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1.
Front Syst Neurosci ; 15: 765646, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899201

RESUMEN

Animals need to distinguish sensory input caused by their own movement from sensory input which is due to stimuli in the outside world. This can be done by an efference copy mechanism, a carbon copy of the movement-command that is routed to sensory structures. Here I tried to link the mechanism of the efference copy with the idea of the philosopher Thomas Reid that the senses would have a double province, to make us feel, and to make us perceive, and that, as argued by psychologist Nicholas Humphrey, the former would identify with the signals from bodily sense organs with an internalized evaluative response, i.e., with phenomenal consciousness. I discussed a possible departure from the classical implementation of the efference copy mechanism that can effectively provide the senses with such a double province, and possibly allow us some progress in understanding the nature of consciousness.

2.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816263

RESUMEN

We seek to completely revise current models of airborne transmission of respiratory viruses by providing never-before-seen atomic-level views of the SARS-CoV-2 virus within a respiratory aerosol. Our work dramatically extends the capabilities of multiscale computational microscopy to address the significant gaps that exist in current experimental methods, which are limited in their ability to interrogate aerosols at the atomic/molecular level and thus ob-scure our understanding of airborne transmission. We demonstrate how our integrated data-driven platform provides a new way of exploring the composition, structure, and dynamics of aerosols and aerosolized viruses, while driving simulation method development along several important axes. We present a series of initial scientific discoveries for the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, noting that the full scientific impact of this work has yet to be realized. ACM REFERENCE FORMAT: Abigail Dommer 1† , Lorenzo Casalino 1† , Fiona Kearns 1† , Mia Rosenfeld 1 , Nicholas Wauer 1 , Surl-Hee Ahn 1 , John Russo, 2 Sofia Oliveira 3 , Clare Morris 1 , AnthonyBogetti 4 , AndaTrifan 5,6 , Alexander Brace 5,7 , TerraSztain 1,8 , Austin Clyde 5,7 , Heng Ma 5 , Chakra Chennubhotla 4 , Hyungro Lee 9 , Matteo Turilli 9 , Syma Khalid 10 , Teresa Tamayo-Mendoza 11 , Matthew Welborn 11 , Anders Christensen 11 , Daniel G. A. Smith 11 , Zhuoran Qiao 12 , Sai Krishna Sirumalla 11 , Michael O'Connor 11 , Frederick Manby 11 , Anima Anandkumar 12,13 , David Hardy 6 , James Phillips 6 , Abraham Stern 13 , Josh Romero 13 , David Clark 13 , Mitchell Dorrell 14 , Tom Maiden 14 , Lei Huang 15 , John McCalpin 15 , Christo- pherWoods 3 , Alan Gray 13 , MattWilliams 3 , Bryan Barker 16 , HarindaRajapaksha 16 , Richard Pitts 16 , Tom Gibbs 13 , John Stone 6 , Daniel Zuckerman 2 *, Adrian Mulholland 3 *, Thomas MillerIII 11,12 *, ShantenuJha 9 *, Arvind Ramanathan 5 *, Lillian Chong 4 *, Rommie Amaro 1 *. 2021. #COVIDisAirborne: AI-Enabled Multiscale Computational Microscopy ofDeltaSARS-CoV-2 in a Respiratory Aerosol. In Supercomputing '21: International Conference for High Perfor-mance Computing, Networking, Storage, and Analysis . ACM, New York, NY, USA, 14 pages. https://doi.org/finalDOI.

