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1.
Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun ; 80(Pt 2): 102-105, 2024 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38333138

RESUMEN

JUAMI, the joint undertaking for an African materials institute, is a project to build collaborations and materials research capabilities between PhD researchers in Africa, the United States, and the world. Focusing on research-active universities in the East African countries of Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Uganda, the effort has run a series of schools focused on materials for sustainable energy and materials for sustainable development. These bring together early-career researchers from Africa, the US, and beyond, for two weeks in a close-knit environment. The program includes lectures on cutting-edge research from internationally renowned speakers, highly interactive tutorial lectures on the science behind the research, also from internationally known researchers, and hands-on practicals and team-building exercises that culminate in group proposals from self-formed student teams. The schools have benefited more than 300 early-career students and led to proposals that have received funding and have led to research collaborations and educational non-profits. JUAMI continues and has an ongoing community of alumni who share resources and expertise, and is open to like-minded people who want to join and develop contacts and collaborations internationally.

2.
World J Pediatr Surg ; 7(1): e000697, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38303972

RESUMEN

Background: Sixty-five percent of children worldwide lack access to surgical care, the majority of whom live in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Developing surgical infrastructure requires information on surgical need; however, this information is often limited in LMICs. North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of Korea, DPRK) has a low amount of publicly available data. Here, we analyzed available modeled data to understand the causes of pediatric deaths due to conditions treatable with surgery in DPRK. Methods: We used World Bank data and models from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation to identify causes of pediatric deaths affecting pediatric patients (age <20 years). We compared mortality of disease between DPRK and countries with similar economic status. Results: Between 1990 and 2019, the number of overall pediatric deaths has decreased. In 2019, 32.2% of all pediatric deaths in DPRK were caused by surgical conditions. The leading categories of surgical conditions were injuries (53.9%), congenital conditions (34.2%), tumors (8.8%), and abdominal conditions (3.2%). DPRK has a lower relative rate of pediatric deaths compared with other LMICs with similar gross domestic product per capita. However, it has a higher relative rate of pediatric deaths due to conditions requiring treatment with surgery. Transport injuries contribute significantly to the high rate of pediatric deaths in DPRK. Conclusions: Although DPRK may be allocating overall resources toward pediatric healthcare more efficiently than economic peers, DPRK may benefit from improvement in pediatric surgical capacity. Improved availability of data and close international collaboration could be potential solutions to bridge this gap.

3.
EBioMedicine ; 101: 105006, 2024 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377795

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Machine Learning (ML) has demonstrated its great potential on medical data analysis. Large datasets collected from diverse sources and settings are essential for ML models in healthcare to achieve better accuracy and generalizability. Sharing data across different healthcare institutions or jurisdictions is challenging because of complex and varying privacy and regulatory requirements. Hence, it is hard but crucial to allow multiple parties to collaboratively train an ML model leveraging the private datasets available at each party without the need for direct sharing of those datasets or compromising the privacy of the datasets through collaboration. METHODS: In this paper, we address this challenge by proposing Decentralized, Collaborative, and Privacy-preserving ML for Multi-Hospital Data (DeCaPH). This framework offers the following key benefits: (1) it allows different parties to collaboratively train an ML model without transferring their private datasets (i.e., no data centralization); (2) it safeguards patients' privacy by limiting the potential privacy leakage arising from any contents shared across the parties during the training process; and (3) it facilitates the ML model training without relying on a centralized party/server. FINDINGS: We demonstrate the generalizability and power of DeCaPH on three distinct tasks using real-world distributed medical datasets: patient mortality prediction using electronic health records, cell-type classification using single-cell human genomes, and pathology identification using chest radiology images. The ML models trained with DeCaPH framework have less than 3.2% drop in model performance comparing to those trained by the non-privacy-preserving collaborative framework. Meanwhile, the average vulnerability to privacy attacks of the models trained with DeCaPH decreased by up to 16%. In addition, models trained with our DeCaPH framework achieve better performance than those models trained solely with the private datasets from individual parties without collaboration and those trained with the previous privacy-preserving collaborative training framework under the same privacy guarantee by up to 70% and 18.2% respectively. INTERPRETATION: We demonstrate that the ML models trained with DeCaPH framework have an improved utility-privacy trade-off, showing DeCaPH enables the models to have good performance while preserving the privacy of the training data points. In addition, the ML models trained with DeCaPH framework in general outperform those trained solely with the private datasets from individual parties, showing that DeCaPH enhances the model generalizability. FUNDING: This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC, RGPIN-2020-06189 and DGECR-2020-00294), Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR) AI Catalyst Grants, CIFAR AI Chair programs, Temerty Professor of AI Research and Education in Medicine, University of Toronto, Amazon, Apple, DARPA through the GARD project, Intel, Meta, the Ontario Early Researcher Award, and the Sloan Foundation. Resources used in preparing this research were provided, in part, by the Province of Ontario, the Government of Canada through CIFAR, and companies sponsoring the Vector Institute.

