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1.
Chemosphere ; 274: 129712, 2021 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529950

RESUMEN

Although use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) has been banned or severely limited on a global basis, concerning concentrations continue to be reported in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. These habitats often support high levels of unique biodiversity and vulnerable communities that depend on the environment for their survival. We investigated threats associated with OCP contamination at Lake St Lucia, a global hotspot for biodiversity and a UNESCO World Heritage Site in South Africa. Lake St Lucia is sustained largely by surface runoff from catchment areas where significant quantities of OCPs have historically been used in agriculture and where DDT continues to be used for disease control. Sediments (n = 40) collected from the two largest fluvial inputs to Lake St Lucia showed that these rivers represent important sources of contaminants, with ∑OCP concentrations ranging between 74 and 510 ng g-1. Measured HCH, dieldrin, ∑DDT and ∑chlor concentrations exceeded NOAA sediment toxicity guidelines in the majority of samples analysed. Bioaccumulation was assessed by examining residue concentrations in muscle tissues from two abundant fish species from Lake St Lucia. OCPs were detected in all samples analysed, with total concentrations ranging 860-5000 ng g-1 lw and 390-3200 ng g-1 lw for Oreochromis mossambicus (n = 17) and Clarias gariepinus (n = 41), respectively. A health risk assessment indicated potential dietary risk associated with exposure to aldrin, dieldrin and heptachlor, although the cumulative effect of OCPs on human health, ecosystem biodiversity and long-term ecotourism sustainability remains unknown.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 389, 2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607975

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Late antiretroviral treatment initiation for HIV disease worsens health outcomes and contributes to ongoing transmission. We investigated whether socioeconomic inequalities exist in access to treatment in a setting with universal access to care and treatment. METHODS: This study investigated the association of educational level, used as a proxy for socioeconomic status, with late treatment initiation and treatment initiation with advanced disease. Study participants included adults (≥25 years) who started treatment from 2005 to 2018 at Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas of Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (INI/FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Educational level was categorized following UNESCO's International Standard Classification of Education: incomplete basic education, basic education, secondary level, and tertiary level. We defined late treatment initiation as those initiating treatment with a CD4 < 350 cells/mL or an AIDS-defining event, and treatment initiation with advanced disease as those initiating treatment with a CD4 < 200 cells/mL or an AIDS-defining event. A directed acyclic graph (DAG) was constructed to represent the theoretical-operational model and to understand the involvement of covariates. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Multiple imputation using a chained equations approach was used to treat missing values and non-linear terms for continuous variables were tested. RESULTS: In total, 3226 individuals composed the study population: 876 (27.4%) had incomplete basic education, 540 (16.9%) basic, 1251 (39.2%) secondary level, and 525 (16.4%) tertiary level. Late treatment initiation was observed for 2076 (64.4%) while treatment initiation with advanced disease was observed for 1423 (44.1%). Compared to tertiary level of education, incomplete basic, basic and secondary level increased the odds of late treatment initiation by 89% (aOR:1.89 95%CI:1.47-2.43), 61% (aOR:1.61 95%CI:1.23-2.10), and 35% (aOR:1.35 95%CI:1.09-1.67). Likewise, the odds of treatment initiation with advanced disease was 2.5-fold (aOR:2.53 95%CI:1.97-3.26), 2-fold (aOR:2.07 95%CI:1.59-2.71), 1.5-fold (aOR:1.51 95%CI:1.21-1.88) higher for those with incomplete basic, basic and secondary level education compared to tertiary level. CONCLUSION: Despite universal access to HIV care and antiretroviral treatment, late treatment initiation and social inequalities persist. Lower educational level significantly increased the odds of both outcomes, reinforcing the existence of barriers to "universal" antiretroviral treatment.

