefit from the most effective technology support tailored to their needs. The aim of this review was to analyze and synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of technological resources in improving the emotional understanding of students with high and low functioning ASD profiles. A systematic review of the scientific publications indexed in some of the most relevant databases was carried out following the criteria established in the PRISMA declaration. A total of 38 articles that met the pre-established inclusion criteria were analyzed. The results show the importance of designing versatile systems that can be customized and adapted in real time and in natural contexts with a clearly inclusive approach. But they also suggest that technology may not be an appropriate complementary intervention tool for all children with ASD. This underlines the need for additional well-controlled tests on the characteristics that would allow identifying which students might or might not benefit from different technology modalities. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Tecnología Educacional , Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastorno Autístico
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 645-683, jul. 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538073

RESUMEN

Information on the knowledge and ways of using food and medicinal plants by traditional populations, family farmers and Brazilian native population in the Amazon is essential to guarantee the food sovereignty of these groups. This study was conducted using semi-structured interviews applied to local respondents. A total of 269 species of both non-conventional food plants and medicinal plants were identified, distributed in 83 botanical families and 198 genera. The Arecaceae and Lamiaceae families had the highest species richness (11 and 7, respectively). The Shannon-Wiener (H') and Pielou (J') diversity indices were considered high (5.02 and 0.9, respectively) when compared to other ethnobotanical works. In the environment in which these families are found, these species become the only food and medicinal resources available.


La información sobre los saberes y formas de uso de las plantas alimenticias y medicinales por parte de las poblaciones tradicionales, agricultores familiares e indígenas brasileños en la Amazonía es fundamental para garantizar la soberanía alimentaria de estos grupos. Este estudio se realizó utilizando entrevistas semiestructuradas aplicadas a encuestados locales. Se identificaron un total de 269 especies tanto de plantas alimenticiasno convencionales como de plantas medicinales, distribuidas en 83 familias botánicas y 198 géneros. Las familias Arecaceae y Lamiaceae tuvieron la mayor riqueza de especies (11 y 7, respectivamente). Los índices de diversidad de Shannon-Wiener (H') y Pielou (J') fueron considerados altos (5,02 y 0,9, respectivamente) en comparación con otros trabajos etnobotánicos. En el ambiente en que se encuentran estas familias, estas especies se convierten en los únicos recursos alimenticios y medicinales disponibles.


Asunto(s)
Plantas Comestibles , Plantas Medicinales , Etnobotánica , Brasil , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
Andes Pediatr ; 95(1): 10-16, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587339

RESUMEN

More and more naturally we recognize children and adolescents (NNA) as social actors capable of managing for themselves, according to their age and level of development, specific aspects of their lives; spaces in which we gradually and correlatively grant them greater scope for personal action. This paradigmatic change in the understanding of children and adolescents has been influenced by the adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) in 1989. It meant moving forward from a until then welfare perspective that observed children and adolescents as subject objects of protection, as passive subjects, to the guardianship of responsible adults (doctrine of guardianship protection), to their consideration as subjects of law, that is, as holders and main agents in the exercise of their rights, with respect to which adults have duties of protection. orientation and guidance (doctrine of comprehensive protection). Reviewing the terms of the Convention and the adjustments made to the national legal framework, this article explores how this new model, based on human rights, is extended and in what terms, to the healthcare space.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Derechos Humanos , Niño , Humanos , Adolescente
5.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1902): 20230015, 2024 May 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583468

