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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6789, 2021 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762622

RESUMEN

The Leishmaniases are a group of neglected tropical diseases caused by different species of the protozoan parasite Leishmania, transmitted to its mammalian hosts by the bites of several species of female Phlebotominae sand flies. Many factors have contributed to shifts in the disease distribution and eco epidemiological outcomes, resulting in the emergence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis outbreaks and the incrimination of vectors in unreported regions. New research development is vital for establishing the new paradigms of the present transmission cycles, hoping to facilitate new control strategies to reduce parasite transmission. Hereafter, this work aims to model and infer the current transmission cycles of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia defined by vector and mammal species distributed and interacting in the different regions and validate them by performing sand fly and mammal collections. Vector-host co-occurrences were computed considering five ecoregions of the Colombian territory defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and downloaded from The Nature Conservancy TNC Maps website. Four validation sites were selected based on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis prevalence reports. Sand flies and mammals captured in the field were processed, and species were defined using conventional taxonomic guidelines. Detection of infection by Leishmania was performed to identify transmission cycles in the selected areas. This study uses predictive models based on available information from international gazetteers and fieldwork to confirm sand fly and mammalian species' sustaining Leishmania transmission cycles. Our results show an uneven distribution of mammal samples in Colombia, possibly due to sampling bias, since only two departments contributed 50% of the available samples. Bats were the vertebrates with the highest score values, suggesting substantial spatial overlap with sand flies than the rest of the vertebrates evaluated. Fieldwork allowed identifying three circulating Leishmania species, isolated from three sand fly species. In the Montane Forest ecosystem, one small marsupial, Gracilinanus marica, was found infected with Leishmania panamensis, constituting the first record of this species infected with Leishmania. In the same locality, an infected sand fly, Pintomyia pia, was found. The overall results could support the understanding of the current transmission cycles of Leishmaniasis in Colombia.

2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492592

RESUMEN

To analyze the cumulative risks to the water environment, the backpropagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN), a self-adapting algorithm, was proposed in this study. A new comprehensive indicator of cumulative risks was formed by combining the water risk assessment tool proposed by the World Wide Fund for Nature or World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Deutsche Investitions und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH (DEG), and the cumulative environmental risk assessment system proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Eleven training algorithms were selected and optimized based on the mean square error (MSE) of prediction results. Data concerning evaluating indicators and cumulative risk indexes of the Liao River collected from 2005 to 2017 in the cities of Tieling, Shenyang, and Panjin, China, were used as input and output data to train, validate, and test the BP-ANN. Levenberg Marquardt backpropagation was the most accurate algorithm, with an MSE of 3.33 × 10-6. After optimization, there were six hidden layers in the model. The correlation coefficient of the BP-ANN with LM exceeded 80%. These findings suggest that the BP-ANN model is applicable to prediction of cumulative risks to the water environment. The model was sensitive to the number of wastewater treatment facilities and the wastewater treatment rate along the river. Based on the sensitivity analysis, the contributing factors can be controlled to reduce the cumulative risk.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 757: 144188, 2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316512

RESUMEN

This special issue of STOTEN is dedicated to presenting the results of the WWF-Australia "Rivers to Reef to Turtles" project, which focused on investigating pollutants in the environment, food and bodies of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The project brought together organic and inorganic trace chemical analysis, bioanalytical tools and individual health monitoring to investigate potential causes of an unusual mortality event in 2012. Together, the ten studies in this special issue highlight the shortcomings of current chemical monitoring and impact assessment programmes, which are focused on a limited number of prioritised chemicals and fail to account for the incredible diversity of toxicants released by human activities. It is essential that future management efforts consider the impact of these contaminants on the GBR, already under threat from global warming and sediment and nutrient runoff. Understanding the impact that chemical contaminants have on turtles not only informs green turtle conservation but can also, as they are sensitive and long-lived bioindicators of environmental health, guide efforts to protect, conserve and restore marine ecosystems such as the GBR.


Asunto(s)
Tortugas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Australia , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
4.
Food Chem ; 338: 128120, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091998

RESUMEN

The kneading step of wholewheat flour (WWF) dough was monitored using low-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The tested variables were kneading time and total water content. Two 1H Free induction decay (FID) (A and B) and four 1H T2 Car-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) (C, D, E and F) proton populations were observed and the attribution to the different proton domains was made based on the literature and data acquisition. Kneading time significantly increased the mobility and the relative abundance of popA, the relative abundance and strength of protons of popC, D and E, while significantly reducing the relative amount of popF and increasing its mobility. This evolution of the proton populations during kneading was interpreted as chemical/physical transformations of the flour constituents. The use of WWF may reveal the changes in molecular dynamics underlying the higher water requirements of unrefined doughs, often associated with improved bread quality.


