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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(16): 23482-23504, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483721

RESUMEN

The contribution of urban non-point source (NPS) pollution to surface water pollution has gradually increased, analyzing the sources of urban NPS pollution is of great significance for precisely controlling surface water pollution. A bibliometric analysis of relevant research literature from 2000 to 2021 reveals that the main methods used in the source analysis research of urban NPS pollution include the emission inventory approach, entry-exit mass balance approach, principal component analysis (PCA), positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, etc. These methods are primarily applied in three aspects: source analysis of rainfall-runoff pollution, source analysis of wet weather flow (WWF) pollution in combined sewers, and analysis of the contribution of urban NPS to the surface water pollution load. The application of source analysis methods in urban NPS pollution research has demonstrated an evolution from qualitative to quantitative, and further towards precise quantification. This progression has transitioned from predominantly relying on on-site monitoring to incorporating model simulations and employing mathematical statistical analyses for traceability. This paper reviews the principles, advantages, disadvantages, and the scope of application of these methods. It also aims to address existing problems and analyze potential future development directions, providing valuable references for subsequent related research.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación Difusa , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Contaminación Difusa/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminación del Agua/análisis , Tiempo (Meteorología) , China , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
2.
J Food Sci ; 89(4): 2202-2217, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38389444

RESUMEN

This study investigated the impact of bioprocessing techniques (germination, solid-state fermentation, the combination of germination, and solid-state fermentation) on the physicochemical properties, anti-nutritional and bioactive constituents, in vitro digestibility, and techno-functional properties of whole wheat grains were investigated. Bioprocessed whole wheat flour (WWF) samples and the raw flour (control) were prepared using standard procedures. Proximate, anti-nutritional, mineral and amino acid (AA) compositions, protein digestibility, antioxidant activities, starch characteristics, and techno-functional properties were studied using standard methods. The bioprocessing methods increased (p ≤ 0.05) the protein (13.37-16.84 g/100 g), total dietary fiber, mineral constituents, resistant starch (7.19-9.87 g/100 g), slowly digestible starch, phenolic content, antioxidant activities (ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity), most AAs, and protein digestibility. Also observed were decreases (p ≤ 0.05) in rapidly digestible starch, phytic acid, tannin, and trypsin inhibitor activity. The adopted bioprocessing techniques modified the thermal, functional, color, and pasting properties of the WWF and resulted in molecular interactions in some functional groups, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, compared to the raw flour. The combination of germination and fermentation improved the physicochemical (titratable acidity = 4.93%), protein (16.84/100 g) and starch digestibility (resistant starch = 9.87%), antioxidant (FRAP = 78.90 mg/GAE/100 g), and mineral contents (calcium = 195.28 mg/100 g), modified the pasting (peak viscosity = 90.34 RVU), thermal (peak temperature = 64.82°C), and color properties of WWF with reduced anti-nutritional factors. The combination of these processing techniques could serve as a natural and low-cost technique for the modification of whole wheat functionality and subsequently as an improved functional ingredient during food product development.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Harina , Almidón Resistente , Triticum/metabolismo , Almidón/química , Minerales , Proteínas
3.
Animals (Basel) ; 14(2)2024 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38254366

RESUMEN

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a specific type of noncoding RNA, and some have defined roles in cellular and biological processes. However, little is known about the role of circRNAs in follicular development in sheep with FecB (fecundity Booroola) mutations. Here, the expression profiles of circRNAs were investigated using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in the follicular phase (F) and the luteal phase (L) of FecB mutant homozygous (BB) and wild-type (WW) Small Tail Han sheep. A total of 38,979 circRNAs were identified, and 314, 343, 336, and 296 of them were differentially expressed (DE) between BB_F and BB_L, WW_F and WW_L, BB_F and WW_F, and BB_L and WW_L, respectively. The length, type, and chromosome distribution of the circRNAs and the expression characteristic between the circRNAs and their host genes in the sheep hypothalamus were ascertained. Enrichment analysis showed that the host genes of DE circRNAs in the follicular and luteal phases were annotated to MAPK, gap junctions, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, oocyte meiosis, and other hormone-related signaling pathways, and the different FecB genotypes were annotated to the gap junctions, circadian entrainment, MAPK, and other hormone-related signaling pathways. The competing endogenous RNA network prediction revealed that the 129 target miRNAs might be bound to 336 DE circRNAs. oar_circ_0000523 and oar_circ_0028984, which were specifically expressed during the follicular phase in the BB genotype sheep, probably acted as miRNA sponges involved in the regulation of LH synthesis and secretion. This study reveals the expression profiles and characterization of circRNAs at two phases of follicular development considering different FecB genotypes, thereby providing an improved understanding of the roles of circRNAs in the sheep hypothalamus and their involvement in follicular development and ovulation.