4.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 162, 2024 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378563

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many of the educational institutions in developed countries have shifted to online learning. While transition from traditional to electronic learning (e-learning) has remained a great challenge in low-middle income countries, where limited resources for teaching and learning are important factors. Medical education involves not only lecturing but also deep understanding through laboratories and patient exposure. The debate about the effectiveness of e-learning in medical education is still in contradiction due to its limitations. This cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess pre-clinical undergraduate medical students' perception of their first online learning in a lower-middle income country. METHODOLOGY: The survey was conducted among the students who had participated in online learning during COVID-19 for at least a year. A total of 824 preclinical medical students who completed the survey from public and private medical universities in Sindh, Pakistan were included in the study. We used a validated online-based questionnaire, distributed through E-mail and social media platforms to assess the perception of students regarding their first online learning experience. RESULTS: The response rate of the survey was 87.9%. The mean age of students was 20.7 ± 3.8 years. 392/824 (47%) were males and 57% were females. Our study indicated that 613/824 (75%) of students were experiencing online learning for the very first time while 631/824 (77%) were facing technical issues like internet accessibility and lack of IT-related skills. 381/824 (46%) were not satisfied with the institute's readiness for online teaching. However, 79% (654/824) of participants were of the idea that traditional learning is more effective in developing their practical skills as compared to e-learning. Of note, 668/824 (81%) showed overall dissatisfaction with e-learning. CONCLUSION: Based on our study findings, we concluded that most students have a negative perception of e-learning. Difficulty in connectivity, electricity issues, less interaction with colleagues and teachers, and issues with the structure of online courses were the most frequently reported problems by the students.


Asunto(s)
Instrucción por Computador , Educación a Distancia , Educación Médica , Estudiantes de Medicina , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Países en Desarrollo
5.
BMJ Med ; 3(1): e000723, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38293681

RESUMEN

Objective: To assess the impact of post-covid-19 conditions among adults. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of health outcomes in controlled studies. Data sources: Two sources were searched from database inception to 20 October 2022: Cochrane covid-19 study register (comprising Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, clinicalTrials.gov, World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, medRxiv) and WHO's covid-19 research database. Eligibility criteria: Cohort studies recruiting more than 100 participants with a control group and a follow-up of at least 12 weeks were included. Adults who were documented to have SARS-CoV-2 infection based on clinical, imaging, or laboratory criteria were included. Data extraction and synthesis: Two independent reviewers extracted data. The main outcomes included quality of life, functionality in daily activities, use of resources, recovery rates (cluster of symptoms), and the incidence of new medical diagnoses. Data were pooled using a random effects model. The risk of bias was assessed with the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tool for cohort studies. Results: We included 63 controlled cohort studies, encompassing more than 96 million participants. Based on five studies, we found a reduction in overall quality of life between individuals with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection versus controls at six to 24 months follow-up, although heterogeneity was very high (mean difference in EQ-5D scale -5.28 (95% confidence interval -7.88 to 2.68; I2=93.81%). Evidence from ten studies, which could not be pooled in a meta-analysis, indicated that an increased rate of functional impairment associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Use of care increased compared with controls at six to 24 months follow-up at intensive care units (risk ratio 2.00 (95% confidence interval 0.69 to 5.80), five studies, I2=91.96%) and in outpatient care (1.12 (1.01 to 1.24), seven studies, I2=99.51%). Regarding persistent symptoms, individuals with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection had an increased risk of having two or more persistent symptoms at follow-up, especially those related to neurological clusters (ie, risk ratio 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.17 to 1.93), I2=98.91%). Evidence also showed an increased incidence of a wide variety of metabolic, cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, haematological and other incident diagnoses. Conclusion: Evidence suggests functional impairment after SARS-CoV-2 infection, in addition to a higher use of resources and a higher incidence of widely varying medical diagnoses. These results should be interpreted with caution, considering the high heterogeneity across studies and study limitations related to outcome measurement and attrition of participants. Systematic review registration: Open Science Framework, osf.io/drm39.

