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1.
Ultraschall Med ; 41(5): 476-498, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017857

RESUMEN

The "Ordinance on Protection Against the Harmful Effects of Non-Ionizing Radiation in Human Applications" will go into effect at the beginning of 2021 1. §â€Š10 of this ordinance prohibits non-medical fetal ultrasound exposure thereby resulting in uncertainty, particularly among affected patients, with respect to the generally accepted theory regarding the lack of ultrasound side effects. Although not a single study has shown a detrimental effect on fetal or child development following exposure to ultrasound, the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety has justified the ban with the purely hypothetical possibility of an unidentified side effect. The first part of the following study shows which ultrasound-induced biophysical effects are known and which dose-dependent threshold values must be taken into consideration. In particular, the study focuses on the well-researched heat effect with some in vivo measurements in humans showing that the actual temperature increase is less than the theoretically calculated values. The planned second part of this study will discuss the non-thermal effects and present the most important epidemiological studies.


Asunto(s)
Feto , Ultrasonografía Prenatal , Algoritmos , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Ultrasonografía Prenatal/efectos adversos
2.
Radiat Environ Biophys ; 59(4): 601-629, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851496

RESUMEN

ProZES is a software tool for estimating the probability that a given cancer was caused by preceding exposure to ionising radiation. ProZES calculates this probability, the assigned share, for solid cancers and hematopoietic malignant diseases, in cases of exposures to low-LET radiation, and for lung cancer in cases of exposure to radon. User-specified inputs include birth year, sex, type of diagnosed cancer, age at diagnosis, radiation exposure history and characteristics, and smoking behaviour for lung cancer. Cancer risk models are an essential part of ProZES. Linking disease and exposure to radiation involves several methodological aspects, and assessment of uncertainties received particular attention. ProZES systematically uses the principle of multi-model inference. Models of radiation risk were either newly developed or critically re-evaluated for ProZES, including dedicated models for frequent types of cancer and, for less common diseases, models for groups of functionally similar cancer sites. The low-LET models originate mostly from the study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Risks predicted by these models are adjusted to be applicable to the population of Germany and to different time periods. Adjustment factors for low dose rates and for a reduced risk during the minimum latency time between exposure and cancer are also applied. The development of the methodology and software was initiated and supported by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) taking up advice by the German Commission on Radiological Protection (SSK, Strahlenschutzkommission). These provide the scientific basis to support decision making on compensation claims regarding malignancies following occupational exposure to radiation in Germany.


Asunto(s)
Modelos Teóricos , Neoplasias Inducidas por Radiación/etiología , Exposición a la Radiación/efectos adversos , Programas Informáticos , Alemania , Humanos , Probabilidad , Medición de Riesgo
3.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 227: 113508, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172157

RESUMEN

7-Hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-1-octanal, also known as 7-hydroxycitronellal (7-HC, CAS No. 107-75-5) is a synthetic fragrance widely used in cosmetic and hygiene products. Because of its wide spread use and its known sensitizing properties, 7-HC was selected as one of 50 chemicals within the frame of the cooperation project between the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) and the German Chemical Industry Association (VCI) to develop a suitable human biomonitoring (HBM) method in order to assess the exposure of the general population in Germany. Within this scope, the recently published analytical method for urinary 7-hydroxycitronellylic acid (7-HCA), the major metabolite of 7-HC, was applied to 329 24h-urine samples of young adults (20 to 29 years) collected between 2000 and 2018 and stored in the Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB). The widespread exposure to 7-HC as already observed in a pilot study with 40 volunteers could be confirmed with quantifiable concentrations of 7-HCA in all 329 study samples (mean: 14.9 ng/mL; median: 8.1 ng/mL). A significant, chronological decrease in 7-HCA levels was found for the monitored years (2000, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2015, 2018). The most pronounced decline occurred between 2000 and 2004 (means: 34.37 versus 23.31, medians: 20.97 versus 12.49 µg/24h; p < 0.01). On average, females exhibited higher levels of urinary 7-HCA compared to males (29.34 versus 17.21 µg/24h, p < 0.05). Based on the urinary 7-HCA excretion, the daily intake (DI) of 7-HC normalized for body weight (bw) was estimated. Over all sampling years, average DI in females was significantly higher compared to males (0.99 versus 0.46 µg/kg bw/d). Assuming dermal exposure as the main route of 7-HC intake, the mean DIs correspond to <0.1% of the derived no effect level (DNEL) of 1,100 µg/kg bw/d defined by the European Chemical Agency (ECHA). The presented results for the exposure to the widely used fragrance 7-HC in Germany can be substantiated by applying the described methodology to the representative cohort of the launched German Environmental Survey in adults (GerES VI).