4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 104(3): 1322-1334, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37770412

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to produce new functional cookies with high nutritional properties and low calorie content. It investigated the effects of incorporating wheat germ flour (WGF) at levels of 10-30% as a substitute for whole wheat flour (WWF), along with coffee silver skin (CSS) in the same proportions, serving as natural functional additives to substitute for fat in cookie formulations. RESULTS: The total phenol content of the cookies with added WGF-CSS ranged from 1813.72 to 1838.45 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per kilogram of dry weight (mg GAE kg-1 ), whereas the total phenolic bioaccessibility values ranged between 53.39 and 56.84%. Of the three methods used to determine antioxidant capacity (AC), the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method gave higher bioaccessibility values (44.55-51.19%) than the 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) scavenging methods. The contribution of WGF-CSS supplemented cookies to the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) (%) of K, P, Mg, and Ca increased depending on the number of cookies consumed and the WGF and CSS ratio. The general acceptability scores of the cookies varied between 5.66 and -7.08, and the 10% WGF cookie (F2) (6.48) sample received the score that was closest to that of the control. Moderately strong positive relationships (r > 0.90, P < 0.05) were detected between the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the cookies. CONCLUSION: As a result, WGF and CSS food additives with high nutritional properties can be recommended as potential enriching ingredients and fat substitutes in the development of new products in the functional food industry. © 2023 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Harina , Harina/análisis , Triticum/química , Alimentos Funcionales , Fenoles
5.
Foods ; 12(13)2023 Jul 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37444328

RESUMEN

Consumers' interest in healthy products is increasing. However, the production of excellent-quality whole wheat bread (WWB) faces challenges due to the reduced gluten functionality and varied particle sizes of whole wheat flour (WWF). This study aimed to explore the enhancement of purple-colored WWB quality by controlling the particle size of WWF and using dough improvers. Six purple-colored WWFs were obtained using an ultra-centrifugal mill with different sieve openings (0.5 and 1.0 mm) and rotor speeds (6000, 10,000, and 14,000 rpm). The average particle diameter (d50) of the smaller particle size group (S) and the larger particle size group (L) based on the sieve opening ranged from 115 to 258 µm and 294 to 492 µm, respectively. Group S demonstrated higher water absorption, damaged starch, and gluten strength compared to group L. Additionally, group S exhibited a greater bread volume and height compared to group L. Among the tested dough improvers (vital wheat gluten, vitamin C, enzymes, and emulsifiers), vital wheat gluten was the most effective in improving the quality of purple-colored WWB. The improvement effect was significantly greater in group S than in group L. These findings suggest that controlling the particle size of purple-colored WWFs and utilizing dough improvers can result in superior-quality WWB.

6.
Curr Biol ; 33(11): R426-R428, 2023 06 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37279659

RESUMEN

One of the biggest planetary challenges is the accelerating loss of biodiversity threatening ecosystem functioning on a global scale. The WWF Living Planet Report (https://livingplanet.panda.org/) estimates a 69% decline in populations since 1970. The Convention on Biological Diversity and related international treaties ask countries to monitor shifts in community composition and assess rates of species decline to quantify extant biodiversity relative to global targets1. However, quantifying biodiversity is a challenge, and monitoring continual change is impossible at almost any scale due to a lack of standardized data and indicators2,3. A common problem is that the required infrastructure for such global monitoring does not exist. Here, we challenge this notion by analysing environmental DNA (eDNA) captured along with particulate matter by routine ambient air quality monitoring stations in the UK. In our samples, we identified eDNA from >180 vertebrate, arthropod, plant and fungal taxa representative of local biodiversity. We contend that air monitoring networks are in fact gathering eDNA data reflecting local biodiversity on a continental scale, as a result of their routine function. In some regions, air quality samples are stored for decades, presenting the potential for high resolution biodiversity time series. With minimal modification of current protocols, this material provides the best opportunity to date for detailed monitoring of terrestrial biodiversity using an existing, replicated transnational design and it is already in operation.


