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1.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 2143235, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603427

RESUMEN

The research on the reverse resource network of e-waste at home and abroad is still in its infancy, and most of it is only based on traditional forward logistics. Reverse resources are the process of moving goods from their typical final destination for recycling value or proper disposal. With the intensification of market competition and the strengthening of environmental protection legislation by the government, reverse resources are no longer a neglected corner in the supply chain. The DLRNN model of the e-waste reverse resource recovery system constructed in this paper can provide an important theoretical and empirical basis for the rational utilization of waste electronic products and fully tap the potential value of waste electronic products, which is of great significance to the recycling of natural resources. In this paper, a hybrid network framework DLRNN based on deep learning (DL) and cyclic neural network (RNN) is designed for problem classification. Experimental results show that the classification accuracy of this framework is improved by 2.4% on TREC and 2.5% on MSQC without additional word vector conversion tools.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Electrónicos , Administración de Residuos , Reciclaje
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 701, 2021 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622329

RESUMEN

For the efficient functioning of a landfill, compacted bentonite is an acclaimed liner element due to its excellent adsorption capability, minimal hydraulic conductivity, and superior specific surface area (SSA). However, the leachate generation within the landfill worsens the liner material's quality, causing migration of the leachates, contaminating groundwater, and causing pollution of surrounding environment. With this perspective, a comparative assessment of the influence of real and simulated municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate on two different bentonites has been carried out in the present investigation. The two bentonites, differing precisely by their cation exchange capacity (CEC), liquid limit (LL), and swelling capability, were examined for variation in their LL, free swell (FS), and hydraulic behaviour concerning their interaction with both leachates. Results depicted that in both the leachates, LL and FS, swelling potential (SP) and pressure declined, whereas hydraulic conductivity (HC) rose. Furthermore, the bentonite quality greatly influenced the LL, FS, SP, swelling pressure, and hydraulic behaviour. Bentonite having higher CEC, SSA, and swelling ability experienced a higher variability in the LL (55.5 and 65.2% decrease), free swelling (76.9 and 83.1% decrease), SP, swelling pressure (53.3 and 56.4% decrease), and HC (13.1 and 49.4 times increase) values when permeated with simulated and real MSW leachates, respectively. The study also showed that the real MSW leachate interaction causes a higher variation in bentonite behaviour than its simulated counterpart. The study's findings would prove beneficial to design engineers for selecting bentonite types for landfill liners.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Bentonita , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Residuos Sólidos , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
3.
Waste Manag Res ; 39(10): 1256-1263, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579604

RESUMEN

This paper discusses the role of stakeholders' participation in decision-making of waste policies, exploring the case of the sectoral agreement (SA) of packaging in Brazil. This case represents a robust step to introduce circular economy for packaging in Brazil and Latin America. Since the enactment of the Brazilian National Solid Waste Policy in 2010, a series of agreements were created to introduce an alternative model of extended producer responsibility in the country. This historical analysis evaluates the decision-making and the outcomes of its participatory process. Three qualitative research methods were applied: 76 interviews with stakeholders at the three levels of governance; observation of five events during the negotiation process and analysis of government documents. The results show that stakeholders' participation was crucial throughout the policy design, contributing directly and indirectly to the outcomes of the SA, with knowledge exchange, creation of networks and by pressuring solid waste management issue onto the government's agenda. However, the participatory process is not straightforward, and during the agreement process, some advancements seem to be jeopardised, with risk of participation being exploited to legitimise political interests. At the end, research points out that participation needs to be promoted and expanded throughout all the stages of the policy cycle, bringing together also other stakeholders such as local governments and civil society.


