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1.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt B): 114080, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773781

RESUMEN

The present study investigates the environmental benefits of phasing-in autonomous ships in global maritime transportation along major dry bulk and tanker routes using Bayesian probabilistic forecasting algorithm. The focus is on the simulations and calibrations on the navigational behavior of autonomous ships at both port and high-sea, as well as the potential emission abatement of atmospheric pollutants compared to the conventional fleet along the sailing routes. We use historical data on major international tanker and dry bulk trade routes to characterize the ship movements and trends in ship emission. Different scenarios are evaluated with a combination of autonomous ship phase-in rates (25, 75, 100%) and cleaner fuel choices in Years 2030 and 2050 (from the baseline Year, 2020). The results show that the magnitude of the emission reduction generally increases with a higher level of autonomous ships in the fleet as expected, and the magnitude ranges from small increments to major reductions of 37-64% along the different routes. Overall, we hope that our findings can contribute towards the realization of environmental benefits with the adoption of autonomous shipping along the major shipping routes in the future.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminantes Ambientales , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Teorema de Bayes , Navíos , Transportes , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
2.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(1): 66-74, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606693

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Lockdown measures during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic determined radical changes to behavioral and social habits, that were reflected by a reduction in the transmission of respiratory pathogens and in anthropogenic atmospheric emissions. OBJECTIVE: This ecological study aims to provide a descriptive evaluation on how restrictive measures during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic impacted Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) referrals for asthma exacerbations, and their potentially associated environmental triggers in Bologna, a densely populated urban area in Northern Italy. METHODS: Files of children evaluated for acute asthma during 2015 to 2020 at the PED of Sant'Orsola University Hospital of Bologna were retrospectively reviewed. Historical daily concentration records of particulate (PM2.5 , PM10 ) and gaseous (NO2 , C6 H6 ) air pollutants, and pollen were concurrently evaluated, including specific PM chemical tracers for traffic-related air pollution (TRAP). RESULTS: In 2020, asthma-related PED referrals decreased compared to referral rates of the previous 5 years (p < 0.01). This effect was particularly marked during the first lockdown period (March to May), when the drastic drop in PED referrals was associated with a reduction of high-priority cases up to 85% and by 54%, on average. A concomitant reduction in the concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants was observed in the range of 40%-60% (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The lower rate of asthma exacerbations in childhood was in this study paralleled with reduced TRAP levels during the pandemic. Synergic interactions of the multiple consequences of lockdowns likely contributed to the reduced exacerbations, including decreased exposure to ambient pollutants and fewer respiratory infections, identified as the most important factor in the literature.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Asma , COVID-19 , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Asma/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análisis , Derivación y Consulta , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(51)2021 12 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903648

RESUMEN

Decades of air pollution regulation have yielded enormous benefits in the United States, but vehicle emissions remain a climate and public health issue. Studies have quantified the vehicle-related fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-attributable mortality but lack the combination of proper counterfactual scenarios, latest epidemiological evidence, and detailed spatial resolution; all needed to assess the benefits of recent emission reductions. We use this combination to assess PM2.5-attributable health benefits and also assess the climate benefits of on-road emission reductions between 2008 and 2017. We estimate total benefits of $270 (190 to 480) billion in 2017. Vehicle-related PM2.5-attributable deaths decreased from 27,700 in 2008 to 19,800 in 2017; however, had per-mile emission factors remained at 2008 levels, 48,200 deaths would have occurred in 2017. The 74% increase from 27,700 to 48,200 PM2.5-attributable deaths with the same emission factors is due to lower baseline PM2.5 concentrations (+26%), more vehicle miles and fleet composition changes (+22%), higher baseline mortality (+13%), and interactions among these (+12%). Climate benefits were small (3 to 19% of the total). The percent reductions in emissions and PM2.5-attributable deaths were similar despite an opportunity to achieve disproportionately large health benefits by reducing high-impact emissions of passenger light-duty vehicles in urban areas. Increasingly large vehicles and an aging population, increasing mortality, suggest large health benefits in urban areas require more stringent policies. Local policies can be effective because high-impact primary PM2.5 and NH3 emissions disperse little outside metropolitan areas. Complementary national-level policies for NOx are merited because of its substantial impacts-with little spatial variability-and dispersion across states and metropolitan areas.