3.
Preprint en Inglés | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-468428

RESUMEN

We seek to completely revise current models of airborne transmission of respiratory viruses by providing never-before-seen atomic-level views of the SARS-CoV-2 virus within a respiratory aerosol. Our work dramatically extends the capabilities of multiscale computational microscopy to address the significant gaps that exist in current experimental methods, which are limited in their ability to interrogate aerosols at the atomic/molecular level and thus ob-scure our understanding of airborne transmission. We demonstrate how our integrated data-driven platform provides a new way of exploring the composition, structure, and dynamics of aerosols and aerosolized viruses, while driving simulation method development along several important axes. We present a series of initial scientific discoveries for the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, noting that the full scientific impact of this work has yet to be realized. ACM Reference FormatAbigail Dommer1{dagger}, Lorenzo Casalino1{dagger}, Fiona Kearns1{dagger}, Mia Rosenfeld1, Nicholas Wauer1, Surl-Hee Ahn1, John Russo,2 Sofia Oliveira3, Clare Morris1, AnthonyBogetti4, AndaTrifan5,6, Alexander Brace5,7, TerraSztain1,8, Austin Clyde5,7, Heng Ma5, Chakra Chennubhotla4, Hyungro Lee9, Matteo Turilli9, Syma Khalid10, Teresa Tamayo-Mendoza11, Matthew Welborn11, Anders Christensen11, Daniel G. A. Smith11, Zhuoran Qiao12, Sai Krishna Sirumalla11, Michael OConnor11, Frederick Manby11, Anima Anandkumar12,13, David Hardy6, James Phillips6, Abraham Stern13, Josh Romero13, David Clark13, Mitchell Dorrell14, Tom Maiden14, Lei Huang15, John McCalpin15, Christo- pherWoods3, Alan Gray13, MattWilliams3, Bryan Barker16, HarindaRajapaksha16, Richard Pitts16, Tom Gibbs13, John Stone6, Daniel Zuckerman2*, Adrian Mulholland3*, Thomas MillerIII11,12*, ShantenuJha9*, Arvind Ramanathan5*, Lillian Chong4*, Rommie Amaro1*. 2021. #COVIDisAirborne: AI-Enabled Multiscale Computational Microscopy ofDeltaSARS-CoV-2 in a Respiratory Aerosol. In Supercomputing 21: International Conference for High Perfor-mance Computing, Networking, Storage, and Analysis. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 14 pages. https://doi.org/finalDOI

4.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 564: 170-174, 2021 07 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213842

RESUMEN

The Scottish philosopher Thomas Reid and more recently the evolutionary psychologist Nicholas Humphrey argued for a basic distinction between sensation (what is happening to me) and perception (what is happening out there) with the former, but not the latter, being associated with consciousness. Conscious experiences in this view would emerge from changes in the state of the body, i.e. as bodily actions, and would maintain such a primal characteristic nowadays. I argue that the evolutionary reason for the sensation/perception distinction can be traced back to organisms' movement, and to the consequent need to tell apart two varieties of an otherwise identical local stimulation: namely, either as the outcome of external stimuli passively impinging on body surface or as the outcome of an organism movement giving rise to encountering with external stimuli. The Erich von Holst Reafferenzprinzip effectively modelled such a distinction by postulating that an efference copy is generated in association with the motor command thus nullifying any sensory signal that arises as a by-product of an organism movement. I argue that if sensation originally equates to a bodily action (or its internalized representation), then it could be that an efference copy of local (or internalized) bodily action is generated under stimulation and compared to that associated with active motor command. This way the result would be leaving sensation (what is happening to me) or nullifying it and leaving only perception (what is happening out there) depending on whether or not a motor command has occurred. Implications of this hypothesis for the presence of consciousness in animals or other organisms such as plants are briefly discussed.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Conciencia/fisiología , Dípteros/fisiología , Rosa/fisiología , Sensación/fisiología , Animales , Humanos
5.
Future Hosp J ; 2(2): 150, 2015 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098106

RESUMEN

Editorial comment on 'How true outcomes-based commissioning can really 'liberate' healthcare services' by Diane Bell, Thomas Kelley and Nicholas Hicks.