Asunto(s)
Administración de Residuos , Brasil , Residuos Sólidos
4.
Waste Manag Res ; 39(10): 1302-1316, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581643

RESUMEN

Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) represent one of the growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances and valuable materials focus on how it is handled. However, there are differences between countries regarding e-waste management system in Europe. This paper analyses and presents data regarding the e-waste management system in Italy, one of the founding countries of the EU and Serbia - EU candidate country. Within this work, the following aspects were considered: legislative framework and EU directive goals in terms of e-waste, institutional setup, collection system, and existing recycling and treatment technologies. In addition, material flow analysis is used to model mass balance within WEEE treatment plants in both countries. Finally, through assessment and comparison of current systems in both countries, problems and shortages of Serbia's e-waste management system are addressed.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Electrónicos , Administración de Residuos , Residuos Electrónicos/análisis , Electrónica , Italia , Reciclaje , Serbia
5.
Waste Manag Res ; 39(10): 1317-1327, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583557

RESUMEN

The organic fraction (mainly food waste) is typically the most abundant of the separately collected waste streams. The research aims at investigating the influence of different types of collection bag on the environmental performances of the food waste management chain in Italy. A comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) between two alternative systems based on paper or bioplastic collection bags was carried out. It included the collection bags manufacturing and distribution, their use at the household, the transportation of collected food waste and its subsequent anaerobic digestion, including the valorisation of useful outputs and the management of residues. The two systems were modelled mainly with primary data related to the current management system and to tests performed on bags. The LCA was performed with two different modelling approaches applied in the environmental product declaration (EPD) system and in the product environmental footprint (PEF) studies, respectively. In the scenario representing the average conditions, higher environmental impacts are shown by the use of bioplastic bags compared to paper ones with the EPD approach (+257%/+576%). With the PEF approach, the differences between the two systems are lower (-55%/+133%). Moreover, paper bags could allow for further impact reductions assuming a decrease of the food waste collection frequency, allowed by higher weight losses and a lower generation of leachate and odour during the household storage.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Administración de Residuos , Animales , Ambiente , Alimentos , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200085, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586316

RESUMEN

Most of the municipal solid waste collected is disposed of in landfills and controlled landfills. However, efficient ways of recovering these wastes have emerged, such as bio-drying. This technique uses the exothermic degradation reaction of organic matter carried out by microorganisms along with aeration to reduce the moisture of the waste. The objective of the research was to test the bio-drying technique in a rotary drum. For this purpose, three rotary drums were built, and the tested residue was synthetically produced. The aeration rate tested was 1 liter per kilogram per minute, and rotation was performed for one minute every three hours. The analyses performed on the residues were moisture content, volatile solids, calorific value, particle size, and temperature profile. The residues entered the bio-drying process with a moisture content of 52%, 49%, and 54% and went out with 15%, 13%, and 10% for drum 1, 2, and 3, respectively, a reduction of more than 70%. The calorific value increased by 95%, 88%, and 122% for drum 1, 2, and 3, respectively. During the process, no leachate generation was observed.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Residuos Sólidos , Desecación , Temperatura
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 365, 2021 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544486

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore the acceptability and feasibility of choice architecture strategies for dietary change in UK secondary school canteens from the perspectives of pupils, school staff and catering providers through qualitative focus groups and interviews. RESULTS: Three focus groups with adolescents (n = 15; mean age 13.7 years; standard deviation 1.9) and eight interviews with school staff and caterers recruited from one school and catering provider in Coventry UK were undertaken. The most acceptable choice architecture strategies for intervening to drive healthy dietary choices are those that make use of proximity and positioning, on the basis that convenience was one of the main drivers for food/drink selections. Acknowledging adolescents' desire for autonomy and for food to be familiar and predictable was considered important in enhancing acceptability. Challenges to the feasibility of nudge strategies included concerns about behavioural issues, increased food waste, and a decline in uptake of canteen purchases. The design of food choice architecture interventions for secondary school settings should consider the specific characteristics of this age group and setting to ensure successful implementation.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Alimentación , Eliminación de Residuos , Adolescente , Dieta Saludable , Estudios de Factibilidad , Alimentos , Humanos , Instituciones Académicas , Reino Unido
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125829, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474239

RESUMEN

The stability of dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of food waste (FW) as well as the resulting methane gas generation was investigated from the perspective of system dynamics. Various organic loading rates were applied to the system by modifying the water content in the FW feed and solid retention time (SRT). The excessive organic loading due to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from the feed with 80% water content during the short SRT (15 and 20 d) caused system failure. In contrast, more intermediate materials, such as VFAs, was easily converted into methane at higher water contents. In addition, the biogas production rate of dry AD was effectively predicted based on SRT, soluble chemical oxygen demand, total VFA, total ammonia, and free ammonia using a recurrent neural network-the so-called "black-box" model. This implies the feasibility of applying this data-based black-box model for controlling and optimizing complex biological processes.