3.
J Environ Manage ; 284: 112026, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540200

RESUMEN

The coastal aquifers of Sundarbans, an UNESCO world biodiversity heritage site, are highly vulnerable due to changing climatic conditions, intensification and increasing frequency of extreme climate events and uncontrolled abstraction of groundwater. The exchange of solutes between hydraulically connective shallow and deep aquifers, the seawater intrusion and the role of growing population are poorly understood in the Sundarbans. This study aims to address the solute exchange (Cl-, Sr2+, and salinity) process between surface water and groundwater (SW-GW) at local to regional scale under variable hydraulic head conditions, where annual rainfall is declining and population density is increasing [population 573 (1991) to 819 (2011)/Km2]. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) in combination with salinity and δ18O data was used to address the exchange of solutes between SW-GW in a hydraulic continuation. The results revealed that regionally, the Cl- concentration of Sundarbans shows an increasing trend (average 329-351 mg/L) with declining groundwater levels (⁓3 m). Local, depth-dependent study depicting there is a predominant exchange of Sr2+ between shallow depth [D1: 14-25 and D2: 30-50 m below ground level (m bgl)] with seawater (Sr2+: 30-85 µM), which is possibly absent at greater depths (D3:115 and D4: 333 m bgl). The recorded Sr2+ content ranged from 25 to 102 and 16 to 78 µM for shallow depth D1 and D2, respectively, whereas, the Sr2+ concentrations ranged from 1.4 to 6.8 and 1.2 to 5.7 µM for D3 and D4, respectively. The ERT data showed progressively increasing resistivity with increasing depth, similar to high salinity and enriched δ18O at shallow depths and depleted δ18O with low salinity at higher depth reflects the continuous distribution of solutes, which is possibly a result of local downward migration of contaminated shallow brackish water within this physically disconnected zone. The lateral and vertical transportation of solutes in variable hydraulic head conditions would be a measure of drinking water threat in present-day and in imminent future for millions of inhabitants near the coastal area.

4.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(3): 717-732, 2021 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558092

RESUMEN

The year 2020 celebrated the tenth anniversary of the recognition of the Mediterranean Diet as Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by the UNESCO Intergovernmental Committee. This event represented a milestone in the history of nutrition, as the Mediterranean diet was the first traditional food practice to receive such award. Since then, a lot has been discussed not only on the beneficial aspects of the Mediterranean diet, but also on its complex role as a lifestyle model that includes a set of skills, knowledge and intercultural dialogue. This process ended up with the recognition in 2019 of Mediterranean diet as a possibly universal model of healthy diet from the EAT-Lancet Commission. These concepts were widely debated at the 2019 "Ancel Keys" International Seminar, held in Ascea (Italy) (for more information see: www.mediterraneandietseminar.org) with the aim to stimulate interest and awareness of a young group of participants on the current problems inherent to the effective implementation of the Mediterranean diet. The present article collects the contributions of several lecturers at the Seminar on key issues such as methodological and experimental approach, sustainability, molecular aspects in disease prevention, future exploitation, without neglecting a historical view of the Seven Countries Study. From the Seminar conclusions emerged a still vibrant and modern role of Mediterranean diet. The years to come will see national and international efforts to reduce the barriers that limit adherence to Mediterranean diet in order to plan for multi-factorial and targeted interventions that would guide our populations to a sustainable healthy living.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 276: 116734, 2021 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621733

RESUMEN

Seabirds are apex predators in the marine environment and well-known ecosystem engineers, capable of changing their terrestrial habitats by introducing marine-derived nutrients via deposition of guano and other allochthonous inputs. However, with the health of the world's oceans under threat due to anthropogenic pressures such as organic, inorganic, and physical pollutants, seabirds are depositing these same pollutants wherever they come to land. Using data from 2018 to 2020, we quantify how the Flesh-footed Shearwater (Ardenna carneipes) has inadvertently introduced physical pollutants to their colonies on Lord Howe Island, a UNESCO World Heritage site in the Tasman Sea and their largest breeding colony, through a mix of regurgitated pellet (bolus) deposition and carcasses containing plastic debris. The density of plastics within the shearwater colonies ranged between 1.32 and 3.66 pieces/m2 (mean ± SE: 2.18 ± 0.32), and a total of 688,480 (95% CI: 582,409-800,877) pieces are deposited on the island each year. Our research demonstrates that seabirds are a transfer mechanism for marine-derived plastics, reintroducing items back into the terrestrial environment, thus making seabird colonies a sink for plastic debris. This phenomenon is likely occurring in seabird colonies across the globe and will increase in severity as global plastic production and marine plastic pollution accelerates without adequate mitigation strategies.