Asunto(s)
Perfumes/análisis , Terpenos/orina , Adulto , Monitoreo Biológico/métodos , Monitoreo Biológico/estadística & datos numéricos , Cosméticos , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
4.
Toxicol Lett ; 298: 194-200, 2018 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29906498

RESUMEN

The German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) is a monitoring instrument of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. The permanent biobank facility is run since 1981 containing environmental and human samples from Germany. All samples are collected according to standard operating procedures (SOP). An standardized annual collection of human samples at four different regional sites of the country has been established since 1997. Routine sampling is done once a year, recruiting healthy non occupationally exposed students aged 20-29 years, in an equal gender distribution. The number of participants recruited is approximately 120 students per site and year. Directly after the annual sampling process, the human samples are analyzed for selected environmental chemicals. The time-trends of lead in blood, mercury and pentachlorophenol in 24 h-urine and polychlorinated biphenyls in plasma demonstrated a decrease of exposure during the last two decades by about 40-90 percent. In parallel retrospective studies using cryo-archived samples revealed increasing time trends of emerging chemicals used as substitutes for regulated toxicants. The data demonstrates the great relevance of the ESB for the health related environmental monitoring and shows the importance of human biomonitoring as a tool in information based policy making.


Asunto(s)
Bancos de Muestras Biológicas/tendencias , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Salud Pública/tendencias , Adulto , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminantes Ambientales/efectos adversos , Femenino , Alemania , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
5.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1068-1069: 261-267, 2017 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29128278

RESUMEN

7-Hydroxycitronellal is a synthetic fragrance (CAS No. 107-75-5) which is used commonly in cosmetics, washing- and cleaning agents and as flavoring in foods. Due to its broad application in various fields, 7-hydroxycitronellal was selected for the development of a biomonitoring method for the quantitative exposure assessment within the frame of the cooperation project of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) and the German Chemical Industry Association (VCI). For this purpose, an ultra performance liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) based method was developed for the determination of potential biomarkers of 7-hydroxycitronellal (7-HC) in human urine samples. 7-Hydroxycitronellylic acid (7-HCA) turned out to be the quantitatively most important metabolite of 7-HC in human urine, occurring in 1000 times higher amounts than 7-hydroxycitronellol (7-HCO) or other potential metabolites. Therefore, an analytical method for 7-HCA was developed using stable isotope-labeled 7-HCA as internal standard (IS). The method includes a cleavage step of possible metabolite conjugates with an enzyme mix of ß-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase. Subsequent sample cleanup was performed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with dichloromethane. The method was calibrated by calculating the linear regression between the analyte/IS ratio and the nominal 7-HCA concentrations in water. The method was validated according to approved standard guidelines and proved to be robust, reliable and sensitive for the human biomonitoring of 7-HC. The method was applied to urine samples of 40 adult volunteers from the general population. 7-HCA was quantifiable in urine of all subjects. Thus the developed method proved to be suitable for assessing the background exposure to 7-HC in the general population.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Terpenos/orina , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perfumes , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Adulto Joven
6.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 220(2 Pt A): 299-304, 2017 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28319014