Asunto(s)
Pan/análisis , Culinaria , Harina/análisis , Espectroscopía de Protones por Resonancia Magnética , Triticum/química , Agua/análisis , Factores de Tiempo
5.
J Environ Manage ; : 111614, 2020 Nov 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223354

RESUMEN

Conservation's capacity to deal with anthropogenic environmental threats within Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) varies enormously, especially in developing countries that are often immersed in weak enforcement, ineffective management and shortages of resources. A deeper understanding of the causes of these threats is fundamental for identifying effective management solutions. Here, we investigate the presumptive drivers of environmental threats across 40 Brazilian MPAs. We categorized and quantified environmental threats from two independent sources: i) the results of systematic social surveys carried out as part of WWF's RAPPAM assessment, as primary data source, and; ii) data gathered from news media articles related to the MPAs (secondary data source). We identified 461 reports of threats that we classified into three general categories: overexploitation, urbanization and land use threats. The presence of overexploitation threats was strongly associated with extreme poverty of local communities close to the MPAs. Threats also seem to be more frequent in category V MPAs, which in Brazil are Environmental Protection Areas (EPA), with multiple use objectives. Threats were concentrated on the North and Southeast coasts of Brazil. We found that data from news media can be used for qualitative assessment of threats, but has limited potential for quantification. Our findings highlight the need for policy makers and MPA managers to adopt a broader perspective that considers the role of social inequalities in promoting and exacerbating environmental threats. While recognizing that conservation has limited capacity to address the widespread social inequalities found in many tropical developing countries, if the socioeconomic context of local communities is significantly compromising conservation efforts it may be necessary to target and prioritize social interventions as a prerequisite for effective MPA management and governance.

6.
Int J Food Sci ; 2020: 8834960, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083447

RESUMEN

Whole foods are generally considered healthier choices compared to processed foods. For nutritional consideration, whole wheat bread is recommended over the white bread. However, it has a similarly high effect on glycemic response (GR) as the white bread. This study is aimed at assessing the microstructure of whole wheat flour (WWF), white flour (WF), chickpea flour (BF), their blends, and dough and the GR of the bread made thereof. Scanning electron microscope analysis showed clear distinctions in the microstructure of the three flours. WWF particle size distribution had the widest spread with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 1.0 (±0.0) and wider average diameter, with z value of 1679.5 (±156.3) compared with the particle size of 658.9 (±160.4) and PDI of 0.740 (±0.04) for WF followed by BF with the particle size of 394.1 (±54.9) and PDI of 0.388 (±0.07) (p < 0.05). The falling number was significantly (p < 0.05) lower for WWF compared to WF or BF, indicating higher alpha-amylase activity. Thus, bread made from WWF without BF substitution exhibited a higher glycemic response similar to the bread made from WF. When partly replaced with BF, the GR of the bread made with WWF or WF reduced significantly (p < 0.05) in healthy individuals.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13095, 2020 08 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753676

RESUMEN

To call attention to the danger of extinction of the panda bear, the Lithuanian artist Ilja Klemencov created the artwork "They can disappear". The illustration is composed of black-and-white zigzagged lines, which form the famous panda logo of the World Wild Fund For Nature (WWF) when seen from a distance. If one is too close to the artwork, it is difficult to spot the bear, however, if one steps back or takes off one's glasses the panda suddenly appears. This led us to ask if the ability to see the panda is related to the visual acuity of the observer and if therefore, the panda illusion can be used to assess the spatial resolution of the eye. Here we present the results of the comparison between visual acuity determined using the Landolt C and that predicted from the panda illusion in 23 healthy volunteers with artificially reduced visual acuity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the panda illusion is based on a 2D pulse-width modulation, explain its technical history, and provide the equations required to create the illusion. Finally, we explain why the illusion indeed can be used to predict visual acuity and discuss the neural causes of its perception with best-corrected visual acuity.