6.
Environ Manage ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547485

RESUMEN

The groundwater sustainability of an alluvial aquifer in the western Iran was examined by using eight different social, economic, and environmental indicators. Differing types of indicators were used including groundwater extraction, groundwater quality, and groundwater vulnerability from the environmental indicators proposed by UNESCO 2007 and the legal framework, institutional capacity, public participation, knowledge generation, and promotion and water productivity from five researcher-developed indicators. A questionnaire and an AHP analysis were used to assess groundwater sustainability in the Mahidasht aquifer. Using AHP method, the indicators were formulated as spatial thematic maps resulting in calculation of the groundwater sustainability index (GSI). Then, the final GSI was divided into four categories, including sustainable, near sustainable, unsustainable, and highly or critically unsustainable. The AHP results showed that most parts of the study area are contained within the unsustainable category. The questionnaire method also showed that the study area with the score of 1.47 belongs within the unsustainable category. The validation of AHP results indicated 97% of the area had more than 1-m of drawdown in the groundwater level and 62% of it had more than 10-m of decline in the water level. The results showed that different socio-economic and environmental indicators can provide a helpful overview of groundwater sustainability conditions for future planning and decision-making in water management. Few studies of water management using socio-economic indicators have been conducted in Iran, Therefore this study provides a novel method of groundwater sustainability assessment by using the concepts of sustainable development, and integrated spatial indicators.

7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562014

RESUMEN

The so-called Mediterranean diet is not simply a collection of foodstuffs but an expression of the culture of the countries of the south of Europe, declared Intangible Cultural Heritage by UNESCO. Despite the link between food and culture, little has been studied about how diet contributes to the well-being of the population. This article aims to analyze the association between subjective well-being and the eating habits of the Spanish population in order to gain a better understanding of the subjective well-being that food culture produces. For this study, we used a representative sample of the Spanish adult population from a survey by the Sociological Research Center (CIS 2017). Three indicators of subjective well-being were used: perceived health, life satisfaction, and feeling of happiness. The independent variables relating to eating habits considered in the analysis were, among others, how often meat, fish, vegetables, fruit, and sweets were consumed; how the food was prepared; how often meals were eaten out at restaurants or cafés and how often they were eaten with family or friends. Other independent variables related to lifestyle habits were also included in the analysis, in particular, physical exercise and body mass index. We used ordinal logistic regressions and multiple linear regression models. Our findings coincide in large measure with those obtained in earlier studies where perceived health and income play a key role in evaluating subjective well-being. In turn, several variables related to lifestyle habits, such as consuming sweets and fruits, social interaction around meals, exercising, and body mass index, were also associated with subjective well-being.

8.
Hist Sci ; : 73275320987428, 2021 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583221

RESUMEN

In recent years historians have revisited the creation of the United Nations (UN) system by highlighting the enduring influence of Empire and recognizing the substantial role of cultural and scientific actors in wartime international diplomacy. The British biochemist Joseph Needham, who participated in the creation of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), was one of them. Yet, if historians have recognized his role as the leading architect of the sciences at UNESCO, they still fall short of engaging with the Chinese and imperial geography of his involvement with UNESCO. During the Second World War, Needham was stationed in war-torn China. As director of the Sino-British Scientific Cooperation Office, Needham not only organized Sino-British scientific cooperation against the Japanese invasion, but his mission inspired his engagement for a reform of international science and fueled an international campaign that led him to become the director of UNESCO's Natural Science division after the war. By reconstructing his campaign in context, this article seeks to demonstrate how the imperial and transnational scientific networks of the wartime era fostered the creation of a scientific mandate for UNESCO. It situates Needham's activism and ideas in the context of the Sino-Japanese war, imperial wartime technocracy, and China's scientific nationalism. In so doing, it reveals a string of forgotten partners from China and the British Empire. Their conception of a reorganized international science and shared belief in modern science and its ideal of universality shaped Needham's vision for science at UNESCO, while their activism contributed decisively to the success of his campaign. This inquiry hence participates in recent efforts to challenge the existing Eurocentrism corseting the historiography of the UN and expands the historiography of scientific internationalism beyond Europe and North America. Importantly, it also contributes to uncovering the technocratic ties established between Empire and the UN system from its onset.