RESUMEN

Following the success of the 1st International Conference on Human Biomonitoring (HBM) in Berlin in 2010, the 2nd International Conference on Human Biomonitoring took place in Berlin from April 17-19, 2016 for an exchange and updates among participants on all aspects relating to HBM. Entitled "Science and Policy for a Healthy Future", the conference brought together international experts from the scientific sector, politics, authorities, industry, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other involved associations. The conference took a critical look at today's chemicals that have a potential impact on human health and should be investigated as a matter of priority. It also discussed current activities and research efforts on HBM occurring worldwide, presented HBM success stories, and emphasized areas, where further research and focus are needed to improve the use of HBM for policy making. In many countries, HBM has been proven to be a useful tool and warning system to indicate problematic human exposure to pollutants and to evaluate the effectiveness of existing chemicals policy and regulations. However, important challenges remain such as exposure assessment of mixtures of chemicals, the development of analytical methods to detect new chemicals of concern (e.g., substitutes for phthalates), the identification of exposure sources, and the assessment of the impact of exposure on health. This brief report summarizes the discussions and contributions from this conference, which was jointly organized by the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA) and the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMUB).


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Política de Salud , Formulación de Políticas , Contaminantes Ambientales , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo
7.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 220(2 Pt A): 103-112, 2017 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27865710

RESUMEN

In Germany strong efforts have been made within the last years to develop new methods for human biomonitoring (HBM). The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) and the German Chemical Industry Association e. V. (VCI) cooperate since 2010 to increase the knowledge on the internal exposure of the general population to chemicals. The projects aim is to promote human biomonitoring by developing new analytical methods Key partner of the cooperation is the German Environment Agency (UBA) which has been entrusted with the scientific coordination. Another key partner is the "HBM Expert Panel" which each year puts together a list of chemicals of interest to the project from which the Steering Committee of the project choses up to five substances for which method development will be started. Emphasis is placed on substances with either a potential health relevance or on substances to which the general population is potentially exposed to a considerable extent. The HBM Expert Panel also advises on method development. Once a method is developed, it is usually first applied to about 40 non-occupationally exposed individuals. A next step is applying the methods to different samples. Either, if the time trend is of major interest, to samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank, or, in case exposure sources and distribution of exposure levels in the general population are the focus, the new methods are applied to samples from children and adolescents from the population representative 5th German Environmental Survey (GerES V). Results are expected in late 2018. This article describes the challenges faced during method development and solutions found. An overview presents the 34 selected substances, the 14 methods developed and the 7 HBM-I values derived in the period from 2010 to mid 2016.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Adulto , Niño , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Alemania , Humanos
8.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 408(21): 5873-5882, 2016 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27370687

RESUMEN

2-(4-tert-Butylbenzyl)propionaldehyde also known as lysmeral, lilial, or lily aldehyde (CAS No. 80-54-6) is a synthetic odorant mainly used as a fragrance in a variety of consumer products like cleaning agents, fine fragrances, cosmetics, and air fresheners. Due to its broad application in various fields, lysmeral was selected for the development of a biomonitoring method for the quantitative exposure assessment within the frame of the cooperation project of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) and the German Chemical Industry Association (VCI). A method based on ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of potential biomarkers of lysmeral in human urine samples. Sample cleanup was performed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Quantification was achieved by standard addition using stable isotope-labeled, authentic reference standards. The method is characterized by its robustness, reliability, and excellent sensitivity as proven during method validation according to approved standard guidelines. The following five lysmeral metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers of exposure for lysmeral in human urine samples: lysmerol, lysmerylic acid, hydroxylated lysmerylic acid, tert-butylbenzoic acid (TBBA), and tert-butylhippuric acid (TBHA). The determination of lysmerol required derivatization with 3-nitrophthalic acid anhydride and showed the lowest limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) in urine (0.035 and 0.10 µg/L, respectively). LOD and LOQ for the other metabolites were in the range of 0.12-0.15 and 0.36-0.45 µg/L, respectively. Accuracy for all analytes was in the range of 90-110 %. Intra- and inter-day precision was in the range of 5-10 %, except for TBHA, for which the coefficient of variation was unacceptably high (>20 %) and therefore excluded from the method. The method was applied to urine samples of 40 adult volunteers. The four remaining lysmeral metabolites were detectable in most of the 40 urine samples in the following order according to quantity excreted: TBBA >> lysmerol ≈ lysmerylic acid > hydroxy-lysmerylic acid. In conclusion, we successfully developed a biomonitoring method for the assessment of the exposure to lysmeral in the general population. The method is characterized by its precision, robustness, and accuracy. The metabolites lysmerol, lysmerylic acid, hydroxylated lysmerylic acid, and TBBA turned out to be suitable biomarkers of exposure to lysmeral, either alone or in combination with one or more of the other metabolites. Sensitivity was found to be sufficient for assessing the background exposure to this chemical in the general population.