8.
Food Sci Technol Int ; : 1082013220950068, 2020 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847395

RESUMEN

Bread is a staple food for majority of the people worldwide, but it has a high glycemic effect. Substituting wheat flour partly with chickpea flour and the presence of bran is suggested to improve the glycemic effect of bread; however, the non-gluten substances in wheat flour adversely affect dough rheology. The addition of amla powder was tested on the rheological properties of wheat-chickpea flour composite doughs; also, the physical and sensory qualities of bread made thereof. The results showed that when the level of replacement of refined white flour (WF) or whole wheat flour (WWF) with chickpea flour was increased from 0 to 40%, it significantly affected the rheological properties and functionality of dough. A decreased farinograph water absorption, higher mixing tolerance index (i.e., weakening of dough), decreased resistance to extension, and lower ratio numbers were obtained with some differences between WF and WWF at the higher level of chickpea flour substitution. The addition of amla powder to WF: chickpea flour (60:40) blends reduced the angle of ascending (from 7.0 ± 0.7 to 6.0 ± 0.7) and angel of descending (from 3.2 ± 0.21 to 2.4 ± 0.2), indicating the slight tightening of gluten leading to dough breakdown. The addition of amla powder improved the mixing characteristics of the composite flour doughs, as well as the physical and sensory qualities of the bread. In conclusion, amla powder can help overcome the deleterious impact of adding chickpea flour to WF or WWF for producing good quality pan bread for people with type-2 diabetes.

9.
J Food Sci Technol ; 57(8): 2800-2808, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612297

RESUMEN

Wheat is consumed worldwide because of its high nutritional content and convenience to form different products. Whole wheat is an important source of dietary fiber and its consumption is known to lower the risk of colon cancer, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Germination of wheat results in better availability of nutrients and offers many health benefits. In this study, germinated wheat flour (GWF) was prepared and analyzed for its proximate composition, functional properties, antioxidant activity and microbial count along with whole wheat flour (WWF). The GWF was having 9.2% higher protein content than that of WWF. No significant change was observed in the ash, fat and crude fiber content after germination. GWF showed higher oil absorption capacity and water solubility index. Falling number of GWF was found to be lower. The total phenolic content increased more than two folds after germination and antioxidant activity increased from an initial of 12.35% in WWF to 33.28% in GWF. The microbial counts of GWF were within acceptable range for processing. Breads were prepared by replacing WWF with GWF at 0-100% levels and were analyzed for their proximate composition and acceptance on Hedonic Scale. The 100% GWF bread was having 8.7% higher protein content than 100% WWF bread. The overall acceptability score for all breads were high (> 7.3) whereas the bread prepared with 50% GWF got the highest overall acceptability score of 8.4. The results of this study indicate that bread with improved nutrition and acceptable quality can be prepared from GWF.

10.
Water Res ; 183: 116073, 2020 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599427

RESUMEN

The footprints of microplastics in the water bodies of urban agglomerations are largely dominated by superimposed anthropogenic influences. Understanding these influences and how they are correlated is essential to better understand the occurrence and variability of microplastics in different ecosystems. This study longitudinally assessed the abundance and distribution of microplastics in the water bodies of urban agglomerations at the watershed-scale in Shanghai Megacity. Particularly, the behavior of microplastics with the impacts of drainage system overflow in wet weather (WWF), land uses, and environmental management practices were explored. WWF can greatly aggravate microplastic pollution in aquatic environments. A systemic estimation based on detailed data was used to show that the annual load of microplastics discharged via WWF in the watershed area was 8.50 × 1014 p/year, which was approximately six times larger than that discharged via the local Wastewater Treatment Plant effluent. Findings here contribute to research concerning the spatial variability of aquatic microplastics and the extent to which they are affected by land use. In descending order, the highest microplastic concentrations were found in heavy industrial > commercial/public/recreational > agricultural/light industrial > agricultural > and residential areas. The longitudinal pattern of microplastics observed in the water bodies suggested that there were superimposed effects of land use and hydrodynamics. This paper is the first to provide an integrated framework that demonstrates the significant role of environmental management practices in controlling the production and transmission of microplastics to receiving waters at a city-scale. Improved management of WWF might be a tangible solution that would help achieve an immediate and large-scale reduction of microplastics in sewage. Determining the optimized management practices for different weather or hydrological conditions could be an essential factor in decreasing microplastic concentrations and altering their flow-path pattern in a given region.