Asunto(s)
Artrópodos , ADN Ambiental , Animales , Ecosistema , ADN Ambiental/genética , Biodiversidad , Vertebrados/genética , Artrópodos/genética , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos
7.
Environ Geochem Health ; 45(7): 5441-5466, 2023 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37029254

RESUMEN

Water, forages, and soil contamination with potentially toxic metals (PTMs) through anthropogenic activities has become a significant environmental concern. It is crucial to find out the level of PTMs in water, soil, and forages near industrial areas. The PTMs enter the body of living organisms through these sources and have become a potential risk for humans and animals. Therefore, the present study aims at the health risk assessment of PTMs and their accumulation in soil, water, and forages of three tehsils (Kallar Kahar, Choa Saidan Shah, and Chakwal) in district Chakwal. Samples of wastewater, soil, and forages were collected from various sites of district Chakwal. PTMs detected in the present study were cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni), and their levels were measured through atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAs GF95 graphite furnace auto sampler). Pollution load index (PLI), bio concentration factor (BCF), soil enrichment factors (EF), daily intake value (DIM), and health risk index (HRI) in sheep, cow, and buffalo were also analyzed. The results revealed that the mean concentration (mg/L) of Cd (0.72-0.91 mg/L), Cr (1.84-2.23 mg/L), Pb (0.95-3.22 mg/L), Co (0.74-2.93 mg/L), Cu (0.84-1.96 mg/L), and Ni (1.39-4.39 mg/L) in wastewater samples was higher than permissible limits set by WHO, NEQS, WWF, USEPA, and Pakistan in all three tehsils of district Chakwal. Similarly, in soil samples, concentrations of Cd (1.21-1.95 mg/kg), Cr (38.1-56.4 mg/kg), and Ni (28.3-55.9 mg/kg) were higher than their respective threshold values. The mean concentration of PTMs in forage samples (Parthenium hysterophorus, Mentha spicata, Justicia adhatoda, Calotropis procera, Xanthium strumarium, Amaranthaceae sp.) showed that maximum values of Cd (5.35-7.55 mg/kg), Cr (5.47-7.51 mg/kg), Pb (30-36 mg/kg), and Ni (12.6-57.5 mg/kg) were beyond their safe limit set for forages. PLI, BCF, and EF were > 1.0 for almost all the PTMs. The DIM and HRI for sheep were less than < 1.0 but for cows and buffalo were > 1.0. The current study showed that soil, water, and forages near coal mines area are contaminated with PTMs which enter the food chain and pose significant harm to humans and animals. In order to prevent their dangerous concentration in the food chain, regular assessment of PTMs present in soil, forages, irrigating water, and food is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Contaminantes Ambientales , Contaminación Ambiental , Metales Pesados , Animales , Humanos , Bioacumulación , Búfalos , Cadmio , Cromo , Carbón Mineral , Cobalto , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Plomo , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Metales Pesados/análisis , Níquel , Pakistán , Medición de Riesgo , Ovinos , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Aguas Residuales , Agua , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminación Ambiental/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis
8.
Water Res ; 235: 119883, 2023 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36989804

RESUMEN

The ecological state of receiving water bodies can be significantly influenced by organic micropollutants that are emitted via stormwater runoff. Reported efforts to quantify the emission of micropollutants mainly focus on sampling at combined sewer overflows and storm sewer outfalls, which can be challenging. An alternative method, called fingerprinting, was developed and tested in this study. The fingerprinting method utilizes wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent samples and derives the proportion of stormwater in a sample. This is achieved by comparing the wet weather vs dry weather concentrations of substances-tracers which are present only in wastewater. It is then possible to estimate the concentration of organic micropollutants in stormwater runoff from measurements in the influent of a WWTP based on a mass balance. In this research, the fingerprinting method was applied in influent samples obtained in five WWTPs in the Netherlands. In total, 28 DWF and 22 WWF samples were used. The chosen tracers were ibuprofen, 2-hydroxyibuprofen, naproxen and diclofenac. Subsequently, the concentration in stormwater runoff of 403 organic micropollutants was estimated via the WWF samples. The substances that were present and analyzed included glyphosate and AMPA, 24 out of 254 pesticides, 6 out of 28 organochlorine pesticides, 45 out of 63 pharmaceuticals, 15 out of 15 PAHs, 2 of the 7 PCBs, and 20 of 33 other substances (e.g. bisphenol-A). A comparison with findings from other studies suggested that the fingerprinting method yields trustworthy results. It was also noted that a representative and stable dry weather flow reference concentration is a strict requirement for the successful application of the proposed method.