RESUMEN

Expanding and managing current habitat and species protection measures is at the heart of the European biodiversity strategy. A structured approach is needed to gain insights into such issues is systematic conservation planning, which uses techniques from decision theory to identify places and actions that contribute most effectively to policy objectives given a set of constraints. Yet culturally and historically determined European landscapes make the implementation of any conservation plans challenging, requiring an analysis of synergies and trade-offs before implementation. In this work, we review the scientific literature for evidence of previous conservation planning approaches, highlighting recent advances and success stories. We find that the conceptual characteristics of European conservation planning studies likely reduced their potential in contributing to better-informed decisions. We outline pathways towards improving the uptake of decision theory and multi-criteria conservation planning at various scales, particularly highlighting the need for (a) open data and intuitive tools, (b) the integration of biodiversity-focused conservation planning with multiple objectives, (c) accounting of dynamic ecological processes and functions, and (d) better facilitation of entry-points and co-design practices of conservation planning scenarios with stakeholders. By adopting and improving these practices, European conservation planning might become more actionable and adaptable towards implementable policy outcomes. This article is part of the theme issue 'Ecological novelty and planetary stewardship: biodiversity dynamics in a transforming biosphere'.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Biodiversidad , Europa (Continente)
6.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(5): 154, 2024 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592573

RESUMEN

Contamination of aquatic ecosystems by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is a concerning environmental issue, given their persistence, toxicity potential, and ability to accumulate in living organisms. Several studies have been conducted to assess the contamination of aquatic ecosystems by PTEs, using pollution and ecological risk indices that rely on the concentration of these elements in aquatic sediments. However, many of these studies use global reference values for calculating the indices, which can lead to misleading interpretations due to substantial variations in PTEs concentrations influenced by the geological characteristics of each region. Therefore, the use of regional reference values is more appropriate when available. This study aimed to investigate variations in the results of five indices, employing global, regional, and quality reference values, based on sediment samples collected from rivers in the Ipanema National Forest, a protected area in Brazil exposed to various anthropogenic pressures. The results revealed that elements such as Al, Fe, and Mn exceeded the limits allowed by legislation in water samples, while As and Cr surpassed the limits in sediment samples. Comparative analysis highlighted significant discrepancies in the results of the indices when global reference values were used compared to regional and quality reference values, especially for As and Ba. Thus, this study underscores the importance of establishing specific regional values for an accurate assessment of sediment quality and the risks associated with contamination by PTEs in different regions worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Brasil , Valores de Referencia , Contaminación Ambiental
7.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0282374, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568901

RESUMEN

The waters around the Galápagos Marine Reserve (GMR) are important fishing grounds for authorized artisanal vessels fishing within the reserve as well as for national and foreign industrial fleets operating in the wider Ecuadorian Insular Exclusive Economic Zone (IEEZ). Although it was not originally designed for fisheries management, Automatic Identification System (AIS) data provides useful, open access, near real-time and high-resolution information that allows for increased monitoring, particularly around Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction. This study uses AIS data provided by Global Fishing Watch to assess the spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics of fishing effort by vessel flag within the GMR and the IEEZ from 2012 to 2021. Based on kernel density estimation analysis, we determinate the core-use areas (50%) and spatial extent (95%) of fishing activities by fleets (Ecuadorian and foreign), gear types and seasons (warm, from December to May; and cold, from June to November). Our results show that the Ecuadorian fleet recorded the most observed fishing hours in the study area, with 32,829 hours in the IEEZ and 20,816 hours within the GMR. The foreign flags with the most observed fishing hours in the IEEZ were Panama (3,245 hours) and Nicaragua (2,468.5 hours), while in the GMR were the 'Unknown flag' (4,991.4 hours) and Panama (133.7 hours). Vessels fished employing different fishing gears, but the waters of the GMR and IEEZ were mostly targeted by tuna purse-seiners and drifting longlines. The spatial distribution of the fishing effort exhibits marked seasonal variability, likely influenced by seasonal migrations of target species such as tunas (e.g., Thunnus albacares, T. obesus and Katsuwonus pelamis), marlins (e.g., Makaira nigricans) and sharks (e.g., Alopias pelagicus). The collection and use of this type of spatial and seasonal information is an essential step to understand the dynamics of fishing activities in national waters and improve fisheries management, particularly in less studied areas and fisheries.