Asunto(s)
Plásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , China , Ciudades , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Microplásticos , Tiempo (Meteorología)
11.
Food Funct ; 11(4): 3610-3620, 2020 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292961

RESUMEN

Whole-wheat flour (WWF) is increasingly popular because of the health benefits of whole grains. This study investigated the effect of WWF particle size on dough properties, bread quality and in vitro starch digestibility. WWF was made from intact whole grain directly. Three WWF particle sizes were examined, including coarse, medium and fine with a mean size of 1315, 450 and 199 µm, respectively. The dough made from WWF of a larger particle size exhibited lower extensibility and stability, and subsequently the bread had a more compact structure (i.e. lower open porosity and thicker cell thickness), smaller specific volume and harder texture, which were regarded as poor quality attributes. On the other hand, the bread made from the fine WWF exhibited a higher amount of released glucose than those made from the coarse and medium WWFs. Moreover, the particle size of bread bolus showed no significant effect on in vitro starch digestion. The whole study demonstrated that the particle size of WWF plays a critical role in determining both bread quality and digestibility.

12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075289

RESUMEN

Water is essential for life, agriculture, and industrialization; however, a rapid increase in population is constantly causing water scarcity and pollution in Pakistan. Mining activities produce the potential toxic element (PTE) accumulation, which lead to unnatural enrichment, ecological pollution, and environmental degradation. The ecological resources impeded by the PTEs cause serious abnormalities in the population through dermal contact, inhalation, and digestion. Mining induced anthropogenic activities are well-known causes of contamination of ecological resources. The produced effluents have drastic effects by changing the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the concerned resources. The Central Indus Basin is a well-known coal regime, where more than 160 mines are active at present. The samples that were collected from the mine water, groundwater, surface water, and the soil were analyzed by atomic absorption and elemental determination analysis (EDA) for an assessment of their quality and the presence of PTEs. The results were correlated with available quality standards, including the World Health Organization (WHO), National Standard of Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ), World Wildlife Fund (WWF), and Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs). These analyses showed the noticeable anthropogenic concentration of PTEs, like iron, cadmium, sulphur, and copper, which can degrade the quality of resources in the Central Indus Basin and have adverse effects on human health. An excessive amount of acid mine drainage (AMD) draws attention to some suitable active or passive treatments for disposal from mines to avoid degradation of ecological resources in the Central Indus Basin of Pakistan.


Asunto(s)
Minas de Carbón , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Calidad del Agua , Pakistán , Ríos
13.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Sep 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557966

RESUMEN

Growing evidence exists for the benefits of adequate infant and young children feeding (IYCF) practices at the weaning stage (≥ 6 months), including optimal growth, building the immune system, cognitive development, healthy food preferences, and reduced mortality and morbidity rates. However, these outcomes are not universally experienced. To ensure that a developing country such as Malawi, where recent studies have shown high rates of food insecurity and malnutrition benefits from adequate IYCF, five nutrient-dense complementary foods (Recipes 1 to 5) were developed. Standardized food processing techniques were used in the preparation and combination of Malawian indigenous food samples. The developed food recipes were assessed for nutrient density and cultural acceptability through sensory evaluations. Recipe 5 emerged as the winning weaning food (WWF), with an overall acceptability rate of 65% (mean score of 5.82 ± 0.87). Unlike theoretical analysis with the ESHA Food Processor, statistical analysis did not show that Recipe 5 met the Codex Alimentarius recommendations for macro- and micronutrients. However, it showed that the micronutrient recommendations for iron (p = 0.0001; 95%CI) and zinc (p = 1.00; 95%CI) were partially met, but not those for calcium and vitamins A and D. The prototype and outcome of this pilot study will be invaluable for interventions aimed at combating food insecurity and malnutrition in Malawi.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de los Alimentos , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Alimentos Especializados , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Destete , Preescolar , Femenino , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Lactante , Malaui , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Proyectos Piloto
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12020, 2019 08 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427679