Asunto(s)
Plaguicidas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Aguas Residuales , Plaguicidas/análisis
9.
J Imaging ; 9(3)2023 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36976112

RESUMEN

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has recently established the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) program, which requires countries to report their carbon emissions and sink estimates through national greenhouse gas inventories (NGHGI). Thus, developing automatic systems capable of estimating the carbon absorbed by forests without in situ observation becomes essential. To support this critical need, in this work, we introduce ReUse, a simple but effective deep learning approach to estimate the carbon absorbed by forest areas based on remote sensing. The proposed method's novelty is in using the public above-ground biomass (AGB) data from the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Biomass project as ground truth to estimate the carbon sequestration capacity of any portion of land on Earth using Sentinel-2 images and a pixel-wise regressive UNet. The approach has been compared with two literature proposals using a private dataset and human-engineered features. The results show a more remarkable generalization ability of the proposed approach, with a decrease in Mean Absolute Error and Root Mean Square Error over the runner-up of 16.9 and 14.3 in the area of Vietnam, 4.7 and 5.1 in the area of Myanmar, 8.0 and 1.4 in the area of Central Europe, respectively. As a case study, we also report an analysis made for the Astroni area, a World Wildlife Fund (WWF) natural reserve struck by a large fire, producing predictions consistent with values found by experts in the field after in situ investigations. These results further support the use of such an approach for the early detection of AGB variations in urban and rural areas.

10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36900906

RESUMEN

Recreational diving, under the continual growth of the scuba diving industry, may escalate coral reef damage as one of the substantial anthropogenic impacts and is of pressing concern. Besides unregulated and excessive diving activities, accidental contact with corals by inexperienced divers can cause recurring physical damage and heighten the pressure on coral communities. Understanding the ecological impacts of underwater contact with marine biota will thus be crucial to develop more sustainable scuba diving practices in Hong Kong. To probe the scuba diving impacts of divers' contact with coral communities, WWF-Hong Kong started a citizen science monitoring programme and invited 52 advanced divers to conduct direct underwater observations. Questionnaires were also developed to examine and address the research gap between the associated attitudes and the perceived contact rate of divers. Results from analysing the underwater behaviours of 102 recreational divers showed inconsistent perceived and actual contact rates. It was revealed that recreational divers might often overlook the ecological effects of their activities underwater on coral communities. The questionnaire findings will be utilised to improve the framework of the dive-training programmes and enhance divers' awareness to minimise their influence on the marine environment.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Buceo , Animales , Hong Kong , Intención , Arrecifes de Coral , China
11.
J Food Sci Technol ; 60(2): 783-796, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36712211

RESUMEN

Common wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most consumed staple foods used for bakery products. Outer layers of grain present a great diversity of bioactive compounds, especially phenolic compounds (PC). Free and bound PC were extracted from eight genotypes of whole wheat flours (WWF) presenting different technological classifications. These extracts were comprehensively characterized through untargeted metabolomics applying ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MSE) and spectrophotometric analyses. Chemical composition and colorimetry were also determined by classical analyses. Thirty-eight PC were tentatively identified by UHPLC-MSE belonging to three classes (phenolic acids, flavonoids, and other polyphenols), some of them identified in all WWF samples. Bound hydroxycinnamic acids were the main PC found in WWF, especially the trans-ferulic acid and its isomer. No difference was found in starch and protein contents, whereas low-quality flours showed a higher ash content than the superior and medium-quality flours. Total phenolic content (TPC) ranged between 124.5 and 171.4 mg GAE/100 g WWF, which bound PC were responsible for 60% of TPC. Omics data and multivariate statistical analyses were successfully applied to discern the phenolic profile of WWF from different genotypes and technological qualities. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13197-023-05665-8.

