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1.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1903222, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820500

RESUMEN

Background: Official development assistance (ODA) is one of the most important means for donor countries to foster diplomatic relations with low- and middle-income countries and contribute to the welfare of the international community.Objective: This study estimated the sectoral allocation of gross disbursements of ODA of the 29 Development Assistance Committee (DAC) member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) for the duration of 2011 to 2018, by aid type (bilateral, multilateral, and both aids).Methods: Data from the OECD iLibrary were used. The sector definition was based on the OECD sector classification. For core funding to multilateral agencies that do not specialize in each aid sector, we estimated ODA and its flows based on the OECD methodology for calculating imputed multilateral ODA.Results: For all 29 countries, during the period of 2014-2018 where data were available for all the countries, the sector with the highest average annual ODA contribution was health at 20.34 billion USD (13.21%), followed by humanitarian aid at 18.04 billion (11.72%). Humanitarian aid has increased in the sectoral share rankings in both bilateral and multilateral aid, and the sectoral share for refugees in donor countries has increased in bilateral aid. While the 29 countries show relatively similar trends for sectoral shares, some countries and sectors display unique trends. For instance, infrastructure and energy sectors in bilateral aid of Japan are particularly high accounts for 48.48% of the total bilateral ODA of the country in 2018.Conclusions: This paper evaluated ODA trends by major donors of DAC countries in the pre-COVID-19 pandemic periods. We hope that our estimates will contribute to the review of the strategic decision-making and the effective implementation of future ODA policy discussions in the DAC countries while ensuring transparency.


Asunto(s)
Cooperación Internacional , Asignación de Recursos , Países en Desarrollo , Humanos
2.
Sex Health ; 18(1): 41-49, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653504

RESUMEN

The 2016 global commitments towards ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 require the Asia-Pacific region to reach the Fast-Track targets by 2020. Despite early successes, the region is well short of meeting these targets. The overall stalled progress in the HIV response has been further undermined by rising new infections among young key populations and the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. This paper examines the HIV situation, assesses the gaps, and analyses what it would take the region to end AIDS by 2030. Political will and commitments for ending AIDS must be reaffirmed and reinforced. Focused regional strategic direction that answers the specific regional context and guides countries to respond to their specific needs must be put in place. The region must harness the power of innovative tools and technology in both prevention and treatment. Community activism and meaningful community engagement across the spectrum of HIV response must be ensured. Punitive laws, stigma, and discrimination that deter key populations and people living with HIV from accessing health services must be effectively tackled. The people-centred public health approach must be fully integrated into national universal health coverage while ensuring domestic resources are available for community-led service delivery. The region must utilise its full potential and draw upon lessons that have been learnt to address common challenges of the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics and achieve the goal of ending AIDS by 2030, in fulfillment of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/prevención & control , Epidemias/prevención & control , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/transmisión , Asia , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Objetivos , Implementación de Plan de Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Islas del Pacífico , Política , Desarrollo Sostenible , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud/organización & administración
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(3): 1001-1012, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729354

RESUMEN

The American response to the pandemic involves a prominent volume of federal resources, especially for developing and acquiring products for internal use, such as diagnostics or vaccines. Investment mechanisms and historical aspects justify this expenditure. Thus, the social construction of nationalism in American society hinders access to health technologies. The review of such aspects shows how the United States (U.S.) secured a large number of potential products, ensuring excessive local production. This unilateral foreign policy has influenced other countries or regional blocs and undermined global cooperation and solidarity, affecting the collective health of several nations.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Salud Global , Cooperación Internacional , Pandemias , /diagnóstico , /estadística & datos numéricos , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Países en Desarrollo , Difusión de Innovaciones , Economía , Recursos en Salud/economía , Recursos en Salud/provisión & distribución , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Sistemas Políticos , Asignación de Recursos/economía , Asignación de Recursos/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , United States Dept. of Health and Human Services/economía
4.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-01/02/03): 111-117, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666922