Asunto(s)
Biocombustibles , Eliminación de Residuos , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Alimentos , Metano , Redes Neurales de la Computación
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125861, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479138

RESUMEN

The thermophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste was a long-term challenge for maintaining process stability. A hybrid submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), integrating 27%(v/v) polyurethane sponge as fixed carriers were therefore investigated at (50 ± 2) °C. The organics removal efficiencies, COD mass balance, and membrane filtration performance were investigated in a 75-days continuously operated experiment. The results showed that methane production reached 0.31 L/(kg·COD) under an organic loading rate of 7.3 kg·COD/(m3·d). The low concentration of total volatile fatty acids of 247 ~ 274 mg/L and a high proportion of Methanosarcina (>97%) represented the high stability of the thermophilic process. Approximately 21% of biomass grew on the carriers in the hybrid AnMBR and induced a much lower suspended solids concentration and viscosity of bulk sludge. Noticeable lower trans-membrane pressure was consequently observed. The affecting factors identified by PCA analysis proved the advantages of the hybrid AnMBR for alleviating membrane fouling formation.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Alimentos , Membranas Artificiales , Metano , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Aguas Residuales
10.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113639, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479146

RESUMEN

Sustainability has become a focus area for practitioners and scholars due to the growing socio-economic issues. The sustainability of airport operations is being raised in various international platforms. This paper aims to identify the dimensions of sustainability and evaluate sustainable practices in airports of selected ASEAN countries. The various dimensions associated with the environmental aspect are energy management, emissions management, water and effluents management, solid waste management. It was understood that noise management, employee development, and community investment belong to the social dimension. Similarly, the factors such as economic contribution, passenger experience, airport safety, and security are inclined to economic dimensions of sustainability. It was found that environmentally sustainable practices have greater importance than social and economic initiatives in the airport context which provide quantifiable benefits for airports in the long term. Airport operators in South East Asia strived to mitigate carbon emissions, reduce waste and effluents, enhance the economic contribution, satisfy passengers, and meet employee needs. Compared to the total economic and social benefits obtained from these airports, the negative impacts of airport operation (such as noise emission from aircraft) are minimal but significant. The most common sustainable initiatives in airports, such as employee development, energy management, and passenger safety, supported sustainable development goals (SDG) 8, SDG 9, and SDG 11. A weak connection is observed between SDG 14 & SDG 15 and the airport's sustainable practices. The new technological innovations are concentrated in busy and profitable airports. A slow trend towards the adoption of new technologies for sustainable practices is observed in airports. The paper concludes that major airport operators in South-East Asia have effectively responded to the growing sustainability challenges in aviation markets. The sustainable dimensions and practices discussed will be valuable resource for airports striving to achieve sustainability goals.


Asunto(s)
Aeropuertos , Administración de Residuos , Aeronaves , Residuos Sólidos , Tecnología
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125806, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481298

RESUMEN

Anaerobic digestion (AD) of antibiotic fermentation dreg is effective because of its satisfactory methanogenic performance and antibiotic removal rate. Thermophilic AD, an important branch, has not been studied. This study explored the effects of mesophilic and thermophilic AD on tylosin fermentation dreg (TFD) alone-digestion and co-digestion with food waste. The methane production (245-420 mL/g-VS) of mesophilic AD was 20.7%-28.6% higher than thermophilic AD, but the maximum methane production rate (RM), lag period (λ), and hydrolysis rate constant (kh) of thermophilic AD were 1.81, 0.236 and 3.16 times higher than those of mesophilic AD, respectively. However, the residual tylosin in mesophilic AD was always higher than that in thermophilic AD. The addition of food waste increased the methane production rate and yield under both temperature conditions. Therefore, due to the higher rate and yield of methane production, mesophilic AD, especially co-digestion, is more suitable for the treatment of TFD.