9.
Hist Sci ; : 73275321991288, 2021 Feb 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573403

RESUMEN

From 17 to 22 October 1955, Madrid hosted the UNESCO Festival of Science. In the early years of the Cold War, in a dictatorial country that had recently been admitted into the international community, the festival aimed to spread science to the public through displays of scientific instruments, public lectures, book exhibitions, science writers professional associations, and debates about the use of different media. In this context, foreign visitors, many of whom came from liberal democracies, seemed comfortable in the capital of a country ruled by a dictatorship that had survived after the defeat of fascism in the Second World War and was struggling to gain foreign recognition after years of isolation.This article analyzes the political role of science popularization in Madrid at that time. It approaches the apparently puzzling marriage between UNESCO's international agenda for peace and democracy and the interests of the Francoist elites. Shared views of technocratic modernity, the fight against communism, and a diplomacy that served Spanish nationalism, paved the way for the alliance.

10.
Talanta ; 225: 121955, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592710

RESUMEN

Pasta is a key element of the Mediterranean Diet and it has been declared by Unesco intangible cultural heritage of humanity. Despite seems a simple food, only made of semolina and water, pasta is produced following a multi-step process that strongly affect the final product. Drying stage is the one that has the greater influence on its organoleptic/nutritional characteristics. This study aimed to analyse the flavour of pasta to test whether the different drying treatments (High Temperature-Short time or Low Temperature-Long time) have a direct impact on its composition and consequently whether they could influence the end-product quality. The headspace solid-phase microextraction was optimized using an experimental design and 52 samples were analysed by HS-SPME/GC-MS and classified by PLS-DA. The resulting classification model (validated by repeated double cross-validation and permutation tests) allowed correctly predicting more than 80% of samples, confirming that drying may have a significant impact on pasta flavour.

11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557443

RESUMEN

This article illustrates a data acquisition methodological process based on Structure from Motion (SfM) processing confronted with terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) and integrated into a Historic Building Information Model (HBIM) for architectural Heritage's management. This process was developed for the documentation of Cáceres' Almohad wall bordering areas, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The case study's aim was the analysis, management and control of a large urban area where the urban growth had absorbed the wall, making it physically inaccessible. The methodology applied was the combination of: clouds and meshes obtained by SfM; with images acquired from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and Single Lens Reflex (SLR) and terrestrial photogrammetry; and finally, with clouds obtained by TLS. The outcome was a smart-high-quality three-dimensional study model of the inaccessible urban area. The final result was two-fold. On one side, there was a methodological result, a low cost and accurate smart work procedure to obtain a three-dimensional parametric HBIM model that integrates models obtained by remote sensing. On the other side, a patrimonial result involved the discovery of a XII century wall's section, that had supposedly been lost, that was hidden among the residential buildings. The article covers the survey campaign carried out by the research team and the techniques applied.

12.
Seizure ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531200

RESUMEN

The importance of engaging the next generation in broad ranging initiatives cannot be over emphasized. This is reflected by a proliferation of publications related to next-generation, training, and healthcare professionals or scientists, with almost 2000 articles published in the last 30 years, showing a marked increase in the previous two decades. Several multilateral organizations, such as the United Nations, UNESCO and the World Health Organization, have recognized the importance of engaging youth in the global agenda. Accordingly, in 2017 The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) created organizational entities focused on epilepsy and the next generation of epilepsy professionals. At the core of these is the ILAE Young Epilepsy Section (YES). Its mission is to create a new generation of epilepsy experts poised to discover and deliver state-of-the-art care for people with epilepsy well into the future, with several initiatives worldwide, including education, research collaborations, and advocacy tasks, among others. The Latin American Summer School on Epilepsy, which turns 15 in 2021, has been a steady source of early career epilepsy professional participating in YES, who are moving forward the epilepsy agenda in Latin America.