Asunto(s)
Caza , Tiburones , Animales , Estaciones del Año , Atún , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales
8.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(4): e17257, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572701

RESUMEN

Countries are expanding marine protected area (MPA) networks to mitigate fisheries declines and support marine biodiversity. However, MPA impact evaluations typically assess total fish biomass. Here, we examine how fish biomass disaggregated by adult and juvenile life stages responds to environmental drivers, including sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and human footprint, and multiple management types at 139 reef sites in the Mesoamerican Reef (MAR) region. We found that total fish biomass generally appears stable across the region from 2006 to 2018, with limited rebuilding of fish stocks in MPAs. However, the metric of total fish biomass masked changes in fish community structure, with lower adult than juvenile fish biomass at northern sites, and adult:juvenile ratios closer to 1:1 at southern sites. These shifts were associated with different responses of juvenile and adult fish to environmental drivers and management. Juvenile fish biomass increased at sites with high larval connectivity and coral cover, whereas adult fish biomass decreased at sites with greater human footprint and SST anomalies. Adult fish biomass decreased primarily in Honduran general use zones, which suggests insufficient protection for adult fish in the southern MAR. There was a north-south gradient in management and environmental drivers, with lower coverage of fully protected areas and higher SST anomalies and coastal development in the south that together may undermine the maintenance of adult fish biomass in the southern MAR. Accounting for the interplay between environmental drivers and management in the design of MPAs is critical for increasing fish biomass across life history stages.


Los países están ampliando las redes de áreas marinas protegidas (AMP) para mitigar la disminución de las pesquerías y apoyar la biodiversidad marina. Sin embargo, las evaluaciones de impacto de las AMP típicamente estudian la biomasa total de peces. Aquí, examinamos cómo la biomasa de peces desagregada por etapas de vida adultas y juveniles responde a factores ambientales como anomalías de la temperatura superficial del mar (SST) e impacto humano, y múltiples tipos de manejo en 139 sitios de arrecifes en el sistema arrecifal mesoamericano (SAM). Encontramos que la biomasa total de peces en general parece estable en toda la región entre 2006 y 2018, con una recuperación limitada de las poblaciones de peces en las AMP. Sin embargo, la métrica de biomasa total de peces enmascaró los cambios en la estructura de la comunidad de peces, con una biomasa de peces adultos más baja que juveniles en los sitios del norte, y proporciones adulto:juvenil más cercana a 1:1 en los sitios del sur. Estos cambios fueron asociados con diferentes respuestas de peces juveniles y adultos a variables ambientales y de manejo. La biomasa de peces juveniles aumentó en sitios con alta conectividad larvaria y cobertura coralina, mientras que la biomasa de peces adultos disminuyó en sitios con mayor impacto humano y anomalías en la SST. La biomasa de peces adultos disminuyó principalmente en las zonas de uso general (GUZ) hondureñas, lo cual sugiere una protección insuficiente para peces adultos en el sur del SAM. Hubo un gradiente norte­sur en el manejo y los factores ambientales, con menor cobertura de áreas totalmente protegidas y mayores anomalías de SST y desarrollo costero en el sur. En conjunto esto puede degradar el mantenimiento de la biomasa de peces adultos en el sur del SAM. La interacción entre factores ambientales y el manejo en el diseño de las AMP es fundamental para aumentar la biomasa de peces en todas las etapas del ciclo de vida.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Ecosistema , Animales , Humanos , Arrecifes de Coral , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Biomasa , Peces/fisiología , Explotaciones Pesqueras
9.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300603, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564579