6.
Explore (NY) ; 9(4): 211-8, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23906099

RESUMEN

Contemporary science is based on the claim that all reality is material or physical. There is no reality but material reality. Consciousness is a by-product of the physical activity of the brain. Matter is unconscious. Evolution is purposeless. This view is now undergoing a credibility crunch. The biggest problem of all for materialism is the existence of consciousness. Panpsychism provides a way forward. So does the recognition that minds are not confined to brains.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Estado de Conciencia , Ciencia , Humanos
7.
Clin Anat ; 25(1): 2-11, 2012 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22180137

RESUMEN

The discovery of the major salivary glands was primarily a story of the establishment of the glands major excretory ducts. Occurring during the Renaissance: religious, political, and philosophical considerations played a role in defining the structure's function. We describe the history and background of these political, religious, and philosophical factors. Next, we present a translation of the original texts, describing the establishment of the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands. We place these translations into historical context and comment on their naming propriety. Initially we translate the works of the 15th century anatomists. Next, we look at the discovery and description of the submandibular gland's duct by Thomas Wharton (1614-1673) in his landmark book, Adenographia sive glandularum totius corporis descriptio (Adenographia or the description of the glands of the entire body) (1656). Next, the somewhat unexpected discovery of the duct of the parotid gland by Nicholas Stenson (1638-1686) and his publication, De glandulis oris et novis earundum vasis (On the glands of the mouth and their new ducts) (1661), done primarily for his discussion of the submandibular and sublingual gland anatomy. Finally we outline the description and discussion by Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738), in De ductu salivali, hactenus non descripto observatio anatomica (Anatomical observation of a salivary duct not hitherto described) (1685) of the origin of the complex drainage system of the sublingual gland. The honor of naming these glands rested with the discoverer of their ducts. All original works were published in Latin, and we have translated these texts to more fully understand the author's perspectives and historical context for a more interesting and complete story.


Asunto(s)
Anatomía/historia , Glándula Sublingual/anatomía & histología , Glándula Submandibular/anatomía & histología , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Humanos
8.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 5: 5, 2007 Jul 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17655761

RESUMEN

Nanotechnology in Therapeutics: Current Technology and Applications, Edited by Nicholas A. Peppas, J. Zach Hilt and J. Brock Thomas (Horizon Bioscience, 2007) contains seventeen chapters written by leading specialists in the field of polymeric materials for drug delivery and holds wealth of background as well as state of the art material divided into four sections: "Intelligent Therapeutics and Responsive Delivery Systems for Improved Absorption and Delivery", "Therapeutic Micro- and Nanodevices", "Nanostructured Therapeutic Materials" and "Nanoparticulate Systems in Intelligent Therapy". This newly published volume provides a stimulating read and a good point of reference to researchers wishing to explore the interdisciplinary fusion of nnanotechnology and medical therapeutics. The following gives brief summary and critically reviews the book.

9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14633781

RESUMEN

Major advances have occurred in our understanding of the biology, immunology, and opportunities for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in recent times. Surface antigen analysis has helped us define classical CLL and differentiate it from variants such as marginal zone leukemia, mantle cell leukemia, and prolymphocytic leukemia. An important observation has been that the B-cells in indolent types of CLL, which do not require therapy, have undergone somatic hypermutation and function as memory B-lymphocytes whereas those more likely to progress have not undergone this process. Section I by Dr. Nicholas Chiorazzi encompasses emerging elements of the new biology of CLL and will address the types of somatic hypermutation that occur in CLL cells and their correlation with other parameters such as telomere length and ZAP70 status. In addition he addresses the concept of which cells are proliferating in CLL and how we can quantitate the proliferative thrust using novel methods. The interaction between these parameters is also explored. Section II by Dr. Thomas Kipps focuses on immune biology and immunotherapy of CLL and discusses new animal models in CLL, which can be exploited to increase understanding of the disease and create new opportunities for testing the interaction of the CLL cells with a variety of elements of the immune system. It is obvious that immunotherapy is emerging as a major therapeutic modality in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Dr. Kipps addresses the present understanding of the immune status of CLL and the role of passive immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab, alemtuzumab, and emerging new antibodies. In addition the interaction between the CLL cells and the immune system, which has been exploited in gene therapy with transfection of CLL cells by CD40 ligand, is discussed. In Section III, Dr. Michael Keating examines the question "Do we have the tools to cure CLL?" and focuses on the fact that we now have three distinct modalities, which are able to achieve high quality remissions with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) negativity for the immunoglobulin heavy chain in CLL. These modalities include initial chemoimmunotherapy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab, the use of alemtuzumab for marrow cytoreduction in minimal residual disease and allogeneic bone marrow transplants. The emergence of non-ablative marrow transplants in CLL has led to the broadening of the range of opportunities to treat older patients. The addition of rituximab to the chemotherapy preparative regimens appears to be a significant advance. The combination of our increased understanding of the biology, immune status, and therapy of CLL provides for the first time the opportunity for curative strategies.