6.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(1)2024 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232992

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Globally, resources for health spending, including HIV and tuberculosis (TB), are constrained, and a substantial gap exists between spending and estimated needs. Optima is an allocative efficiency modelling tool that has been used since 2010 in over 50 settings to generate evidence for country-level HIV and TB resource allocation decisions. This evaluation assessed the utilisation of modelling to inform financing priorities from the perspective of country stakeholders and their international partners. METHODS: In October to December 2021, the World Bank and Burnet Institute led 16 semi-structured small-group virtual interviews with 54 representatives from national governments and international health and funding organisations. Interviews probed participants' roles and satisfaction with Optima analyses and how model findings have had been used and impacted resource allocation. Interviewed stakeholders represented nine countries and 11 different disease programme-country contexts with prior Optima modelling analyses. Interview notes were thematically analysed to assess factors influencing the utilisation of modelling evidence in health policy and outcomes. RESULTS: Common influences on utilisation of Optima findings encompassed the perceived validity of findings, health system financing mechanisms, the extent of stakeholder participation in the modelling process-including engagement of funding organisations, sociopolitical context and timeliness of the analysis. Using workshops can facilitate effective stakeholder engagement and collaboration. Model findings were often used conceptually to localise global evidence and facilitate discussion. Secondary outputs included informing strategic and financial planning, funding advocacy, grant proposals and influencing investment shifts. CONCLUSION: Allocative efficiency modelling has supported evidence-informed decision-making in numerous contexts and enhanced the conceptual and practical understanding of allocative efficiency. Most immediately, greater involvement of country stakeholders in modelling studies and timing studies to key strategic and financial planning decisions may increase the impact on decision-making. Better consideration for integrated disease modelling, equity goals and financing constraints may improve relevance and utilisation of modelling findings.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Tuberculosis , Humanos , Asignación de Recursos , Política de Salud , Salud Global
7.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 91: 103868, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38141541

RESUMEN

In 1999, World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a global campaign focused on suicide prevention. In collaboration with International Association for Suicide Prevention, WHO compiled recommendations and resources intended to educate various societal and groups with the potential to impact suicide prevention, and this included the media. In order to combat the alarmingly high incidence of suicides (Tandon and Nathani, 2018), it is imperative to institute guidelines outlining how the social media forums ought to disseminate altruistic, essential educational content while. This work is a step toward achieving the same by laying down guidelines that could potentially reduce the suicide rate.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Suicidio , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Prevención del Suicidio , Organización Mundial de la Salud
8.
Am J Ind Med ; 67(1): 55-72, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37963719

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite some emerging lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic, evidence suggests the world remains largely underprepared for-and vulnerable to-similar threats in the future. METHODS: In 2022, researchers at the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) led a team of volunteers to explore how future disruptions, such as pandemics, might impact work and the practice of occupational safety and health (OSH). This qualitative inquiry was framed as a strategic foresight project and included a series of activities designed to help better understand, prepare for, and influence the future. RESULTS: Findings from a thorough search for indicators of change were synthesized into nine critical uncertainties and four plausible future scenarios. Analysis of these outputs elucidated three key challenges that may impact OSH research, policy, and practice during future disruptions: (1) data access, (2) direct-to-worker communications, and (3) mis- and dis-information management. CONCLUSIONS: A robust strategic response is offered to address these challenges, and next steps are proposed to enhance OSH preparedness and institutionalize strategic foresight across the OSH community.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Laboral , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Recursos Humanos
9.
Hum Reprod ; 2023 Dec 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38052102