RESUMEN

Tillage and nitrogen (N) fertilization can be expected to alter micronutrient dynamics in the soil and in plants over time. However, quantitative information regarding the effects of tillage and N application rates on micronutrient dynamics is limited. The objectives of this study were (a) to determine the long-term effect of different tillage methods as well as variation in N application rates on the distribution of Mehlich III extractable manganese, copper, zinc, boron, and iron in soils and (b) to assess accumulation of the same nutrients in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) tissues. The system studied was under a dryland winter wheat-fallow (WW-F) rotation. Tillage methods included moldboard (MP), disk (DP) and sweep (SW), and the N application rates were 0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 kg ha-1. The concentration of soil manganese was greater under DP (131 mg kg-1) than under MP (111 mg kg-1). Inorganic N application reduced extractable soil copper while, it increased manganese accumulation in wheat grain over time. Comparison of micronutrients with adjacent long-term (since 1931) undisturbed grass pasture revealed that the WW-F plots had lost at least 43% and 53% of extractable zinc and copper, respectively, after 75 years of N fertilization and tillage. The results indicate that DP and inorganic N application could reduce the rate of micronutrient decline in soil and winter wheat grain over time compared to MP and no N fertilization.

15.
C R Biol ; 342(5-6): 230-235, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176589

RESUMEN

Discocyrtoidespinorum sp. nov. is described from the conifers forest in Paraná State, Southern Brazil. This is the second species of Discocyrtoides Mello-Leitão, 1923, the other being known from São Paulo State. It is remarkable for having greenish/yellowish spots in the dorsal scutum highly contrasting with the brown background, a feature rare in Mitobatinae, hitherto known only for Ruschia Mello-Leitão, 1940. It is the first record of this genus for Paraná State (WWF Ecoregion NT0101, Araucaria moist forests). Terminology for the male genitalia of the Mitobatinae is defined and illustrated.


Asunto(s)
Arácnidos/clasificación , Bosques , Animales , Brasil , Microscopía Electrónica , Pinus , Terminología como Asunto , Tracheophyta
16.
J Food Sci Technol ; 56(2): 1056-1065, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30906063

RESUMEN

The effects of incorporation of groundnut oil (GO) and hydrogenated fat (HF) at different levels (1%, 3% and 5%) on pasting, dough rheology and mixing properties of strong wheat flour (SWF) and weak wheat flour (WWF) were evaluated. SWF showed higher paste viscosities as compared to WWF. However, higher setback viscosity for SWF than WWF was observed. Paste viscosity and mixograph peak time of both flours decreased with an increase in level of GO and HF. Pasting temperature of both flours decreased with an increase in GO. Storage modulus (G') was higher than loss modulus (G″) for dough from both SWF and WWF. G' increased while G″ decreased with an increase in levels of GO and HF. Dough prepared from SWF needed longer time for mixing and showed wider peak width, indicating strong and stable dough as compared to WWF. Addition of GO up to 3% level progressively decreased dough consistency and mixing tolerance and further addition led to an increase in both properties. Contrarily, addition of HF showed opposite effect in WWF. Both GO and HF showed variables effects towards mixing in both flour types. Dough tolerance and breakdown during mixing improved with increase in GO while adversely affected with increase in HF.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 302-313, 2019 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599349

RESUMEN

Wetlands are thought to be the most unique ecosystem in the world which plays an important role in water and material circulation. However, investigation of ecosystem dynamics in those lake floodplain wetlands that suffering rapid and significant short-term water level fluctuation is quite a challenge. In this study, the short- and long-term characteristics of vegetation NPP (net primary productivity) and their driving mechanism were investigated in the Poyang Lake floodplain wetland, an important international wetland that listed in the Global Eco-region by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Attempts were achieved through validating the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model based on observed biomasses of different vegetation types and reconstructed continuous high spatiotemporal resolution (30 m and 16 days) of NDVI data during 2000-2015 according to the fused Landsat and MODIS data. Major result indicates that the intra-annual variation of NPP of most vegetation types shows two peaks in a year due to combined effects of vegetation growth rhythm and seasonal exposure of the lake floodplain. Annual NPP of the lake floodplain ranges in 360.09-735.94 gC/m2 and shows an increasing trend during the study period. The change of NPP in space indicates that the distribution elevation of the major vegetation types decreased and evoluted toward the center lake floodplain. Different from the terrestrial ecosystem, inundation duration is the dominant factor that controls NPP dynamics in the lake floodplain, while the influences of other meteorological factors are much weakened. Recent decline of lake water level was the major reason for the spatio-temporal evolution of annual and seasonal vegetation NPP in the lake floodplain.