RESUMEN

The expansion of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has raised a wide range of concerns about its environmental impact. Therefore, from the perspective of environmental impacts, this study used the two-way fixed effect staggered differences in differences (TWFE Staggered DID) method to examine the impact of the BRI on the Environment Goods (EGs) intra-industry trade (IIT) between China and other Belt and Road (B&R) countries, including a sample of 191 countries, covering the period from 2010 to 2019 for eliminating the impact of COVID-19 and the financial crisis in 2008 and 2009. Because only 135 countries signed a Memorandum of Understanding between 2010 and 2019, this study treated these B&R countries as the study group, and the other 73 countries (non-B&R countries) as the control group. This study described EGs using the 54 6-digit code Environment Goods in Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System listed in the "APEC LIST OF ENVIRONMENT GOODS" published by the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation in 2012, and used the intra-industry trade index proposed by Grubel and Lloyd in 1971 to measuring dependent variable. The research results indicated that the BRI has significantly promoted bilateral EGs IIT. The mechanism test implied that, in addition to direct impacts, the BRI also has indirect impacts by boosting the energy restructuring of B&R countries. These results prove that the BRI has positive impacts on the environment. The heterogeneity test showed that there is a heterogeneous impact depending on the type of IIT, product categorization, B&R countries' income levels, and geographic environment. This study not only gives theoretical and empirical evidence of the positive environmental impacts of the BRI, but also provides practical guidance for the development of EGS IIT between China and B&R countries, thereby contributing to global carbon emissions reduction and environmental governance to some degree.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Política Ambiental , Asia , China , Industrias , Desarrollo Económico , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis
10.
Water Sci Technol ; 89(6): 1482-1496, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557713

RESUMEN

The issue of water scarcity has drawn attention from all over the world. The coordination of the interaction between ecological and environmental development of water sources and socio-economic development is currently an essential issue that needs to be solved in order to safeguard the water resources environment for human survival. In this essay, we suggest a paradigm for assessing the sustainable exploitation of water resources. First, three ecological, economic, and social factors are investigated. Twenty essential evaluation indexes are then constructed using the Delphi approach, along with an index system for assessing the potential of water sources for sustainable development. The weights of each evaluation index were then determined using the combination assignment approach, which was then suggested. The coupled degree evaluation model of the capability for sustainable development of water sources was then developed. In order to confirm the viability and validity of the suggested model, the model was used to assess the Liwu River water source's capacity for sustainable growth in the context of the South-North Water Transfer in Shandong, China. It is believed that the aforementioned study would serve as a helpful resource when evaluating the capacity of water sources for sustainable development.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Desarrollo Sostenible , Humanos , Agua , Recursos Hídricos , China , Desarrollo Económico , Ciudades
11.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(4): 470-476, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560799

RESUMEN

Perinatal mental illness is a leading cause of death during pregnancy and the first postpartum year in the United States. Although better acute care services for mental health conditions are desperately needed, urgent services alone cannot create the conditions to thrive. Cultivating well-being requires a sustained commitment to reproductive justice, "the human right to maintain personal bodily autonomy, have children, not have children, and parent the children we have in safe and sustainable communities." To support reproductive justice for pregnant and birthing people, the Rippel Foundation's Vital Conditions for Health and Well-Being framework offers a holistic approach comprising seven domains: a thriving natural world; basic needs for health and safety; humane housing; meaningful work and wealth; lifelong learning; reliable transportation; and, central to all of these, belonging and civic muscle. Here we review the evidence for each of the vital conditions as key drivers of perinatal mental health, and we outline how this public health approach can advance well-being across generations.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Justicia Social , Embarazo , Femenino , Niño , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Derechos Humanos , Salud Mental , Autonomía Personal
12.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300320, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573997

RESUMEN

This study investigated the structural relationships among parental respect for children's decision-making, respect for human rights, and self-esteem, and their impact on depression in early adolescents. The study utilized data from 2,747 middle school students who participated in the 2020 Survey on the Current Status of Korean Children's and Youth's Rights conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute. The data were analyzed using a structural equation model based on partial least squares with SmartPLS 3.0. The analysis revealed that both parental respect for children's decision-making and respect for human rights perceived by middle school students had a significant positive impact on self-esteem and a significant negative impact on depression. Furthermore, self-esteem was found to have a significant negative effect on depression. Importantly, self-esteem also played a significant mediating role in the relationship between parental respect for children's decision-making and depression, as well as the relationship between respect for human rights and depression. Therefore, in order to manage depression, it is necessary to develop strategies that encourage parental respect for children's decision-making, promote respect for human rights, and foster self-esteem in early adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Padres , Niño , Humanos , Adolescente , Autoimagen , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Derechos Humanos
13.
Science ; 384(6691): 87-93, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574149