Asunto(s)
Salud Pública , Transportes , Emisiones de Vehículos/prevención & control , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/economía , Contaminación del Aire/economía , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Causas de Muerte/tendencias , Cambio Climático/economía , Cambio Climático/mortalidad , Costo de Enfermedad , Gases de Efecto Invernadero/economía , Humanos , Exposición por Inhalación/economía , Exposición por Inhalación/prevención & control , Material Particulado/economía , Transportes/clasificación , Estados Unidos
4.
Am J Disaster Med ; 16(3): 215-223, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904706

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about prehospital availability and use of medications to treat patients from hazardous materials (hazmat) medical emergencies. The aim of this study was to identify the availability and frequency of use of medications for patients in hazmat incidents by paramedics with advanced training to care for these patients. METHODS: A prospectively validated survey was distributed to United States paramedics with advanced training in the medical management of patients from hazmat incidents who successfully completed a 16-hour Advanced Hazmat Life Support (AHLS) Provider Course from 1999 to 2017. The survey questioned hazmat medication availability, storage, and frequency of use. Hazmat medications were considered to have been used if administered anytime within the past 5 years. For analyses, medications were grouped into those with hazmat indications only and those with multiple indications. RESULTS: The survey email was opened by 911 course participants and 784 of these completed the survey (86.1 percent). Of these 784 respondents, 279 (35.6 percent) reported carrying dedicated hazmat medication kits, ie, tox-boxes, and 505 (64.4 percent) did not carry tox-boxes. For those medications specifically for hazmat use, hydroxocobalamin was most commonly available, either within or not within a dedicated tox-box. Of the 784 respondents, 313 (39.9 percent) reported carrying hydroxocobalamin and 69 (8.8 percent) reported administering it within the past 5 years. For medications with multiple indications, availability and use varied: for example, of the 784 respondents, albuterol was available to 699 (89.2 percent) and used by 572 (73.0 percent), while calcium gluconate was available to 247 (31.5 percent) and used by 80 (10.2 percent) within the last 5 years. CONCLUSION: Paramedics with advanced training in the medical management of patients in hazmat incidents reported limited availability and use of medications to treat patients in hazmat incidents.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Sustancias Peligrosas , Técnicos Medios en Salud , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261308, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972107

RESUMEN

Early presentation for childhood cataract surgery is an important first step in preventing related visual impairment and blindness. In the absence of neonatal eye screening programmes in developing countries, the early identification of childhood cataract remains a major challenge. The primary aim of this study was to identify potential barriers to accessing childhood cataract services from the perspective of parents and carers, as a critical step towards increasing the timely uptake of cataract surgery. In-depth interviews were conducted using a pre-designed topic guide developed for this study to seek the views of parents and carers in nine geographic locations across eight states in India regarding their perceived barriers and enablers to accessing childhood cataract services. A total of 35 in-depth interviews were conducted including 30 at the hospital premises and 5 in the participants' homes. All interviews were conducted in the local language and audio taped for further transcription and analysis. Data were organised using NVivo 11 and a thematic analysis was conducted utilising the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), an integrative framework of behavioural theories. The themes identified from interviews related to 11 out of 12 TDF domains. TDF domains associated with barriers included: 'Environmental context and resources', 'Beliefs about consequences' and 'Social influences'. Reported enablers were identified in three theoretical domains: 'Social influences', 'Beliefs about consequences' and 'Motivations and goals'. This comprehensive TDF approach enabled us to understand parents' perceived barriers and enablers to accessing childhood cataract services, which could be targeted in future interventions to improve timely uptake.