Asunto(s)
Reactores Biológicos , Eliminación de Residuos , Anaerobiosis , Fermentación , Alimentos , Metano , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Temperatura , Tilosina
12.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113654, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482107

RESUMEN

Despite the increasing use of chemical additives in construction and their potential threat to the environment and human health, many C&DW studies lack a comprehensive view of chemicals of concern (COC) in C&DW. This study systematically reviewed published studies from 2010 to August 2021 using a keyword search methodology to explore COC in C&DW fine residues based on 73 articles identified from 5 prominent databases. Results show that trace/heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Cd, and Pb) as well as high concentrations of toxic gasses (methane, hydrogen sulphide and mercury vapour) have been reported in landfills. Besides, organic chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and brominated flame retardants have been found in landfill leachates in the Netherlands and widely detected in landfill leachates in Sweden, Japan, and Canada. The potential of these contaminants to cause health complications has also been reported. Carcinogenicity, liver and kidney damage, cumulative damage, neurological disorders and foetal damage were reported as associated health implications of exposure to COC from C&DW. A waste disposal lens was used to explore the factors that influence the environment and human health impacts (pH, gypsum and organic content, size fraction, atmospheric exposure and liquid infiltration rate). Despite environmental and health issues relating to C&DW fine residues, the ultimate destination for C&DW fine residues remains in general landfills. Although significant efforts in managing C&DW have been implemented at various levels, those specifically targeting C&DW fine residues remain sparse.


Asunto(s)
Retardadores de Llama , Eliminación de Residuos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Retardadores de Llama/análisis , Humanos , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
13.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113625, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482109

RESUMEN

The indiscriminate use of plastics and careless management of plastic waste have caused serious environmental challenges globally. The Republic of Korea (ROK) aims to address the issue by reducing plastic waste generation by up to 50%, and increasing recycling rate by up to 70%, by 2030. To determine the status and future directions for plastic waste management in the ROK, the present study undertook two tasks: (i) a material flow analysis of plastic waste material from industrial sectors to assess the current status of plastic waste recycling and treatment, (ii) an analysis of the material flow of plastic waste based on the "Waste Classification Code." According to the findings, 6.202 million metric tons of plastic waste were generated in 2018, out of which 69%, 25%, and 0.5% was recycled, incinerated, and landfilled, respectively. The recycling rate of synthetic resin waste, which accounts for 96% of synthetic waste polymers discharged in the industrial sector, was 69%, which is a very high rate. However, the closed-loop recycling rate was only 33%. Therefore, the system of management of synthetic resin waste discharge without classification of raw materials should be improved to increase the closed-loop recycling rate of synthetic waste polymers. Furthermore, to increase the closed-loop recycling rate, we suggest the subdivision of synthetic resin waste (51-03-01) in plastic waste classification to improve the discharge separation system, which has been mismanaged. Furthermore, we suggest the formulation of a new management strategy for plastic waste, in accordance with those of other hazardous substances, as regulated by the Waste Control Act.


Asunto(s)
Plásticos , Administración de Residuos , Polímeros , Reciclaje , Residuos
14.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113626, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488105

RESUMEN

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polycarbonate (PC) microplastics are major sources of hazardous chlorine and bisphenol A, threatening the ecosystem and environment. Plastic recycling can control the source of microplastics pollution, but the recycling of PVC and PC will be prevented by invalid separation. We established a novel and clean flotation method to separate PVC and PC microplastics by using aluminum coating. Trace amounts of Al(OH)3 can selectively coat the PVC microplastics surface due to its strong affinity for PVC. The contact angle of PVC decreases by 24° due to abundant hydroxyl groups of Al(OH)3 coating, whereas PC remained hydrophobic. Response surface methodology (RSM) combining Box-Behnken design (BBD) is used to optimize modification. A quadratic model is established to predict PC purity, explore the interaction between pH, aluminum chloride concentration, and ultrasonic duration. The recovery and purity of microplastics can exceed 99.65% with parameter optimization. The effects of multi-component, brand, shape, size, and mass ratio of plastics are utilized to evaluate the application potential. The suitable situations and limits of this method are disclosed. The aluminum coating offers significant benefits over other modifications in terms of reaction temperature, treatment time, and pollution prevention. Flotation based on aluminum coating provides a new insight for separating and recycling microplastics.