RESUMEN

Agricultural simplification continues to expand at the expense of more diverse forms of agriculture. This simplification, for example, in the form of intensively managed monocultures, poses a risk to keeping the world within safe and just Earth system boundaries. Here, we estimated how agricultural diversification simultaneously affects social and environmental outcomes. Drawing from 24 studies in 11 countries across 2655 farms, we show how five diversification strategies focusing on livestock, crops, soils, noncrop plantings, and water conservation benefit social (e.g., human well-being, yields, and food security) and environmental (e.g., biodiversity, ecosystem services, and reduced environmental externalities) outcomes. We found that applying multiple diversification strategies creates more positive outcomes than individual management strategies alone. To realize these benefits, well-designed policies are needed to incentivize the adoption of multiple diversification strategies in unison.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Humanos , Agricultura , Granjas , Suelo , Biodiversidad
14.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297787, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578812

RESUMEN

Protecting human, animal, and plant life or health from additives, toxins, and contaminants in agri-products and promoting green free trade are the main components of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) measures. However, the SPS measures are heterogeneous. This study examines the impact of SPS measures on the measured export quality and discusses their influence on the environmental protection of the exporting country. International heterogeneous measures do not necessarily promote quality upgrading but greatly increase transaction costs. By contrast, China's agri-product' quality upgrading and environmental pollution are in sharp contrast. Based on a heterogeneous firm-trade model, this study obtains three hypothetical propositions and conducts empirical regressions using the Tobit method. This study finds that heterogeneous SPS measures hinder quality upgrading because firms present a different quality upgrading trend, which in turn impedes the environmental protection of the exporting country; the quality upgrading made by diversified SOEs is higher than that of foreign firms and private firms; the quality upgrading made by general firms is higher than that of processing firms; and protective SPS measures have a stronger negative effect on quality upgrading and environmental protection.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Cooperación Internacional , Animales , Humanos , Comercio , Internacionalidad , Contaminación Ambiental/prevención & control , China
15.
Lancet Planet Health ; 8(4): e242-e255, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580426

RESUMEN

Globally, more than 1 billion people with disabilities are disproportionately and differentially at risk from the climate crisis. Yet there is a notable absence of climate policy, programming, and research at the intersection of disability and climate change. Advancing climate justice urgently requires accelerated disability-inclusive climate action. We present pivotal research recommendations and guidance to advance disability-inclusive climate research and responses identified by a global interdisciplinary group of experts in disability, climate change, sustainable development, public health, environmental justice, humanitarianism, gender, Indigeneity, mental health, law, and planetary health. Climate-resilient development is a framework for enabling universal sustainable development. Advancing inclusive climate-resilient development requires a disability human rights approach that deepens understanding of how societal choices and actions-characterised by meaningful participation, inclusion, knowledge diversity in decision making, and co-design by and with people with disabilities and their representative organisations-build collective climate resilience benefiting disability communities and society at large while advancing planetary health.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Resiliencia Psicológica , Humanos , Derechos Humanos , Salud Mental , Cambio Climático
16.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2963, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580639

RESUMEN

Understanding the effectiveness of conservation interventions during times of political instability is important given how much of the world's biodiversity is concentrated in politically fragile nations. Here, we investigate the effect of a political crisis on the relative performance of community managed forests versus protected areas in terms of reducing deforestation in Madagascar, a biodiversity hotspot. We use remotely sensed data and statistical matching within an event study design to isolate the effect of the crisis and post-crisis period on performance. Annual rates of deforestation accelerated at the end of the crisis and were higher in community forests than in protected areas. After controlling for differences in location and other confounding variables, we find no difference in performance during the crisis, but community-managed forests performed worse in post-crisis years. These findings suggest that, as a political crisis subsides and deforestation pressures intensify, community-based conservation may be less resilient than state protection.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Bosques , Madagascar , Biodiversidad
17.
20.
Conserv Biol ; : e14259, 2024 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571448