Asunto(s)
Leucemia Linfocítica Crónica de Células B/terapia , Animales , Terapia Combinada , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Humanos , Inmunoterapia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crónica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crónica de Células B/patología , Hipermutación Somática de Inmunoglobulina
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14633795

RESUMEN

Since the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001, preparation by the health care system for an act of terrorism has been mandated by leaders of governments. Scenarios for terrorist acts involving radioactive material have been identified, and approaches to management (based on past experience from atomic weapons detonations and radiation accidents) have been developed. Because of their experience in managing patients with profound cytopenia and/or marrow aplasia, hematologists will be asked to play a significant role in evaluating and treating victims of mass accidental or deliberate exposure to radiation. This review provides a framework for understanding how radiation levels are quantified, how radiation alters the function of hematopoietic (and nonhematopoietic) cells and tissues, and how victims receiving a significant radiation dose can be identified and managed. In Section I, Dr. Nicholas Dainiak reviews four components of the Acute Radiation Syndrome: the hematopoietic, neurovascular, gastrointestinal and cutaneous subsyndromes. Clinical signs and symptoms are discussed for exposed individuals at the time of initial presentation (the prodromal phase) and during their course of disease (the manifest illness). In Section II, he presents clinical and laboratory methods to assess radiation doses, including time to onset and severity of vomiting, rate of decline in absolute blood lymphocyte count and the appearance of chromosome aberrations such as dicentrics and ring forms. Potential scenarios of a radiation terrorist event are reviewed, and methods for initial clinical assessment, triage, and early management of the acute radiation syndrome and its component subsyndromes are summarized. In Section III, Dr. Jamie Waselenko reviews the hematopoietic syndrome, and presents guidelines for the use of cytokine therapy, antibiotics, and supportive care that have been developed by the Strategic National Pharmaceutical Stockpile Working Group. Results of preclinical and clinical growth factor therapy studies with G-CSF, GM-CSF, pegylated G-CSF, SCF, and IL-3 are summarized. When and how potassium iodide should be used after exposure to radioiodines is also reviewed. In Section IV, Dr. James Armitage describes a narrow "window" of 7 to 10 Gy where therapy with stem cell transplantation may be appropriate. Victims who are candidates for allotransplantation should not have major trauma or significant injury to other (nonhematopoietic) tissues. Rarely, victims may have an identical sibling or autologous stored marrow or blood stem cells, in which case the threshold for transplantation is 4 Gy. In Section V, Dr. Thomas MacVittie describes new directions for therapy, using cytokines such as IL-7, keratinocyte growth factor, and FLT-3. The potential for combinations of cytokines to enhance hematopoietic recovery is also reviewed.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Hematológicas/etiología , Traumatismos por Radiación/complicaciones , Traumatismos por Radiación/terapia , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Citocinas/uso terapéutico , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas , Sistema Hematopoyético/efectos de la radiación , Humanos , Sistema Inmunológico/efectos de la radiación , Dosis de Radiación , Traumatismos por Radiación/patología
11.
Womens Writ ; 8(2): 201-12, 2001.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20196248