Asunto(s)
Cloruro de Polivinilo , Eliminación de Residuos , Aluminio , Ecosistema , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Cemento de Policarboxilato
15.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113584, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488106

RESUMEN

A field test was conducted to study the emission and distribution characteristics of dioxins during co-processing of hazardous waste in a multicomponent slurry gasifier (MCSG). The toxicity equivalent concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in all exhaust gas, waste water, and solid waste under both blank condition (i.e., feedstock was normal coal-water slurry) and test condition (i.e., feedstock mixed with hazardous waste and labeling reagents) were analyzed. Results showed that organic matter was fully degraded in the MCSG. The dioxin amount in the black water flash steam increased with the addition of hazardous waste and chlorine in the feedstock, and octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (OCDD) with the largest increase is the most easily formed monomer in dioxins. The dioxin amount in all samples was far below the standard limit in China and other countries. This indicates the low environmental risk from dioxins during the co-processing process. The dioxin distribution trend in solid, liquid, and gas phase during co-processing did not change: 86.63%-94.18%, 0.02%-0.13%, and 5.8%-13.23% of PCDDs were distributed in the exhaust gas, waste water, and solid waste, respectively, while 6.10%-22.95%, 0.59%-0.80%, and 76.45%-93.10% of PCDFs were distributed in the exhaust gas, waste water, and solid waste, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Dioxinas , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Residuos Peligrosos , Incineración , Residuos Sólidos
16.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113678, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523543

RESUMEN

This study assessed the anaerobic digestion (AD) of wastes deriving from cosmetics production: sludge from onsite wastewater treatment plant (sWWTP), residues of shampoo/conditioner (RSC) and sludge from mascara production (MS), considered as single substrates and as mixture according to the produced amounts (54 %-wt sWWTP, 31 %-wt RSC, 13 %-wt MS, plus 2 %-wt food waste from the canteen, FW). Total COD (CODT) was 624-1436 g O2/kg VS, while soluble COD was 5-23 %-wt of CODT. AD tests at 35 °C achieved the following biogas yields: 0.10 Nm3/kgvs (70 %-v/v methane) for sWWTP; 0.07 Nm3/kgvs (62 %-v/v methane) for RSC; 0.04 Nm3/kgvs (67 %-v/v methane) for MS. The mixed substrates underwent physico-chemical pre-treatments (thermo-alkaline, TA: 120 min at 50 °C; thermo-alkaline-sonication, TAS: 15 min at 40 kHz and 80 °C, both based on the addition of 0.08 g NaOH per each g of total solid in the substrate), reaching 64-66% disintegration rate, and AD tests (5 %-wt dry substance) at 35 and 52 °C. Biogas yields were (for TA and TAS respectively): 0.22 and 0.20 Nm3/kgVS (62-70% methane); 0.21 and 0.19 Nm3/kgVS (66-66% methane) at 52 °C. At both temperatures, methane yields considerably improved (+71-100%), compared to mixed untreated substrates, and 5-8 %-wt total solids reductions were observed. A technical-economic scale-up assessment completed the research. The energy analysis highlighted the crucial role of TA pre-treatment in achieving the process energetic sustainability. The economic analysis showed that the AD of the considered cosmetic waste could be sustainable anyway, thanks to the savings related to the disposal of the digestate compared to current waste management costs.


