Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is one of the major air pollutants. A large number of epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that PM2.5 pollution can cause adverse health consequences, which has attracted more public attention. In order to have a deeper and more structured understanding of the research progress and frontiers on the impact of PM2.5 on health, in this study, we used the bibliometrics software CiteSpace to analyze the relevant literature in this field. The results show that since 2000, the relevant literature has increased steadily, especially in the last 5 years, and the number of publications in China has increased rapidly. The United States has the most publications. The Chinese Academy of Sciences and Professor Joel Schwartz are the most published institution and author, respectively, and many articles have been published in the journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. Over time, studies on the health effects of PM2.5 have gradually deepened. In addition to a more comprehensive study of its harmful effects, the related molecular mechanisms have also been further explored. We believe that countries and regions should strengthen cooperation and jointly solve the harm caused by PM2.5 through the integration of multiple disciplines and fields. In addition, the adverse health consequences and its related mechanisms caused by exposure to ultrafine particle, different chemical components of PM2.5, as well as the intervention of the health effects caused by PM2.5 need to be further studied.