RESUMEN

STUDY QUESTION: Which genetic factors regulate female propensity for giving birth to spontaneous dizygotic (DZ) twins? SUMMARY ANSWER: We identified four new loci, GNRH1, FSHR, ZFPM1, and IPO8, in addition to previously identified loci, FSHB and SMAD3. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The propensity to give birth to DZ twins runs in families. Earlier, we reported that FSHB and SMAD3 as associated with DZ twinning and female fertility measures. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis (GWAMA) of mothers of spontaneous dizygotic (DZ) twins (8265 cases, 264 567 controls) and of independent DZ twin offspring (26 252 cases, 417 433 controls). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Over 700 000 mothers of DZ twins, twin individuals and singletons from large cohorts in Australia/New Zealand, Europe, and the USA were carefully screened to exclude twins born after use of ARTs. Genetic association analyses by cohort were followed by meta-analysis, phenome wide association studies (PheWAS), in silico and in vivo annotations, and Zebrafish functional validation. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: This study enlarges the sample size considerably from previous efforts, finding four genome-wide significant loci, including two novel signals and a further two novel genes that are implicated by gene level enrichment analyses. The novel loci, GNRH1 and FSHR, have well-established roles in female reproduction whereas ZFPM1 and IPO8 have not previously been implicated in female fertility. We found significant genetic correlations with multiple aspects of female reproduction and body size as well as evidence for significant selection against DZ twinning during human evolution. The 26 top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from our GWAMA in European-origin participants weakly predicted the crude twinning rates in 47 non-European populations (r = 0.23 between risk score and population prevalence, s.e. 0.11, 1-tail P = 0.058) indicating that genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are needed in African and Asian populations to explore the causes of their respectively high and low DZ twinning rates. In vivo functional tests in zebrafish for IPO8 validated its essential role in female, but not male, fertility. In most regions, risk SNPs linked to known expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). Top SNPs were associated with in vivo reproductive hormone levels with the top pathways including hormone ligand binding receptors and the ovulation cycle. LARGE SCALE DATA: The full DZT GWAS summary statistics will made available after publication through the GWAS catalog (https://www.ebi.ac.uk/gwas/). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Our study only included European ancestry cohorts. Inclusion of data from Africa (with the highest twining rate) and Asia (with the lowest rate) would illuminate further the biology of twinning and female fertility. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: About one in 40 babies born in the world is a twin and there is much speculation on why twinning runs in families. We hope our results will inform investigations of ovarian response in new and existing ARTs and the causes of female infertility. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): Support for the Netherlands Twin Register came from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) and The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMW) grants, 904-61-193, 480-04-004, 400-05-717, Addiction-31160008, 911-09-032, Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI.NL, 184.021.007), Royal Netherlands Academy of Science Professor Award (PAH/6635) to DIB, European Research Council (ERC-230374), Rutgers University Cell and DNA Repository (NIMH U24 MH068457-06), the Avera Institute, Sioux Falls, South Dakota (USA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH R01 HD042157-01A1) and the Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN) of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health and Grand Opportunity grants 1RC2 MH089951. The QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute (QIMR) study was supported by grants from the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia (241944, 339462, 389927, 389875, 389891, 389892, 389938, 443036, 442915, 442981, 496610, 496739, 552485, 552498, 1050208, 1075175). L.Y. is funded by Australian Research Council (Grant number DE200100425). The Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research (MCTFR) was supported in part by USPHS Grants from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (AA09367 and AA11886) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (DA05147, DA13240, and DA024417). The Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS) was funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (HL043851 and HL080467) and the National Cancer Institute (CA047988 and UM1CA182913), with support for genotyping provided by Amgen. Data collection in the Finnish Twin Registry has been supported by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, the Broad Institute, ENGAGE-European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology, FP7-HEALTH-F4-2007, grant agreement number 201413, National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (grants AA-12502, AA-00145, AA-09203, AA15416, and K02AA018755) and the Academy of Finland (grants 100499, 205585, 118555, 141054, 264146, 308248, 312073 and 336823 to J. Kaprio). TwinsUK is funded by the Wellcome Trust, Medical Research Council, Versus Arthritis, European Union Horizon 2020, Chronic Disease Research Foundation (CDRF), Zoe Ltd and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Clinical Research Network (CRN) and Biomedical Research Centre based at Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust in partnership with King's College London. For NESDA, funding was obtained from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (Geestkracht program grant 10000-1002), the Center for Medical Systems Biology (CSMB, NVVO Genomics), Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI-NL), VU University's Institutes for Health and Care Research (EMGO+) and Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, University Medical Center Groningen, Leiden University Medical Center, National Institutes of Health (NIH, ROI D0042157-01A, MH081802, Grand Opportunity grants 1 RC2 Ml-1089951 and IRC2 MH089995). Part of the genotyping and analyses were funded by the Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN) of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health. Computing was supported by BiG Grid, the Dutch e-Science Grid, which is financially supported by NWO. Work in the Del Bene lab was supported by the Programme Investissements d'Avenir IHU FOReSIGHT (ANR-18-IAHU-01). C.R. was supported by an EU Horizon 2020 Marie Sklodowska-Curie Action fellowship (H2020-MSCA-IF-2014 #661527). H.S. and K.S. are employees of deCODE Genetics/Amgen. The other authors declare no competing financial interests. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