Asunto(s)
Biomasa , Lagos , Humedales , China , Hidrología
18.
Prev Nutr Food Sci ; 24(4): 456-467, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915642

RESUMEN

Prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is rising globally and largely due to dietary lifestyle changes and urbanization. The concept of glycaemic index (GI) as a dietary tool for the management of DM has been recommended by international health organizations. Whole-grain wheat flour (WWF), 'acha' flour (AF), and pigeon pea flour (PPF) were combined in different ratios (80:10:10, 70:15:15, 70:20:10, and 60:20:20) and 100% WWF served as control. Bread was produced from the flour blends using white sugar (sucrose) and/or date palm fruit sugar (DPFS) representing 50 or 100% sugar replacement. Physical attributes, nutritional composition, GIs, and consumer acceptability of the breads were evaluated using standard methods. The multigrain breads had lower values for height, volume, and specific volume, but were most dense than the control [WWF+sugar (WAPC)]. The protein, ash, and crude fibre contents of the breads were significantly improved compared with the control, especially breads containing 100% DPFS, whereas carbohydrate and energy contents were comparable. The breads also contained significant amounts of macro and micro elements and a Na/K ratio of less than 1. Phytate/mineral molar ratios of the bread were lower than the respective critical limits. Multigrain breads showed low GI, especially those with >20% whole wheat substitution and 100% DPFS compared with WAPC, with intermediate GI (65.61) and high glycaemic load (GL). WWF+AF+PPF+DPFS (60:20:20:100) exhibited the highest protein content, a significant fibre content, lowest carbohydrate, GI, GL, and postprandial blood glucose responses, thus may be a suitable dietary guide for sustained health.

19.
Environ Manage ; 63(2): 249-259, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523418

RESUMEN

The importance of management increases in the context of numerous and intensive inner and outer pressures on Protected Areas (PAs). The need to assess the management effectiveness (ME) in protected areas is increasing around the world. The ME assessment helps to improve the management of PAs and to develop a rational, long-term action plan. This study was conducted using the World Wildlife Fund for nature (WWF) Management Effectiveness Tracking Tools methodology (METT) to evaluate the ME of six PAs in central and eastern regions of Mongolia. The main purpose of this study was to assess ME and identify common threats of PAs across different natural zones and administrative areas in Mongolia. The results of this evaluation indicate that, the main threats faced by PAs in Mongolia are: (i) degradation of ecosystems, (ii) environmental pollution, and (iii) habitat fragmentation, resulting from over-exploitation and inappropriate use of natural resources. All six PAs examined have clear management goals and management decision-making systems however, their ME scores differ significantly. This research suggests that the administrative features of the individual PA influence management effectiveness and problems in the efficient implementation of management still need to be resolved.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Contaminación Ambiental , Mongolia
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 652: 1040-1050, 2019 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586791

RESUMEN

The catchments of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) have experienced significant modifications in recent decades, leading to increases in sources of pollutants and declines in coastal water quality. As coastal waters of the GBR support some of the highest density green turtle (Chelonia mydas) foraging populations in the western Pacific Ocean, understanding the effects of contaminants on GBR green turtle populations is a priority. In 2012, elevated strandings of green turtles in the Upstart Bay region instigated the WWF's collaborative Rivers to Reef to Turtles (RRT) project to investigate if coastal pollutants are compromising green turtle health. Important to interpreting these investigations into toxicology and health is understanding the demographics of the green turtle populations being investigated. In three green turtle foraging grounds, Cleveland Bay (CLV), Upstart Bay (UPB) and the Howick Group of Reefs (HWK), this study explored population size, age class structure, sex ratio, growth rates, body condition and diet, as well as indices of turtle health, such as plastron barnacle loads and eye lesions. The three foraging populations had similar age class structure and adult sex ratios to other green turtle foraging populations in the GBR. Somatic growth rate was nonlinear, peaking in immature turtles, and was much slower in turtles foraging at HWK compared to the other two sites. This may have been due to differences in food source, which was supported by the observed dietary shifts between seagrass and algae in HWK turtles, compared to a consistently seagrass diet in CLV and UPB turtles. There were also small differences in body condition between sites, as well as differences in barnacle loads, eye lesions and occurrence of fibropapilloma tumors. This study provides important information on green turtle foraging ground population dynamics in the northern GBR, and context for the other papers in this special issue.


Asunto(s)
Migración Animal , Dieta , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Agua de Mar/química , Tortugas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Animales , Océano Pacífico , Dinámica Poblacional , Queensland , Razón de Masculinidad , Tortugas/fisiología
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