RESUMEN

The global COVID-19 pandemic resulted in restriction of non-essential travel across the globe, as seen in the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense Memorandum, "Force Health Protection Guidance (Supplement 4): DoD Guidance for Personnel Traveling During the Novel Coronavirus Outbreak" (11 March 2020). This resulted in the suspension of most, if not all, Department of Defense (DoD) security cooperation (SC) programs, including DoD Global Health Engagement (GHE) activities.1 One such program is the African Peacekeeping Rapid Response Partnership (APRRP), which relies heavily on face-to-face interactions with select African Partner Nations (PNs), and which was significantly impacted by the inability to conduct in-person training with key partners. In light of these restrictions and suspended activities, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences' (USU's) Center for Global Health Engagement (CGHE), in support of the US Africa Command (USAFRICOM) Office of the Command Surgeon, explored virtual means to execute DoD GHE activities to continue engaging its APRRP PNs, pending return to in-country activities.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Educación a Distancia/organización & administración , Salud Global/educación , Cooperación Internacional , United States Department of Defense , /epidemiología , Humanos , Estados Unidos
5.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-01/02/03): 156-161, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666930

RESUMEN

In December 2019, an outbreak of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2, occurred in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China.1 South Korea saw its first confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) case on January 20, 2020, when an infected woman from Wuhan, China arrived in S. Korea via Incheon International Airport.1 By mid-February, SARS-CoV-2 was rapidly spreading in the southern city of Daegu, S. Korea in proximity to three US Forces Korea (USFK) military installations. COVID-19 cases continued to increase during the following weeks, reaching a peak of nearly 1,000 confirmed cases per day by the end of February. As cases surged dramatically, over 28,000 USFK service members, family members, and Department of Defense (DoD) employees were at a risk of exposure to COVID-19. On February 24, clinicians diagnosed the first confirmed case in the USFK population, a 61 year-old widow of a retired service member. This individual, who experienced a mild illness, was the spouse of a retired US military veteran living in S. Korea. The retiree and his spouse both had access to military posts in S. Korea, and the spouse tested positive after she had been on one of the military bases in Area IV (Figure 1). The following day, USFK reported its first confirmed case in a service member, which was the triggering event for the 1st Area Medical Laboratory (AML) to deploy to S. Korea.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Cooperación Internacional , Personal Militar , /epidemiología , Humanos , República de Corea , Estados Unidos
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 574135, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643985

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic that emerged in 2019 has inflicted numerous clinical and public health challenges worldwide. It was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization and activated response teams at almost all Malaysian healthcare facilities. Upon activation of the National Crisis Preparedness and Response Center in January 2020, the National Institutes of Health Malaysia established a COVID-19 operation room at the facility level to address the rise in COVID-19 infection cases each day. The National Institutes of Health COVID-19 operation room committee formed a workforce mobilization team for an effective and efficient mobilization system to fulfill requests received for human resource aid within the Ministry of Health Malaysia facilities. Selected personnel would be screened for health and availability before mobilization letters and logistics arrangements if necessary. The workforce from the National Institutes of Health, consisting of various job positions, were mobilized every week, with each deployment cycle lasting 2 weeks. A total of 128 personnel from the six institutes under the National Institutes of Health were mobilized: tasks included fever screening, active case detection, health management at quarantine centers, and management of dead bodies. A well-organized data management system with a centralized online system integration could allow more rapid deployment and answer some of the key questions in managing a similar pandemic in the future. With improving infected COVID-19 cases throughout the country, the National Institutes of Health COVID-19 operation room was effectively closed on June 15, 2020, following approval from the Deputy Director-General of Health.


Asunto(s)
Cooperación Internacional , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Pandemias/prevención & control , Administración en Salud Pública , Recursos Humanos/organización & administración , /epidemiología , Planificación en Desastres , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Estados Unidos
10.
Lancet ; 397(10280): 1229-1236, 2021 03 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711296

RESUMEN

The research and development (R&D) ecosystem has evolved over the past decade to include pandemic infectious diseases, building on experience from multiple recent outbreaks. Outcomes of this evolution have been particularly evident during the COVID-19 pandemic with accelerated development of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies, as well as novel clinical trial designs. These products were developed, trialled, manufactured, and authorised for use in several countries within a year of the pandemic's onset. Many gaps remain, however, that must be bridged to establish a truly efficient and effective end-to-end R&D preparedness and response ecosystem. Foremost among them is a global financing system. In addition, important changes are required for multiple aspects of enabling sciences and product development. For each of these elements we identify priorities for improved and faster functionality. There will be no better time than now to seriously address these needs, however difficult, as the ravages of COVID-19 continue to accelerate with devastating health, social, and economic consequences for the entire community of nations.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Cooperación Internacional , Pandemias/prevención & control , Investigación/economía , Investigación/organización & administración , Humanos , Modelos Organizacionales
14.
Respirology ; 26(4): 322-333, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690946