Asunto(s)
Conducta , Catarata/epidemiología , Servicios de Salud , Investigación Cualitativa , Niño , Cultura , Ambiente , Objetivos , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Motivación , Conducta Social
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948886

RESUMEN

Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) using urban stormwater facilitates relieving water supply pressure, restoring the ecological environment, and developing sustainable water resources. However, compared to conventional water sources, such as river water and lake water, MAR using urban stormwater is a typically intermittent recharge mode. In order to study the clogging and water quality change effects of Fe, Zn, and Pb, the typical mental pollutants in urban stormwater, a series of intermittent MAR column experiments were performed. The results show that the type of pollutant, the particle size of the medium and the intermittent recharge mode have significant impacts on the pollutant retention and release, which has led to different clogging and water quality change effects. The metals that are easily retained in porous media have greater potential for clogging and less potential for groundwater pollution. The fine medium easily becomes clogged, but it is beneficial in preventing groundwater contamination. There is a higher risk of groundwater contamination for a shallow buried aquifer under intermittent MAR than continuous MAR, mainly because of the de-clogging effect of porous media during the intermittent period.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Metales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Calidad del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua
7.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Nov 17.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785634

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic is clearly showing the importance for the surveillance and protection of human health of acting in all settings of life: family, community, education, leisure or work, among others, as well as addressing the multiple determinants that influence the health and well-being of the population: demographic, healthcare, environmental, social, eco-nomic, cultural or occupational, among others. With respect to occupational health and the work-related determinants of health, the potential of occupational health services acting at the company level is clear, and could be generalized to almost any public health action setting. This article reflects on the opportunities for coordination between the occupational health system in Spain (including resources from mutual insurance companies, companies themselves and administrations) and the public health system, including both health care (primary care, hospital) and public health services. We examine this in the context of health crises, like the present one, but also with a broader vision, commensurate with the necessary comprehensive care for human health, guaranteeing health as a fundamental and universal right in all life circumstances. To advance along these lines, we propose the incorporation of the "occupational health perspective" in all actions and services of the public healthcare system, especially with respect to public health services under the purview of the health administration.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Laboral , Humanos , Pandemias , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , España
8.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 56(4): 619-634, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749900

RESUMEN

Obesity is a multifactorial disease that disproportionally affects diverse racial and ethnic groups. Structural racism influences racial inequities in obesity prevalence through environmental factors, such as racism and discrimination, socioeconomic status, increased levels of stress, and bias in the health care delivery system. Researchers, clinicians, and policy makers must work to address the environmental and systematic barriers that contribute to health inequities in the United States. Specifically, clinicians should quantitatively and qualitatively assess environmental and social factors and proactively engage in patient-centered care to tailor available treatments based on identified needs and experiences.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Obesidad/epidemiología , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Sesgo , Atención a la Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos
9.
Washington D.C; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; 1 ed; Nov. 2021. 82 p. ilus.
Monografía en Español | LIPECS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1352628

RESUMEN

La presente agenda se ha elaborado bajo la égida de la Estrategia mundial de la OMS sobre salud, medio ambiente y cambio climático, y se basa en los compromisos establecidos en la Agenda de Salud Sostenible para las Américas 2018-2030 y el Plan Estratégico de la OPS 2020-2025. Con la finalidad de alcanzar el Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible 3, la agenda se centra en: mejorar el desempeño de los programas e instituciones de salud pública ambiental; fomentar sistemas de salud sostenibles y resilientes desde el punto de vista medioambiental; y promover ciudades y comunidades saludables y resilientes desde el punto de vista medioambiental. Su aplicación será específica para cada contexto y se basará en las necesidades y realidades de los diversos países. Beneficiará a los países y territorios al promover prácticas de buena gobernanza, fortalecer el liderazgo y la coordinación en el sector de la salud, fomentar la acción intersectorial, centrarse en la prevención primaria, y mejorar la evidencia disponible y la comunicación. Facilitará el acceso a los recursos humanos, técnicos y financieros necesarios para abordar los determinantes ambientales de la salud y garantizará que la Región se involucre plenamente en los procesos y acuerdos mundiales sobre salud, medio ambiente y cambio climático