RESUMEN

Approximately one quarter of the earth's population directly harvests natural resources to meet their daily needs. These individuals are disproportionately required to alter their behaviors in response to increasing climatic variability and global biodiversity loss. Much of the ever-ambitious global conservation agenda relies on the voluntary uptake of conservation behaviors in such populations. Thus, it is critical to understand how such individuals perceive environmental change and use conservation practices as a tool to protect their well-being. We developed a participatory mapping activity to elicit spatially explicit perceptions of forest change and its drivers across 43 mangrove-dependent communities in Pemba, Tanzania. We administered this activity along with a questionnaire regarding conservation preferences and behaviors to 423 individuals across those 43 communities. We analyzed these data with a set of Bayesian hierarchical statistical models. Perceived cover loss in 50% of a community's mangrove area drove individuals to decrease proposed limits on fuelwood bundles from 2.74 (forest perceived as intact) to 2.37 if participants believed resultant gains in mangrove cover would not be stolen by outsiders. Conversely, individuals who believed their community mangrove forests were at high risk of theft loosened their proposed harvest limits from 1.26 to 2.75 bundles of fuelwood in response to the same perceived forest decline. High rates of intergroup competition and mangrove loss were thus driving a self-reinforcing increase in unsustainable harvesting preferences in community forests in this system. This finding demonstrates a mechanism by which increasing environmental decline may cause communities to forgo conservation practices, rather than adopt them, as is often assumed in much community-based conservation planning. However, we also found that when effective boundaries were present, individuals were willing to limit their own harvests to stem such perceived decline.


Efectos de las percepciones del cambio forestal y la competencia intergrupal en los comportamientos de conservación comunitarios Resumen Aproximadamente una cuarta parte de la población mundial aprovecha directamente los recursos naturales para satisfacer sus necesidades diarias. Estos individuos se ven desproporcionadamente obligados a alterar sus comportamientos en respuesta a la creciente variabilidad climática y la pérdida de biodiversidad global. Gran parte de la ambiciosa agenda de conservación global se basa en la adopción voluntaria de comportamientos de conservación en dichas poblaciones. Por lo tanto, es fundamental comprender cómo esas personas perciben el cambio ambiental y utilizan las prácticas de conservación como herramienta para proteger su bienestar. Desarrollamos una actividad de mapeo participativo para generar percepciones espacialmente explícitas del cambio forestal y sus causantes en 43 comunidades dependientes de manglares en Pemba, Tanzania. Administramos esta actividad junto con un cuestionario sobre preferencias y comportamientos de conservación a 423 personas en esas 43 comunidades. Analizamos estos datos mediante un conjunto de modelos estadísticos jerárquicos bayesianos. La pérdida de cobertura percibida en el 50% del área de manglares de una comunidad llevó a los individuos a reducir los límites propuestos para los paquetes de leña de 2.74 (bosque percibido como intacto) a 2.37 si los participantes creían que las ganancias resultantes en la cobertura de manglares no serían robadas por personas ajenas a la comunidad. Por el contrario, las personas que creían que los bosques de manglares de su comunidad corrían un alto riesgo de robo flexibilizaron los límites de cosecha propuestos de 1.26 a 2.75 haces de leña en respuesta a la misma disminución percibida del bosque. Por lo tanto, las altas tasas de competencia entre grupos y pérdida de manglares estaban impulsando un aumento, que se auto reforzaba, en las preferencias de aprovechamiento insostenibles en los bosques comunitarios de este sistema. Este hallazgo muestra un mecanismo por el cual el creciente deterioro ambiental puede hacer que las comunidades renuncien a las prácticas de conservación, en lugar de adoptarlas, como a menudo se supone en gran parte de la planificación de la conservación basada en la comunidad. Sin embargo, también encontramos que cuando existían límites efectivos, los individuos estaban dispuestos a restringir sus propias cosechas para frenar esa disminución percibida.

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