Asunto(s)
Cosméticos , Eliminación de Residuos , Anaerobiosis , Biocombustibles , Reactores Biológicos , Estudios de Factibilidad , Alimentos , Residuos Industriales/análisis , Metano , Aguas del Alcantarillado
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125821, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523552

RESUMEN

The organics in the classified wet waste were deficiently utilized while sewage denitrification requires abundant carbon sources. Herein, the fermentation of perishable organic waste (POW) and the denitrification process with obtained liquid were investigated. The most volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production was realized with the fermentation liquid of food waste (FL-FW). Increasing substrate tended to lower the proportion of VFAs and acetic acid in FL-FW. Under the optimum conditions of FL-FW carbon source, carbon to nitrogen ratio 7, and temperature 30 ℃, the removal efficiency of nitrate nitrogen reached 99.23% within 4 h. The sludge settleability and microbial activity were significantly enhanced, contributing to the actual sewage a promotional removal of organics (95.84%) and nitrogen (70.31%) with the supplementation of FL-FW. High addition ratio would cause more degradation of refractory organics, which confirmed the feasibility of using FL-FW as a cost-efficient carbon source for the denitrification.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Carbono , Desnitrificación , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles , Fermentación , Alimentos , Nitrógeno
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125871, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523563

RESUMEN

High concentration of NH4+-N in food waste digestate (FWD) produced from biological treatment of food waste is considered as a major threat on the composting process resulting in production of immature compost. Hence, a laboratory batch composting study was conducted to examine the feasibility of using biochar as a physical additive to ameliorate the inhibitory effect of NH4+-N and to mitigate the nitrogen loss during FWD composting. FWD was co-composted with tobacco biochar at a dosage of 0%, 2.5%, 5% or 10% (dw) in bench-scale composters with a controlled aeration system. The addition of 10% biochar enhanced the degradation rate resulting in 44% higher carbon decomposition than the control. Besides, 10% biochar amendment reduced NH3 and N loss by 58% and 5%, respectively and significantly reduced NH4+-N content to HKORC limit of < 700 mg/kg dw within 5 days showing the beneficiary impact of biochar addition.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Amonio , Compostaje , Eliminación de Residuos , Carbón Orgánico , Alimentos Fortificados , Cinética , Nitrógeno/análisis , Suelo
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125872, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523573

RESUMEN

We conducted Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of simulated food waste under different reaction conditions (180 to 220 °C, 15 and 30 min), with the aim of recovering both fatty acids from the hydrochar and nutrients from the aqueous-phase products. HTC of the simulated food waste produced hydrochar that retained up to 78% of the original fatty acids. These retained fatty acids were extracted from the hydrochar using ethanol, a food-grade solvent, and gave a net recovery of fatty acid of âˆ¼ 50%. The HTC process partitioned more than 50 wt% of the phosphorus and around 38 wt% of the nitrogen into the aqueous-phase products. A reaction path consistent with decarboxylation predominated during HTC under all of the reaction conditions investigated. A path consistent with dehydration was also observed, but only for the more severe reaction conditions. This work illustrates the potential that HTC has for valorization of food waste.


Asunto(s)
Alimentos , Eliminación de Residuos , Carbono , Ácidos Grasos , Nutrientes , Temperatura
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125869, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523579

RESUMEN

The possibility of breaking down cellulose-rich food waste through biofilm engineering was investigated. Six previously isolated strains from naturally degrading fruits and vegetables, screened for biofilm-forming ability and cellulolytic activity, were selected to enrich a biocarrier seeding microbial consortium. The food waste model used in this study was cabbage which was aerobically digested under repeated water rinsing and regular effluent drainage. The engineered biocarrier biofilm's functionality was evaluated by tracing microbial succession following metagenomic sequencing, quantitative PCR, scanning electron microscopy, and cellulolytic activity before and after the digestion processes. The engineered microbial consortium demonstrated superior biofilm-forming ability on biocarriers than the original microbial consortium and generally displayed a higher cellulolytic activity. The presented study provides one of the few studies of food waste aerobic digestion using engineered biofilms. Insights presented in this study could help further optimize aerobic food waste digestion.


Asunto(s)
Alimentos , Eliminación de Residuos , Biopelículas , Digestión , Consorcios Microbianos
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