12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(5): 2483-2491, 2023 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694095

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Whole wheat flour (WWF) prepared by the direct crushing method preserves all the components of the whole wheat grain. WWF with different particle sizes (180, 150, 125, 106, and 96 µm) was obtained by combining stone milling and particle size sieving technology. The effects of particle size on the proximate composition, farinograph, pasting, thermal, and functional properties, starch microstructure, and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of stone-milled WWF were investigated. RESULTS: The smaller the particle size of WWF, the higher the damaged starch content. The water absorption, degree of softening, pasting temperature, solubility, and syneresis of WWF increased steadily as the particle size decreased, whereas the peak viscosity, final viscosity, swelling power, water holding capacity, and enthalpy of gelatinization decreased. The scanning electron microscope micrographs revealed that the larger the particle size of WWF, the denser the distribution of starch granules. The ß-sheet and ß-turn contents of WWF with particle size 180 µm were the highest, reaching up to 33.85% and 39.79%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The particle size exerted influence on the quality characteristics of stone-milled WWF, and the overall properties of WWF were better at medium particle size. © 2023 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Harina , Triticum , Tamaño de la Partícula , Triticum/química , Almidón/química , Agua/química
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 859(Pt 2): 160148, 2023 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375558

RESUMEN

Urban surface runoff (USR) and drainage system overflows during wet weather (WWF) play a key role in shaping water pollution. Particularly, the impact of large amounts of microplastic pollution on urban water bodies is unclear. We conducted an in-field investigation in six central urban drainage systems along Suzhou Creek in the Shanghai megacity of China and identified the impacts of storm factors and land use on the real-time dynamic changes in microplastic abundance and characteristics in USR and WWF. Microplastic abundances ranged from 228.3 ± 105.4-4969.51 ± 348.8, 309.3 ± 144.3-5195.8 ± 425.5, and 130.0 ± 30.0-8500.0 ± 1241.0 particles/L in the traffic and residential catchment USR, and the WWF, respectively. Under similar storm factor conditions, we observed correlations between environmental factors and microplastic abundance, especially the polymer type, verifying the significant role of land use. The microplastic abundance were 90.2 particles/L higher in the traffic catchment USR than in the residential catchment USR. Notably, we found unique microplastic polymers comprising ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer and thermoplastic elastomers in the residential and traffic catchment USR, respectively. However, land use had a minimum impact on the size and shape of microplastics: small-sized and film microplastics dominated in both USR types. We found statistical evidence of the widespread correlations between microplastic abundance and storm factors (accumulated storm depth and WWF flow) in both USR and WWF. The first flush phenomenon of microplastic dynamics was found in both USR and WWF. Microplastic characteristics also changed dynamically with storm time. With heavy storm factors, polypropylene and small-sized (<1 mm) microplastics in USR events increased and then decreased. This was also true for WWF events in granular and polyethylene terephthalate microplastics. Our results can facilitate the targeted mitigation of emerging pollutants to enhance stormwater management strategies and prevent future contamination.


Asunto(s)
Microplásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Plásticos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , China , Contaminación del Agua
14.
Food Sci Technol Int ; 29(8): 818-830, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35989620

RESUMEN

A simplex-centroid design was used to evaluate the effect of proportions (0 to 100%) of whole wheat flour (WWF), whole mung bean flour (WMF) and whole rice flour (BRF) on the quality of cookies savory. The dough cut in the shape of a disks (37 mm × 2 mm) showed a 13% retraction in diameter when they contained exclusively WWF, it was less intense (5%) with BRF and null (0%) with WMF. The dough expansion occurred only vertically, the thicknesses of the WWF, WMF and BRF biscuits were 5.33, 2.79 and 2.13 times greater than the initial dough height, respectively. This characteristic showed high correlations with volumetric expansion (r = 0.95), specific volume (r = 0.90), hardness (r = 0.92), fracturability (r = 0.93) and spread factor (r = -0.96). BRF increased the value of the color difference of the biscuits up to 17.70, the effect of WMF was smaller (6.51). Only the radial expansion index correlated with the trough (r = 0.76), final viscosity (r = 0.79) and setback (r = 0.77) parameters. Considering the main desirable physical characteristics in savory biscuits, the highest global desirability obtained was for the proportion of 49% WWF, 24% WMF and 27% BRF.