10.
Pulm Circ ; 13(4): e12317, 2023 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38144948

RESUMEN

This manuscript on real-world evidence (RWE) in pulmonary hypertension (PH) incorporates the broad experience of members of the Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute's Innovative Drug Development Initiative Real-World Evidence Working Group. We aim to strengthen the research community's understanding of RWE in PH to facilitate clinical research advances and ultimately improve patient care. Herein, we review real-world data (RWD) sources, discuss challenges and opportunities when using RWD sources to study PH populations, and identify resources needed to support the generation of meaningful RWE for the global PH community.

11.
Med Care ; 61(12 Suppl 2): S153-S160, 2023 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37963035

RESUMEN

PCORnet, the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network, provides the ability to conduct prospective and observational pragmatic research by leveraging standardized, curated electronic health records data together with patient and stakeholder engagement. PCORnet is funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) and is composed of 8 Clinical Research Networks that incorporate at total of 79 health system "sites." As the network developed, linkage to commercial health plans, federal insurance claims, disease registries, and other data resources demonstrated the value in extending the networks infrastructure to provide a more complete representation of patient's health and lived experiences. Initially, PCORnet studies avoided direct economic comparative effectiveness as a topic. However, PCORI's authorizing law was amended in 2019 to allow studies to incorporate patient-centered economic outcomes in primary research aims. With PCORI's expanded scope and PCORnet's phase 3 beginning in January 2022, there are opportunities to strengthen the network's ability to support economic patient-centered outcomes research. This commentary will discuss approaches that have been incorporated to date by the network and point to opportunities for the network to incorporate economic variables for analysis, informed by patient and stakeholder perspectives. Topics addressed include: (1) data linkage infrastructure; (2) commercial health plan partnerships; (3) Medicare and Medicaid linkage; (4) health system billing-based benchmarking; (5) area-level measures; (6) individual-level measures; (7) pharmacy benefits and retail pharmacy data; and (8) the importance of transparency and engagement while addressing the biases inherent in linking real-world data sources.


Asunto(s)
Medicare , Evaluación del Resultado de la Atención al Paciente , Anciano , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Estudios Prospectivos , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Atención Dirigida al Paciente
12.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 21(1): 119, 2023 Nov 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37964336