Asunto(s)
Atención Primaria de Salud , Cambio Climático , Sistemas de Salud , Colaboración Intersectorial , Medio Ambiente y Salud Pública , Fenómenos Ecológicos y Ambientales , Desarrollo Sostenible
10.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9274
11.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9275

RESUMEN


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Cambio Climático
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Oct 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640940

RESUMEN

Collaborative part transportation is an interesting application as many industrial sectors require moving large parts among different areas of the workshops, using a large amount of the workforce on this tasks. Even so, the implementation of such kinds of robotic solutions raises technical challenges like force-based control or robot-to-human feedback. This paper presents a path-driven mobile co-manipulation architecture, proposing an algorithm that deals with all the steps of collaborative part transportation. Starting from the generation of force-based twist commands, continuing with the path management for the definition of safe and collaborative areas, and finishing with the feedback provided to the system users, the proposed approach allows creating collaborative lanes for the conveyance of large components. The implemented solution and performed tests show the suitability of the proposed architecture, allowing the creation of a functional robotic system able to assist operators transporting large parts on workshops.


Asunto(s)
Brazo , Robótica , Algoritmos , Ambiente , Humanos , Transportes
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574705

RESUMEN

Hazardous materials shipments are integral to the development of industrial countries. Significant casualties and severe environmental pollution quickly ensue when accidents occur. Currently, relevant research on risk assessment of hazardous materials' road transportation remains limited when both the population exposure risk and environmental risk are considered, especially in regard to analyzing the differences of accident impacts in different populations and environments. This paper adopts a Gaussian plume model to simulate dynamic areas at three levels of population exposure and assesses the pollution scope of air, groundwater, lakes, and rivers with a variety of diffusion models. Then, we utilize various costs to analyze the differences of accident impacts in population exposure and environmental pollution. Finally, a risk assessment model of hazardous materials road transportation under time-varying conditions is presented by considering the bearing capacity of the assessed area. Furthermore, this model is applied to a case study involving a risk assessment of hazardous materials transportation of a highly populated metropolitan area of Shanghai, China. The resulting analyses reveal that the safety of hazardous materials transportation could be effectively improved by controlling certain model parameters and avoiding road segments with a high risk of catastrophic accident consequences.


Asunto(s)
Sustancias Peligrosas , Transportes , Accidentes , China , Medición de Riesgo
14.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 533-544, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542095

RESUMEN

Animal health risk assessment is one of the key tasks of Veterinary Services. There are well-established protocols created by the World Organisation for Animal Health and Codex Alimentarius Commission for assessing risk. They cover terrestrial and aquatic animals and zoonotic infectious diseases, food safety, and the environment, taking into consideration the connections between them. Significant effort has been made in developing methods to estimate the probability, and consequences, of infectious disease incursion in diseasefree countries through legal or illegal trade or via the movements of insects and wildlife. Additional efforts have been made in the design of prevention strategies and contingency plans. Concerns about possible pandemics of avian influenza continue to be important motivation for monitoring viruses for selection of vaccine candidate strains. The recent COVID-19 pandemic was zoonotic in nature and caused extensive disruption throughout the world. Tools are becoming available for quantitative food safety risk assessments for bacteria, toxins, viruses, and antimicrobial resistance genes, including tools that allow simulations for the selection of effective control options. Applying participatory techniques facilitates the conduct of risk analysis in low- and middle-income countries. In internationally established frameworks, risk assessment is the first step towards elimination of important infectious diseases in endemic countries and it is an important contributor to the reduction of disease risks. Quantitative and qualitative socio-economic and behavioural studies have been developed to design risk management options that are acceptable and sustainable for actors throughout value chains.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Animales , Animales Salvajes , COVID-19/veterinaria , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Medición de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604235, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483811