Asunto(s)
Fabaceae , Oryza , Vigna , Harina , Triticum , Dureza
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20806, 2022 12 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460691

RESUMEN

The quality of irrigation water sources can significantly affect the concentrations of heavy metals (HMs) in cultivated vegetables. This study aimed to investigate the effect of various water resources, including treated wastewater effluent (TWE), river water (RW), and well water with chemical fertilizer (WW+F), on the accumulation of heavy metals (HMs) in the three most widely consumed edible vegetables (Coriander, Radish, and Basil) in Iran. A total of 90 samples of edible vegetables, 13 samples of irrigation water, and 10 soil samples were collected to determine HMs concentrations. Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni,) and Arsenic (As) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Eventually, the Total Target Hazard Quotient (TTHQ) for the toxic metals of As, Pb, and Cd was determined. The results revealed that the TTHQ of toxic metals in vegetables was less than the allowable limits (TTHQ = 1). Also, TWE was the best irrigation water type since the HMs content of vegetables was low. By comparing the results with national and international standards, it can be concluded that the Gharasou RW for irrigation of edible vegetables was inappropriate.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Verduras , Cadmio , Irán , Plomo , Intoxicación por Metales Pesados , Agua , Medición de Riesgo , Aguas Residuales , Arsénico/toxicidad
16.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 29(12): 103479, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36389210

RESUMEN

When psyllium husk, wheat bran and germ was added, Incorporation of psyllium and wheat bran may affect the dough structure, dough rheology as well as the final quality of baked Arabic flat bread, which, thus, became important for this study. Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM) taken on Arabic bread, depicted both intact small and the large starch granules on the outer crust area. This was mainly due to the rapid loss of moisture from the Arabic bread surface during intense baking operation leaving less moisture for gelatinization to take place. With psyllium added to WWF at 0, 3, and 5 % level, the peak time was increased from 3 to 4.5 min. The ascending and descending angle values were more or less identical in all the samples except with wheat germ addition, whereas much lower values (51 to 58°) for these parameters were observed, indicating a faster rate of dough breakdown. With psyllium, fine- and coarse bran addition to WWF, a corresponding increase in peak time was observed. Ascending and descending angles showed similar trends to that of the WWF and psyllium combinations. Use of falling number apparatus is an indirect method of measuring the diastatic enzyme activity in cereal flours. WGF showed lower falling-number values (502 s) than the WWF (607 s). Addition of fine bran to WWF lowered the falling number (607 to 563 s) whereas with coarse wheat bran and germ, these values were increased.

17.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(10)2022 Sep 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36292586

RESUMEN

The finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides Cuvier, 1829) is distributed in the coastal waters of Asia, throughout Indonesia to the east, and as far north as the Taiwan Strait. The finless porpoise has been declared critically endangered by the WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature), and in 2017 was rated vulnerable on the IUCN Red Threatened Species List. Since this species is distributed near the coast and has many interactions with humans, effective conservation of the species requires further studies into their genetic diversity and population. In this study, 45 samples were obtained from bycatch or stranded individuals in the East, South, and West Seas, where Korean porpoises were mainly distributed from 2017-2021. We compared 473 bp mtDNA sequences from the control region. Pairwise fixation indices (FST) revealed that the two populations differed significantly (FST = 0.4557, p = 0.000). In contrast to high levels of genetic differentiation, gene flow was identified as medium levels (Nm of 0.04-0.71). Our data suggest that finless porpoises may have undergone a historic differentiation event, and that finless porpoises in the three regions could be divided into two populations: West and East/South.