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Quality in healthcare is a fundamental pillar of health systems performance, leading to improved health outcomes and reduced waste. The World Health Organization recommends that countries establish a national quality policy and strategy (NQPS) to steer the provision of safe and high-performing healthcare services and foster a quality culture. This paper describes the development process and key content of Malaysia's new 5-year National Policy for Quality in Healthcare. METHODS: The development process was managed by a technical working group led by the Institute for Health Systems Research in the Ministry of Health. Situational analysis was conducted through a multi-pronged approach, underpinned by a review of the past and present healthcare sectoral and quality plans and guided by the WHO NQPS framework. This approach involved: (i) review of quality-related policy documents, (ii) online surveys of healthcare providers and the public, (iii) key-informant facilitated discussions and (iv) mapping of existing quality improvement initiatives (QIIs). Data gathered from these approaches informed the content of the new policy. Following thematic analysis, the findings were grouped into specific domains, which were then organized into a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) framework. RESULTS: Ten key areas of concern identified were (i) a people-centred holistic approach, (ii) governance for quality, (iii) resources, (iv) quality culture, (v) stakeholder engagement, (vi) health management information system, (vii) workforce competency, (viii) knowledge exchange, (ix) quality indicators and (x) monitoring and evaluation of quality activities. These led to the formulation of seven strategic priorities  for the planning of improvements aimed at addressing the key areas of concern. The national definition of quality was affirmed. A total of 40 QIIs were mapped and grouped into three broad categories, namely (i) regulatory, (ii) domain-specific QIIs and (iii) Quality Improvement (QI) method. CONCLUSIONS: The National Policy for Quality in Healthcare for Malaysia was developed through a comprehensive situational analysis using a multi-method approach that identified priorities across national, state, institutional and community levels. This evidence-informed approach led to meaningful contextual adaptation of the NQPS framework to shape the strategic direction to advance quality and achieve effective and safe outcomes for all Malaysians.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Políticas , Humanos , Malasia , Instituciones de Salud
13.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2023 Nov 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38015445

RESUMEN

The European Molecular Biology Laboratory's European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) is one of the world's leading sources of public biomolecular data. Based at the Wellcome Genome Campus in Hinxton, UK, EMBL-EBI is one of six sites of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Europe's only intergovernmental life sciences organisation. This overview summarises the latest developments in the services provided by EMBL-EBI data resources to scientific communities globally. These developments aim to ensure EMBL-EBI resources meet the current and future needs of these scientific communities, accelerating the impact of open biological data for all.

14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(Suppl 7)2023 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37977589

RESUMEN

Unilateral approaches to global health innovations can be transformed into cocreative, uniquely collaborative relationships between low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) and high-income countries (HIC), constituted as 'reciprocal innovation' (RI). Since 2018, the Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (CTSI) and Indiana University (IU) Center for Global Health Equity have led a grants programme sculpted from the core elements of RI, a concept informed by a 30-year partnership started between IU (Indiana) and Moi University (Kenya), which leverages knowledge sharing, transformational learning and translational innovations to address shared health challenges. In this paper, we describe the evolution and implementation of an RI grants programme, as well as the challenges faced. We aim to share the successes of our RI engagement and encourage further funding opportunities to promote innovations grounded in the RI core elements. From the complex series of challenges encountered, three major lessons have been learnt: dedicating extensive time and resources to bring different settings together; establishing local linkages across investigators; and addressing longstanding inequities in global health research. We describe our efforts to address these challenges through educational materials and an online library of resources for RI projects. Using perspectives from RI investigators funded by this programme, we offer future directions resulting from our 5-year experience in applying this RI-focused approach. As the understanding and implementation of RI grow, global health investigators can share resources, knowledge and innovations that have the potential to significantly change the face of collaborative international research and address long-standing health inequities across diverse settings.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Equidad en Salud , Humanos , Renta , Promoción de la Salud , Kenia
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(11): 1398, 2023 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37910273

RESUMEN

As climate change strains the world's freshwater resources, access to safe and clean water becomes limited. The use of alternative water sources, such as rooftop-harvested rainwater, has become one mechanism to address freshwater scarcity in the American Southwest, particularly when it comes to home gardening. The University of Arizona's Project Harvest, in partnership with the Sonora Environmental Research Institute, Inc., is a multi-year, co-created citizen science project aimed at increasing current understanding of harvested rainwater quality. Citizens in four Arizona, USA, communities (Hayden/Winkelman, Globe/Miami, Dewey-Humboldt, and Tucson) submitted harvested rainwater samples over 3 years. The harvested rainwater samples were then analyzed using IDEXX Colilert® for total coliforms and E. coli and using Hach PathoScreen™ test for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). This study design allows for the validation of a low-cost, at-home alternative methodology for testing rainwater for bacteria that may indicate fecal contamination. In total, 226 samples were tested using both methodologies, revealing a positive correlation (r=0.245; p<0.002) between total coliform MPN and SRB MPN, but no discernable correlation between E. coli MPN and SRB MPN. This work indicates a potential value of SRB testing for harvested rainwater if cost, laboratory access, and fecal contamination are of concern.