Asunto(s)
Aldehídos/orina , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Aldehídos/análisis , Biomarcadores/orina , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Extracción Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Odorantes/análisis , Perfumes/análisis
9.
Radiat Environ Biophys ; 55(3): 267-80, 2016 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27334644

RESUMEN

ICRP suggested a strategy based on the distinction between a protection approach for dwellings and one for workplaces in the previous recommendations on radon. Now, the Commission recommends an integrated approach for the protection against radon exposure in all buildings irrespective of their purpose and the status of their occupants. The strategy of protection in buildings, implemented through a national action plan, is based on the application of the optimisation principle below a derived reference level in concentration (maximum 300 Bq m(-3)). A problem, however, arises that due to new epidemiological findings and application of dosimetric models, ICRP 115 (Ann ICRP 40, 2010) presents nominal probability coefficients for radon exposure that are approximately by a factor of 2 larger than in the former recommendations of ICRP 65 (Ann ICRP 23, 1993). On the basis of the so-called epidemiological approach and the dosimetric approach, the doubling of risk per unit exposure is represented by a doubling of the dose coefficients, while the risk coefficient of ICRP 103 (2007) remains unchanged. Thus, an identical given radon exposure situation with the new dose coefficients would result in a doubling of dose compared with the former values. This is of serious conceptual implications. A possible solution of this problem was presented during the workshop.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Radiactivos del Aire , Radón , Humanos , Dosis de Radiación , Exposición a la Radiación , Protección Radiológica , Riesgo
10.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26753867

RESUMEN

The main objective of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) is the long-term storage of environmental and human samples under stable deep-freeze conditions for future research. The ESB is unique in providing a continuous historical record of environmental and human exposure to chemicals in Germany. ESB was started parallel to the development of the first German Chemicals Legislation in the late 1970s. In 1979, the ESB test operation began. After the Chemicals Law came into force in 1982, the ESB was established as a permanent facility in 1985. With the new European Chemicals Legislation, REACH, in 2007 responsibility for the safety of commercial chemicals and risk assessment was assigned to the industry. Since then, the ESB has become even more important in verifying the self-assessment of the industry, in evaluating the effectiveness of regulations, thus ensuring the protection of humans and the environment against adverse effects caused by exposure to chemicals. These objectives are pursued by the regular monitoring of contaminations and the assessment of temporal trends. Demonstrating the necessity of deriving exposure reduction measures, ESB results serve as key information for policy-makers. Information on preventing exposure to chemicals is available to the general public and to the public health services. The ESB is thus an important monitoring instrument of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety. The Federal Environment Agency operates the ESB based on its own concepts, heads the scientific data evaluation and transfers results into the environmental policy arena and to the general public.