RESUMEN

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the associations between air pollution exposure and pediatric outpatient visits for dry eye disease (DED) in Shenzhen, China. Methods: Generalized additive models were utilized to explore the acute effects of air pollution exposure on pediatric outpatient visits for DED. Results: Single-day lag exposures to NO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10 were associated with DED outpatient visits at lag days 0, 6, 4 and 2. Relative risks (RRs) for DED given a 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations were 1.062[95% confidence interval (CI) 1.003, 1.123], 1.015(95% CI 1.001, 1.031), 1.052(95% CI 1.001, 1.115), and 1.038 (95% CI 1.002, 1.076), respectively. RR for DED given a 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2 over cumulative lag days 0-1 was 1.075 (95% CI 1.009, 1.147), and RR for DED given a 10-µg/m3 increase in PM10 over cumulative lag days 0-4 was 1.051 (95% CI 1.003, 1.102). Conclusion: The observed associations between air pollution and outpatient visits for DED may provide evidence for policy makers to consider implementing measures to reduce the risk of DED owing to air pollution in China.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Atención Ambulatoria , Síndromes de Ojo Seco , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Atención Ambulatoria/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , China/epidemiología , Síndromes de Ojo Seco/epidemiología , Síndromes de Ojo Seco/terapia , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos
16.
J Res Health Sci ; 21(2): e00518, 2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465641

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at assessing how population density (PD), aging index (AI), use of public transport (URPT), and PM10 concentration (PI) modulated the trajectory of the main COVID-19 pandemic outcomes in Italy, also in the recrudescence phase of the epidemic. STUDY DESIGN: Ecological study. METHODS: For each region, we recovered data about cases, deaths, and case fatality rate (CFR) recorded since both the beginning of the epidemic and September 1, 2020. Data about total hospitalizations were included as well. RESULTS: PD correlated with, and was the best predictor of, total and partial cases, total and partial deaths, and total hospitalizations. Moreover, URPT correlated with, and was the best predictor of, total CFR. Besides, PI correlated significantly with total and partial cases, total and partial deaths, and total hospitalizations. CONCLUSION: PD explains COVID-19 morbidity, mortality, and severity while URPT is the best predictor of disease lethality. These findings should be interpreted with caution due to the ecological fallacy.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/mortalidad , Hospitalización , Pandemias , Densidad de Población , Transportes , Factores de Edad , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Ambiente , Humanos , Italia , Tamaño de la Partícula , Recurrencia , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
17.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(5): 400-402, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474709

RESUMEN

Background: On January 20, 2020, the first documented case of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) was reported in the United States. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention continues to report more morbidity and mortality in adults than in children. Early in Pandemic, there was a concern that patients with asthma would be affected disproportionately from COVID-19, but this was not manifested. It is now recognized that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors that are used by the coronavirus for infection have low expression in children with atopy that may contribute to decreased infectivity in children who are atopic. There are several early reports of decreased emergency department (ED) visits for children with asthma. The authors previously reported a decrease in pediatric ED visits in the spring of 2020, which correlated with school closure. Objective: To determine if this trend of decreased ED visits for pediatric asthma was sustained throughout the first COVID-19 pandemic year. Methods: ED data from one inner city children's hospital were collected by using standard medical claims codes. Conclusion: We reported a sustained year of decreased ED visits for children with asthma in one pediatric ED in an inner-city hospital; this seemed to be secondary to school closure and decreased exposure to upper respiratory infections.