Asunto(s)
Sulfuro de Hidrógeno , Abastecimiento de Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Escherichia coli , Lluvia , Agua , Microbiología del Agua
16.
Public Health Res (Southampt) ; 11(8): 1-139, 2023 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37795864

RESUMEN

Background: The need to engage boys in gender-transformative relationships and sexuality education (RSE) to reduce adolescent pregnancy is endorsed by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of If I Were Jack on the avoidance of unprotected sex and other sexual health outcomes. Design: A cluster randomised trial, incorporating health economics and process evaluations. Setting: Sixty-six schools across the four nations of the UK. Participants: Students aged 13-14 years. Intervention: A school-based, teacher-delivered, gender-transformative RSE intervention (If I Were Jack) versus standard RSE. Main outcome measures: Self-reported avoidance of unprotected sex (sexual abstinence or reliable contraceptive use at last sex) after 12-14 months. Secondary outcomes included knowledge, attitudes, skills, intentions and sexual behaviours. Results: The analysis population comprised 6556 students: 86.6% of students in the intervention group avoided unprotected sex, compared with 86.4% in the control group {adjusted odds ratio 0.85 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58 to 1.26], p = 0.42}. An exploratory post hoc analysis showed no difference for sexual abstinence [78.30% intervention group vs. 78.25% control group; adjusted odds ratio 0.85 (95% CI 0.58 to 1.24), p = 0.39], but more intervention group students than control group students used reliable contraception at last sex [39.62% vs. 26.36%; adjusted odds ratio 0.52 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.920), p = 0.025]. Students in schools allocated to receive the intervention had significantly higher scores on knowledge [adjusted mean difference 0.18 (95% CI 0.024 to 0.34), p = 0.02], gender-equitable attitudes and intentions to avoid unintended pregnancy [adjusted mean difference 0.61 (95% CI 0.16 to 1.07), p = 0.01] than students in schools allocated to receive the control. There were positive but non-significant differences in sexual self-efficacy and communication skills. The total mean incremental cost of the intervention compared with standard RSE was £2.83 (95% CI -£2.64 to £8.29) per student. Over a 20-year time horizon, the intervention is likely to be cost-effective owing to its impact on unprotected sex because it would result in 379 (95% CI 231 to 477) fewer unintended pregnancies, 680 (95% CI 189 to 1467) fewer sexually transmitted infections and a gain of 10 (95% CI 5 to 16) quality-adjusted life-years per 100,000 students for a cost saving of £9.89 (95% CI -£15.60 to -£3.83). Limitations: The trial is underpowered to detect some effects because four schools withdrew and the intraclass correlation coefficient (0.12) was larger than that in sample size calculation (0.01). Conclusions: We present, to our knowledge, the first evidence from a randomised trial that a school-based, male engagement gender-transformative RSE intervention, although not effective in increasing avoidance of unprotected sex (defined as sexual abstinence or use of reliable contraception at last sex) among all students, did increase the use of reliable contraception at last sex among students who were, or became, sexually active by 12-14 months after the intervention. The trial demonstrated that engaging all adolescents early through RSE is important so that, as they become sexually active, rates of unprotected sex are reduced, and that doing so is likely to be cost-effective. Future work: Future studies should consider the longer-term effects of gender-transformative RSE as students become sexually active. Gender-transformative RSE could be adapted to address broader sexual health and other settings. Trial registration: This trial is registered as ISRCTN10751359. Funding: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Public Health Research programme (PHR 15/181/01) and will be published in full in Public Health Research; Vol. 11, No. 8. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Adolescent pregnancy is often thought to be an issue for young women alone, but it is important to engage young men to tackle the problem and find solutions. The If I Were Jack intervention was especially designed to engage with boys as well as girls aged 14 years and to promote positive masculinity and gender equality to prevent adolescent pregnancy and promote positive sexual health. It uses tailored interactive films and resources, made with the help of students and teachers, to make it relevant to each of the four UK nations. This relationship and sexuality education intervention encourages adolescents to avoid unprotected sex by delaying sexual activity until they feel ready and to use reliable contraception once sexually active. It also promotes knowledge, attitudes (such as beliefs about gender and masculinities), skills and intentions for safe and pleasurable relationships. In this trial, we compared students in 33 schools randomly allocated to deliver the intervention with students in 33 schools that continued with their usual relationship and sexuality education practices. Four schools withdrew, two because of COVID-19 school closures. This left a total of 6556 students who completed questionnaires at the start of the study and 12­14 months later. Responses from all these students showed that If I Were Jack had a positive impact on knowledge, attitudes and intentions required for safe and pleasurable relationships, but did not have a significant effect on overall avoidance of unprotected sex. This was because the intervention had no effect on delaying sexual activity. However, we found that the intervention was effective in increasing the use of reliable contraception as students became sexually active, as well as for those who already were sexually active prior to receiving the intervention. We also found that If I Were Jack was likely to provide value for money by reducing unintended pregnancies and improving sexual health.