Asunto(s)
Bancos de Muestras Biológicas/organización & administración , Criopreservación/normas , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/normas , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Modelos Organizacionales , Investigación Biomédica/organización & administración , Alemania , Humanos , Obtención de Tejidos y Órganos/organización & administración
11.
Eur J Radiol ; 63(2): 237-41, 2007 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17628378

RESUMEN

After the security related occurrences in the past few years, there is an increasing need for airport security and border controls. In the combat against terror and smuggling, X-rays are used for the screening of persons and vehicles. The exposure of humans to ionising radiation raises the question of justification. To solve this question, reliable and traceable dose values are needed. A research project of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety was initiated. Its task is to measure the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), and the personal dose equivalent, H(p)(10), for typical types of personnel and vehicle X-ray scanners, using the transmission and/or backscatter method. In the following, the measuring quantities which are to be used for these investigations will be discussed and the measuring instruments will be presented. Furthermore, the experimental set-up is described. For the personnel X-ray scanners investigated, the obtained dose values are in the range from 0.07 to 6 microSv. These values will be compared to the dose values of the natural environmental radiation and some exposures in the field of medicine.


Asunto(s)
Vehículos a Motor , Radiografía/instrumentación , Radiografía/tendencias , Medidas de Seguridad/tendencias , Imagen de Cuerpo Entero/instrumentación , Imagen de Cuerpo Entero/tendencias , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Humanos , Dosis de Radiación , Radiografía/métodos , Efectividad Biológica Relativa , Imagen de Cuerpo Entero/métodos
12.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15549201

RESUMEN

The field work of the German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV) was started nationwide in May 2003. The survey is a module of the National Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). This environmental survey includes a representative subsample of 1800 children from the 18,000 participants of the KiGGS who are being examined regarding health-relevant environmental exposure. The investigational programme of the survey was tested successfully in a pilot study (pretest) the results of which contributed to the optimisation of the main study. The field work is essentially done by the environmental interviewer of the three teams of the KiGGS. Preparation, organization and accompaniment of the work is done by the coordination centre of the Robert Koch Institute on Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) instructions. Funding agencies are the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). Both the KiGGS and the environmental module are evaluated by internal and external quality assurance during the whole study period (May 2003-May 2006). Up to now the established teams have done their field work very well and the coordination of the overall project by the Robert Koch Institute works well, too. A total of 722 subjects had taken part in the GerES IV by July 2004.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Diseño de Investigaciones Epidemiológicas , Indicadores de Salud , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Adolescente , Distribución por Edad , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Proyectos Piloto , Prevalencia , Investigación , Factores de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Factores Socioeconómicos
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 139-140: 13-25, 1993 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8272822

RESUMEN

As a reaction to the lack of information concerning ranges of a 'normal xenobiotic burden' within the population and also the aquatic, terrestrial and atmospheric environments, the sampling and storage of environmental materials in Germany in 1974 as a possible tool for environmental observation and early recognizing of hazards was proposed. During subsequent years the collection of human specimens was undertaken in Münster. In a pilot phase (1978-1983) conditions of optimized storage were investigated, including reliable storage temperature and container materials. Since 1985 the Environmental Specimen Bank for Human Tissue in Münster has been institutionalized under the auspices of the Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Protection and Nuclear Safety as well as the Federal Environmental Agency in Berlin. Up to 1991 about 300,000 samples had been collected and stored at -85 degrees C in a walk-in deep-freezer of 34 m3 comprising autopsy material as well as 'available' organs form living persons (e.g. blood, urine, hair, human milk, saliva, seminal plasma, sweat). Having fulfilled the tasks within the scope of environmental banking the Münster institution has proved to be an adequate scientific tool. It has been integrated into the logistic system of the Environmental Specimen Bank in Germany having the following main tasks (a) the development of Standard Operation Procedures (SOP) for sampling and sample handling, (b) evaluation of reliable analytical methods for inorganic and organic sample characterization, (c) collection of a sufficient data pool for reference ranges of xenobiotics, which are essential for environmental risk assessment, and (d) the evaluation of the efficacy of legislative xenobiotic restrictions: this could be proved for lead and some organochlorine pesticides.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Manejo de Especímenes , Bancos de Tejidos/organización & administración , Tejido Adiposo/química , Tejido Adiposo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Niño , DDT/análisis , Hexaclorobenceno/análisis , Humanos , Hígado/química , Especificidad de Órganos , Oligoelementos/análisis , Xenobióticos
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