Asunto(s)
Asma , COVID-19/prevención & control , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/tendencias , Utilización de Instalaciones y Servicios/tendencias , Enfermedad Aguda , Adolescente , Asma/etiología , Asma/fisiopatología , Asma/terapia , Niño , Preescolar , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/prevención & control , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Michigan , Distanciamiento Físico , Instituciones Académicas , Salud Urbana
18.
Waste Manag ; 134: 159-169, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419703

RESUMEN

The amount of building demolition waste produced in China is large, and waste treatment processes discharge many pollutants. Pre-evaluating waste's environmental damage at the design stage of building projects could provide an opportunity to understand and minimize potential environmental impacts. Tools that can conveniently estimate the amount of demolition waste and quantify its impacts are lacking. This study combines building information modeling (BIM), geographic information system (GIS), and life cycle assessment (LCA) to develop an estimation and evaluation system for building demolition waste. In this system, BIM digitizes the specific characteristics of the evaluated buildings and provides geometric and semantic information for waste estimation. GIS offers geographic information regarding waste treatment plants and landfill site, and is used to design waste transportation routes. LCA provides an environmental impact assessment framework and quantifies ecological damage impacts and resource depletion impacts due to demolition waste. The system includes five modules, which form the basis of an automated calculation tool. The evaluation tool can quickly quantify the amount of waste and assess its impacts, while achieving automated waste estimation and impact evaluation after a building is designed. A building in a middle school is taken as a case study to demonstrate and verify the system. This study provides an operable tool for waste evaluation and management at the design stage. With the increasing application of BIM technology in the construction industry, this tool is expected to gain popularity and promote efficient waste management.


Asunto(s)
Industria de la Construcción , Administración de Residuos , Materiales de Construcción , Ambiente , Reciclaje , Transportes
19.
Conserv Biol ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405448

RESUMEN

High-conservation-value forests (HCVFs) are critically important for biodiversity and ecosystem service provisioning, but they face many threats. Where systematic HCVF inventories are missing, such as in parts of Eastern Europe, these forests remain largely unacknowledged and therefore often unprotected. We devised a novel, transferable approach for detecting HCVFs based on integrating historical spy satellite images, contemporary remote sensing data (Landsat), and information on current potential anthropogenic pressures (e.g., road infrastructure, population density, demand for fire wood, terrain). We applied the method to the Romanian Carpathians, for which we mapped forest continuity (1955-2019), canopy structural complexity, and anthropogenic pressures. We identified 738,000 ha of HCVF. More than half of this area was identified as susceptible to current anthropogenic pressures and lacked formal protection. By providing a framework for broad-scale HCVF monitoring, our approach facilitates integration of HCVF into forest conservation and management. This is urgently needed to achieve the goals of the European Union's Biodiversity Strategy to maintain valuable forest ecosystems.

20.
Conserv Biol ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405453

RESUMEN

Invasive non-native species are important drivers of ecosystem change, yet the driving forces of biological invasions themselves are poorly understood. Such information is essential to ensure policies focus on the most relevant drivers, and that future scenarios capture the full range of potential outcomes for invasive non-native species. I carried out a bibliometric analysis of articles published from 2000 to 2020 that address either invasive non-native species or biodiversity and ecosystem services and that also mention 1 or more drivers of ecosystem change. I examined 5 indirect drivers (demographic, economic, governance, sociocultural, and technological) and 6 direct drivers (climate change, invasive non-native species, land-use or sea-use change, natural hazards, pollution, and resource extraction). Using the Web of Science core collection of citation indexes, I undertook searches of article titles and keywords and retrieved 27,462 articles addressing invasive non-native species and 110,087 articles dealing with biodiversity or ecosystem services. Most research to date on biological invasions as well as on biodiversity and ecosystem services has focused on anthropogenic direct drivers of ecosystem change rather than indirect drivers. Yet currently, less than 18% of articles addressing biological invasions examined drivers of ecosystem change, a similar level to that found over 20 years ago for biodiversity or ecosystem services. Knowledge of the drivers of biological invasions is limited, emphasizes tractable drivers over those that require an interdisciplinary approach, and is biased toward developed economies. Drivers generally deemed important for biological invasions, such as governance and resource extraction, accounted for less than 2% of research effort. The absence of a systematic understanding of the forces that drive invasive non-native species and how they interact means that attempts to mitigate or forecast biological invasions are likely to fail. To address biological invasions requires a much better orientation of national and international research on drivers in relation to both their actual importance as well as their policy relevance.

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