13.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21251155

RESUMEN

IntroductionIn response to the COVID-19 pandemic, school closures were implemented across the United Kingdom. This study aimed to explore the impact of school closures on childrens health by comparing health and wellbeing outcomes collected during school closures (April - June 2020) with data from the same period in 2019 and 2018. MethodsData were collected online via the HAPPEN At Home survey, which captured the typical health behaviours of children aged 8 - 11 years between April - June 2020. These data were compared with data in 2018 and 2019 also collected between April-June, from HAPPEN. Free school meal (FSM) status was used as a proxy for socio-economic deprivation. Analyses were repeated stratifying by FSM. ResultsComparing responses between April - June in 2020 (n=1068), 2019 (n=1150) and 2018 (n=475), there were improvements in physical activity levels, sleep time, happiness and general wellbeing for children during school closures compared to previous years. However, children on FSM ate less fruit and vegetables (21% (95%CI (5.7% to 37%)) and had lower self-assessed school competence compared to 2019. Compared to those not on FSM they also spent less time doing physical activity (13.03% (95%CI: 3.3% to 21.7%) and consumed more takeaways (16.3% (95%CI: 2%-30%)) during school closures. ConclusionThis study suggests that schools play an important role in reducing inequalities in physical health. The physical health (e.g. physical activity and diet) of children eligible for FSM may be impacted by prolonged school closures. What is already known on this subject?In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, by mid-March 2020, 138 countries had implemented national school closures to reduce the number of social contacts between pupils, therefore interrupting the transmission of COVID-19 as part of pandemic plans. UNESCO warned that the global scale and speed of the educational disruption would be unparalleled. There is an ongoing debate with regard to the effectiveness of schools closures on transmission rates, but the fact schools are closed for a long period of time could have detrimental impacts on pupils physical and mental health. This study provides evidence of any differences in the health and wellbeing of children prior to and during the COVID-19 enforced lockdown and school closures between March and June 2020. These findings could have a significant impact for the future and support schools to better understand their pupils physical, psychological, emotional and social health. It also contributes to a significant literature gap regarding the impact of school closures on school-aged children. What this study adds?Improvements in physical activity levels, sleep time, happiness and general wellbeing were observed in general for children during school closures compared to previous years. However, children on FSM reported eating less fruit and vegetables and had lower self-assessed school competence compared to 2019. Compared to those not on FSM they also spent less time doing physical activity and consumed more takeaways during school closures. These trends are not evident among children not on FSM. All children reported improvements in wellbeing during lockdown especially on the happiness with family measure. Overall, findings suggest schools help to reduce inequalities in physical health for socio-economically deprived children. During school closures children from deprived backgrounds are likely to have poorer physical health (e.g. less time spent doing physical activities and poorer diet) and this is not observed in children who are not in receipt of FSM. This research suggests that school closures will result in widening health inequalities and when schools return measures will need to be in place to readdress the widened gap in physical health.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1277, 2021 Jan 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446722

RESUMEN

The Galápagos archipelago, rising from the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean some 900 km off the South American mainland, hosts an iconic and globally significant biological hotspot. The islands are renowned for their unique wealth of endemic species, which inspired Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and today underpins one of the largest UNESCO World Heritage Sites and Marine Reserves on Earth. The regional ecosystem is sustained by strongly seasonal oceanic upwelling events-upward surges of cool, nutrient-rich deep waters that fuel the growth of the phytoplankton upon which the entire ecosystem thrives. Yet despite its critical life-supporting role, the upwelling's controlling factors remain undetermined. Here, we use a realistic model of the regional ocean circulation to show that the intensity of upwelling is governed by local northward winds, which generate vigorous submesoscale circulations at upper-ocean fronts to the west of the islands. These submesoscale flows drive upwelling of interior waters into the surface mixed layer. Our findings thus demonstrate that Galápagos upwelling is controlled by highly localized atmosphere-ocean interactions, and call for a focus on these processes in assessing and mitigating the regional ecosystem's vulnerability to 21st-century climate change.