RESUMEN

Early modern midwifery manuals in Britain were usually the work of men. These books were a significant source of information about the body to the wider reading public: many sold well, and their prefatory materials include injunctions to readers not to make improper use of them. What is particularly interesting about Jane Sharp's Midwives Book (1671) is that it both provides a compendium of current beliefs concerning reproduction, and indicates the author's ironic perception of the misogyny that underpinned accepted ideas about the female reproductive body. This article gives key examples of Sharp's interventions, and also refers to Thomas Bartholin, Bartholinus Anatomy (1688); Richard Bunworth, The Doctresse (1656); Hugh Chamberlen, The Accomplisht Midwife (1673); The Compleat Midwifes Practice (1656); Helkiah Crooke, Microcosmographia (1615); Nicholas Culpeper, A Directory for Midwives (1651); Jacques Guillemeau, Childbirth (1612); Jean Riolan, A Sure Guide (1657); Daniel Sennert, Practical Physick (1664); William Sermon, The Ladies Companion (1671); and Percival Willughby, Observations in Midwifery (c. 1675).


Asunto(s)
Cuerpo Humano , Manuales como Asunto , Partería , Condiciones Sociales , Salud de la Mujer , Mujeres Trabajadoras , Inglaterra/etnología , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Historia del Siglo XVII , Humanos , Partería/economía , Partería/educación , Partería/historia , Espacio Personal , Embarazo , Condiciones Sociales/economía , Condiciones Sociales/historia , Políticas de Control Social/economía , Políticas de Control Social/historia , Mujeres/educación , Mujeres/historia , Mujeres/psicología , Salud de la Mujer/economía , Salud de la Mujer/etnología , Salud de la Mujer/historia , Salud de la Mujer/legislación & jurisprudencia , Mujeres Trabajadoras/educación , Mujeres Trabajadoras/historia , Mujeres Trabajadoras/legislación & jurisprudencia , Mujeres Trabajadoras/psicología
12.
Toxicol Sci ; 56(2): 251-2, 2000 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10910979

RESUMEN

The article highlighted in this issue is "Bisphenol A-Induced Increase in Uterine Weight and Alterations in Uterine Morphology in Ovariectomized B6C3F1 Mice: Role of the Estrogen Receptor" by Andriana D. Papaconstantinou, Thomas H. Umbreit, Benjamin R. Fisher, Peter L. Goering, Nicholas T. Lappas, and Ken M. Brown (pp. 332-339).


Asunto(s)
Glándulas Endocrinas/efectos de los fármacos , Estrógenos no Esteroides/toxicidad , Fenoles/toxicidad , Animales , Compuestos de Bencidrilo , Humanos , Ratones
13.
Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) ; 290(6469): 681-4, 1985 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3918715

RESUMEN

The problem of scientific fraud has been used to indict the whole system of science. The response of the scientific community has been understandably heated but insufficient. The discussion seems to have reached an impasse as both parties in the dispute share mistaken views. A switch is needed to a framework in which the democratic foundation of the scientific society and the free spirit of scientific inquiry can be preserved.


KIE: Prometheus here is modern science, which in recent years has been rocked by revelations of major research fraud. In their 1982 book, Betrayers of the Truth, William Broad and Nicholas Wade claimed that the process of scientific inquiry encourages dishonesty. Laor challenges their assumptions and their solutions, as well as those of three influential scientific philosophers who have written about error and deceit: Francis Bacon, Paul K. Feyerabend, and Thomas S. Kuhn. He endorses Karl Popper's view of the scientific method, which creates progress from the identification of error, and Joseph Agassi's insistence on democratic science and public discussion. Laor concludes that the scientific community must recognize the inevitability of human fallibility, and determine what role it plays in research.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Crimen , Fraude , Ciencia , Políticas Editoriales , Humanos , Revisión por Pares/normas , Edición/normas , Investigación/normas
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