Asunto(s)
Marsopas , Humanos , Animales , Marsopas/genética , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Flujo Génico , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , República de Corea
18.
Front Nutr ; 9: 1016409, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36185661

RESUMEN

Adolescent athletes require adequate energy and nutrient supply to support growth, development, and the demands associated with exercise and training. However, they are susceptible to nutritional inadequacies affecting their health and physical performance. Food choices with nutrient adequacy and environmental protection is crucial for a sustainable diet. Therefore, we aimed to assess the adequacy of low-carbon diets to meet the protein requirements of adolescent athletes. Therefore, a cross-sectional observational study was conducted with 91 adolescent athletes from sports clubs in Rio de Janeiro who underwent anthropometric and food consumption assessments. To estimate the environmental impact of anthropogenic activities, the sustainability indicators carbon footprint (CF) and water footprint (WF) were used. The CF of the athlete's diet was compared with the benchmark of 1,571 g CO2eq/cap/d estimated by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Protein recommendations according to the American Dietetic Association (ADA) for athletes and protein food groups according to the low-carbon EAT-Lancet reference diet were used as references. The results were stratified by sport modality, age, sex, and income range. The Mann-Whitney test was performed, followed by the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's post-hoc test to assess the differences between groups using the statistical program GraphPad PRISM® version 8.0. CF and WF were directly associated with total energy intake, total protein intake, animal-origin protein intake, and the food groups of meat and eggs. Significant differences were observed in the environmental impact of diet based on sports groups and gender. The athletes' profile with higher environmental impact was male, middle-income class, and of any age group. The quartiles of CF of the overall diets were above the 1,571 g CO2eq/cap/d benchmark. Additionally, ADA's recommended range of daily protein consumption was met by most athletes, even in the lowest quartile of CF. Thus, a diet with a lower environmental impact can meet protein recommendations in adolescent athletes. The results found are of interest to the sports and food industries. It could help in designing a balanced diet for athletes as well as ensure less negative environmental impacts of food production and consumption.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 849: 157799, 2022 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944630

RESUMEN

Microplastic (MP) pollution is an emerging global challenge and actually has become a reality in aquatic ecosystems in Albania. According to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) report of 2019, Albania, is one of the most problematic countries, with the highest percentage of untreated plastic waste, 73 %, and one of the top four countries with the highest norm of untreated plastic waste in the Mediterranean. This study evaluates and characterizes for the first time the MPs in water, sediment, and gastrointestinal tracts of two crab species, C. aestuarii and C. sapidus, common inhabitants of the lagoonary complex of Kune-Vain Nature Reserve, known for their important role in the lagoon ecosystem. The results showed that all sampled crabs had MPs in their gut in an average of 11.0 ± 1.85 items g-1, while the total MPs content in water ranges from 370 to 750 MPs per L-1. No significant difference in the content of MPs between the two crab species was found and a positive Pearson correlation, between microplastic abundance in the water and in the crabs regardless of species, was confirmed. The composition of microplastics showed consistency in crabs, sediment, and water, with fibers and pellets as the dominant types followed by microbeads, and fragments. Characterized MPs varied in size from <0.1 mm to 0.1-0.5 mm, showing variable colors of black, blue, and red domination. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis of the chemical composition of microplastics distinguished presence of the high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), and low-density polyethylene (LDPE), which showed consistency in water, sediment, and crab samples. In conclusion, high levels of MPs pollution observed in the Kune-Vain complex represent a serious threat to the lagoon ecosystem and to the local inhabitants. Furthermore, studies on MPs' impact on biota and local population health are urgently required.


Asunto(s)
Braquiuros , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Albania , Animales , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Microplásticos , Plásticos/análisis , Polietileno/análisis , Polipropilenos/análisis , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
20.
Front Psychol ; 13: 856063, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35572232

RESUMEN

Despite recent empirical interest, the links between optimism and pessimism with pro-environmental behavior (PEB) remain equivocal. This research is characterized by a reliance on cross-sectional data, a focus on trait-level at the neglect of state-level optimism-pessimism, and assessments of retrospective self-reported ecological behavior that are subject to response bias. To attend to these gaps, 140 North American adults (M age = 34; SD = 11.60; 44% female) were experimentally primed with bogus optimistic or pessimistic environmental news articles, and then asked to report their levels of state optimism-pessimism, intentions to purchase green products, in vivo PEB (donating to WWF and providing contact information to join an environmental organization), and support for geoengineering technologies. Results confirmed that optimistic (versus pessimistic) environmental messaging enhanced the expression of state optimism, which then contributed to PEB and support for geoengineering. These results have important implications for the framing of environmental messaging intended to promote ecologically conscious behavior.

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