15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405131

RESUMEN

The coastal and subcoastal areas of west-central Morocco (Safi to Draa River, the Souss Valley, and the southern part of the western High Atlas and northern and southern slopes of the western Anti-Atlas) are characterized by typical Infra-Mediterranean vegetation ranking them amongst the important of the remarkable borderlands of North Africa. The flora is determined by complex historical and environmental factors occurring since the Tertiary period. The originality of this sector is due to the presence of the argan tree (Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels), Moroccan gum (Acacia gummifera Willd), olive trees (Olea europaea L. subsp. maroccana (Greuter & Burdet) P. Vargas & al.), a thermophilic flora adapted to an arid climate with several endemic species. This flora constitutes the final barrier against the desert and is of environmental and socioeconomical interest. Leaves and fruits provide forage material, while wood is used for fuel. Argan fruits are collected for their oily constitutes and for nutritional, cosmetic, and medicinal properties. Additionally, many species of Argan ecosystems are used in medicine and cosmetics. Recognizing its ecological value and local economic importance, the Argan region was declared a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 1998. Despite their biogeographical, historical, and socioeconomic value, vegetation structures in west-central Morocco are vulnerable and threatened by human activities. They exhibit high levels of degradation due to increasing clearance, overgrazing, and overexploitation. The area requires high conservation priority and sustainable management strategies for key species and genetic diversity.

16.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(2): 203-205, 2021 02 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502840

RESUMEN

Bacterial coinfection in COVID-19 patients has the potential to complicate treatments and accelerate the development of antibiotic resistance in the clinic due to the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, including in Indonesia. The surge of COVID-19 patients may worsen antibiotic overuse; therefore, information on the actual extent of bacterial coinfection in COVID-19 patients in Indonesia is crucial to inform appropriate treatment. This Viewpoint elaborates on a nascent research project focused on sequencing of swab samples to detect bacterial coinfection in COVID-19 patients in Indonesia. Supported by a L'Oréal-UNESCO For Women in Science National Fellowship, it is designed to inform better clinical management of COVID-19 in Indonesia.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones Bacterianas/virología , Coinfección/microbiología , Coinfección/virología , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , /terapia , Coinfección/tratamiento farmacológico , Coinfección/epidemiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Humanos , Indonesia , /aislamiento & purificación
17.
Conserv Biol ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448452

RESUMEN

Africa contains much of Earth's biological and cultural-linguistic diversity, but conserving this diversity faces enormous challenges amid widespread poverty, expanding development, social unrest, and rapidly growing human population. Here we examine UNESCO Natural World Heritage Sites (WHSs) on continental Africa and nearby islands-48 protected areas containing globally important natural or combined natural and cultural resources-to gauge the potential for enlisting Indigenous peoples in their conservation. Using geographic information system technology to identify instances where Natural WHSs co-occur with Indigenous languages, a key indicator of cultural diversity, we find that 147 languages share at least part of their geographic extent with these important reserves. Instances of co-occurrence where a WHS, a language, or both are endangered mark localities particularly deserving conservation attention. Analyses of geographic ranges for four taxa and selected freshwater species with respect to Natural WHSs and subsections of WHSs covered by the geographic extent of Indigenous languages indicate high co-occurrence as well as a correlation between linguistic and biological diversity that may mark fundamental links between them. Focusing on endangered species, or endangered languages and species, reduces that correlation, though considerable co-occurrence persists. We examine potential models for involving local people in protected area conservation, identifying shared governance of government-designated reserves as applicable for Natural WHSs. The paper concludes that Natural WHSs in Africa containing speakers of Indigenous languages present opportunities to conserve both nature and culture in highly visible settings where maintaining natural systems may rely on functioning Indigenous cultural systems, and vice versa. Article Impact Statement: Indigenous language occurrence in high-profile reserves in Africa argues for coordinated conservation of nature and culture at these sites. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

18.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(6)2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452019