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has hit the world by surprise, causing substantial mortality and morbidity since 2020. This narrative review aims to provide an overview of the epidemiology, induced impact, viral kinetics and clinical spectrum of COVID-19 in the Asia-Pacific Region, focusing on regions previously exposed to outbreaks of coronavirus. COVID-19 progressed differently by regions, with some (such as China and Taiwan) featured by one to two epidemic waves and some (such as Hong Kong and South Korea) featured by multiple waves. There has been no consensus on the estimates of important epidemiological time intervals or proportions, such that using them for making inferences should be done with caution. Viral loads of patients with COVID-19 peak in the first week of illness around days 2 to 4 and hence there is very high transmission potential causing community outbreaks. Various strategies such as government-guided and suppress-and-lift strategies, trigger-based/suppression approaches and alert systems have been employed to guide the adoption and easing of control measures. Asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic transmission is a hallmark of COVID-19. Identification and isolation of symptomatic patients alone is not effective in controlling the ongoing outbreaks. However, early, prompt and coordinated enactment predisposed regions to successful disease containment. Mass COVID-19 vaccinations are likely to be the light at the end of the tunnel. There is a need to review what we have learnt in this pandemic and examine how to transfer and improve existing knowledge for ongoing and future epidemics.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Asia/epidemiología , Australasia/epidemiología , /fisiopatología , /virología , Defensa Civil/organización & administración , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/legislación & jurisprudencia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Regulación Gubernamental , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , /fisiología
16.
Am J Nurs ; 121(4): 18, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755615
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(12): 421-426, 2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764965

RESUMEN

In 2018, an estimated 1.8 million persons living in Nigeria had HIV infection (1.3% of the total population), including 1.1 million (64%) who were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) (1). Effective ART reduces morbidity and mortality rates among persons with HIV infection and prevents HIV transmission once viral load is suppressed to undetectable levels (2,3). In April 2019, through the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR),* CDC launched an 18-month ART Surge program in nine Nigerian states to rapidly increase the number of persons with HIV infection receiving ART. CDC analyzed programmatic data gathered during March 31, 2019-September 30, 2020, to describe the ART Surge program's progress on case finding, ART initiation, patient retention, and ART Surge program growth. Overall, the weekly number of newly identified persons with HIV infection who initiated ART increased approximately eightfold, from 587 (week ending May 4, 2019) to 5,329 (week ending September 26, 2020). The ART Surge program resulted in 208,202 more HIV-infected persons receiving PEPFAR-supported ART despite the COVID-19 pandemic (97,387 more persons during March 31, 2019-March 31, 2020 and an additional 110,815 persons during April 2020-September 2020). Comprehensive, data-guided, locally adapted interventions and the use of incident command structures can help increase the number of persons with HIV infection who receive ART, reducing HIV-related morbidity and mortality as well as decreasing HIV transmission.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Cooperación Internacional , Desarrollo de Programa , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
20.
OMICS ; 25(3): 169-175, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719569

RESUMEN

Big data in both the public domain and the health care industry are growing rapidly, for example, with broad availability of next-generation sequencing and large-scale phenomics datasets on patient-reported outcomes. In parallel, we are witnessing new research approaches that demand sharing of data for the benefit of planetary society. Health data cooperatives (HDCs) is one such approach, where health data are owned and governed collectively by citizens who take part in the HDCs. Data stored in HDCs should remain readily available for translation to public health practice but at the same time, governed in a critically informed manner to ensure data integrity, veracity, and privacy, to name a few pressing concerns. As a solution, we suggest that data generated from high-throughput omics research and phenomics can be stored in an open cloud platform so that researchers around the globe can share health data and work collaboratively. We describe here the Global Open Health Data Cooperatives Cloud (GOHDCC) as a proposed cloud platform-based model for the sharing of health data between different HDCCs around the globe. GOHDCC's main objective is to share health data on a global scale for robust and responsible global science, research, and development. GOHDCC is a citizen-oriented model cooperatively governed by citizens. The model essentially represents a global sharing platform that could benefit all stakeholders along the health care value chain.


Asunto(s)
Macrodatos , Nube Computacional , Salud Global , Difusión de la Información , Cooperación Internacional , /virología , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Humanos , /genética
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