RESUMEN

Photosynthetic cave communities ("lampenflora") proliferate in Carlsbad Cavern and other show caves worldwide due to artificial lighting. These biofilms mar the esthetics and can degrade underlying cave surfaces. The National Park Service recently modernized the lighting in Carlsbad Cavern to a light-emitting diode (LED) system that allows adjustment of the color temperature and intensity. We hypothesized that lowering the color temperature would reduce photopigment development. We therefore assessed lampenflora responses to changes in lighting by monitoring photosynthetic communities over the course of a year. We measured photopigments using reflected-light spectrophotometric observations and analyzed microbial community composition with 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Reflected-light spectrophotometry revealed that photosynthetic biofilm development is affected by lighting intensity, color temperature, substrate type, and cleaning of the substrate. Gene sequencing showed that the most abundant phototrophs were Cyanobacteria and members of the algal phyla Chlorophyta and Ochrophyta At the end of the study, visible growth of lampenflora was seen at all sites. At sites that had no established biofilm at the start of the study period, Cyanobacteria became abundant and outpaced an increase in eukaryotic algae. Microbial diversity also increased over time at these sites, suggesting a possible pattern of early colonization and succession. Bacterial community structure showed significant effects of all variables: color temperature, light intensity, substrate type, site, and previous cleaning of the substrate. These findings provide fundamental information that can inform management practices; they suggest that altering lighting conditions alone may be insufficient to prevent lampenflora growth.IMPORTANCE Artificial lighting in caves visited by tourists ("show caves") can stimulate photosynthetic algae and cyanobacteria, called "lampenflora," which are unsightly and damage speleothems and other cave surfaces. The most common mitigation strategy employs bleach, but altering intensities and wavelengths of light might be effective and less harsh. Carlsbad Cavern in New Mexico, a U.S. National Park and UNESCO World Heritage Site, has visible lampenflora despite adjustment of LED lamps to decrease the energetic blue light. This study characterized the lampenflora communities and tested the effects of color temperature, light intensity, rock or sediment texture, and time on lampenflora development. DNA amplicon sequence data show a variety of algae and cyanobacteria and also heterotrophic bacteria. This study reveals microbial dynamics during colonization of artificially lit surfaces and indicates that while lowering the color temperature may have an effect, management of lampenflora will likely require additional chemical or UV treatment.

19.
J Relig Health ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507466

RESUMEN

In the development of the Universal Declarations of Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR) of UNESCO, the Protestant tradition did not participate in the conversation. This treatise is a humble contribution. The global community is convinced that the present generation can have a positive and negative impact on future generations. Article 16 of the UDBHR expresses serious concern about the negative impact of technology in the context of the human, animal and plant genome in particular, as well as the environment in general. The Protestant concept of the covenant provides a solid theological grounding for article 16 of the UDBHR. In light of this reasoning, article 16 of the UDBHR, which has the purpose of promoting the health of future generations, can fully be defended by Protestant ethics and included in the prophetic message of the Protestant faith tradition.

20.
Chemosphere ; : 129119, 2020 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280849

RESUMEN

Among the diverse archeological relics of the past, the Cartagena de Indias Wall is one of the greatest representations of European cultural architecture in South America. To assess the implication of contamination on the depreciation of the culturally significant Wall of Cartagena de Indias - Colombia, a detailed, multi-analytical approach was conducted on components of the wall. Accumulated ultra-fine particles (UFPs) and superficial nano-particles (NPs) containing hazardous elements (HEs) on the wall were identified in an attempt to understand whether atmospheric pollution is hastening the depreciation of the structure itself. Mortar which at one point held the stones together is now weak and has fallen away in places. Irreparable damage is being done by salt spray, acid rain and the site's tropical humid climate. Several HEs and organic compounds found within the local environment are also contributing to the gradual deterioration of the construction. In this study, advanced microscopy analyses have been applied to understand the properties of UFPs and NPs deposited onto the wall's weathered external walls through exposure to atmospheric pollution. Several materials identified by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) can be detected using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The presence of anglesite, gypsum, hematite containing HEs, and several organic compounds modified due to moisture and contamination was found. Black crusts located on the structure could potentially serve as a source of HEs pollution and a probable hazard to not only to the ecosystem but also to human health.

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