Asunto(s)
Embarazo en Adolescencia , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Embarazo en Adolescencia/prevención & control , Educación Sexual , Conducta Sexual , Anticoncepción
17.
BMC Neurol ; 23(1): 378, 2023 Oct 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37864139

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hearing loss predicts cognitive decline and falls risk. It has been argued that degraded hearing makes listening effortful, causing competition for higher-level cognitive resources needed for secondary cognitive or motor tasks. Therefore, executive function training has the potential to improve cognitive performance, in turn improving mobility, especially when older adults with hearing loss are engaged in effortful listening. Moreover, research using mobile neuroimaging and ecologically valid measures of cognition and mobility in this population is limited. The objective of this research is to examine the effect of at-home cognitive training on dual-task performance using laboratory and simulated real-world conditions in normal-hearing adults and older hearing aid users. We hypothesize that executive function training will lead to greater improvements in cognitive-motor dual-task performance compared to a wait-list control group. We also hypothesize that executive function training will lead to the largest dual-task improvements in older hearing aid users, followed by normal-hearing older adults, and then middle-aged adults. METHODS: A multi-site (Concordia University and KITE-Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, University Health Network) single-blinded randomized controlled trial will be conducted whereby participants are randomized to either 12 weeks of at-home computerized executive function training or a wait-list control. Participants will consist of normal-hearing middle-aged adults (45-60 years old) and older adults (65-80 years old), as well as older hearing aid users (65-80 years old, ≥ 6 months hearing aid experience). Separate samples will undergo the same training protocol and the same pre- and post-evaluations of cognition, hearing, and mobility across sites. The primary dual-task outcome measures will involve either static balance (KITE site) or treadmill walking (Concordia site) with a secondary auditory-cognitive task. Dual-task performance will be assessed in an immersive virtual reality environment in KITE's StreetLab and brain activity will be measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy at Concordia's PERFORM Centre. DISCUSSION: This research will establish the efficacy of an at-home cognitive training program on complex auditory and motor functioning under laboratory and simulated real-world conditions. This will contribute to rehabilitation strategies in order to mitigate or prevent physical and cognitive decline in older adults with hearing loss. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: NCT05418998. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05418998.


Asunto(s)
Audífonos , Pérdida Auditiva , Persona de Mediana Edad , Humanos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Función Ejecutiva , Terapia por Ejercicio/métodos , Cognición , Audición
18.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0132823, 2023 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37811997

RESUMEN

The Uganda Virus Research Institute, National Influenza Center laboratory integrated SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction testing and genomic sequencing into the influenza surveillance program that was established in 2007. A total of 7,698 nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swab samples were collected and analyzed from ILI/SARI sentinel sites across the country from January to December 2022. All samples were tested for influenza and SARS-CoV-2. Of these, 252 (3.3%), 162 (2.1%), and 589 (7.7%) were positive for influenza A, influenza B, and SARS-CoV-2, respectively. Out of 414 influenza-positive samples, 122 (29.5%) were AH1pdm09, 130 (31.4%) were AH3, and 162 (39.1%) were B-Victoria. All SARS-CoV-2 sequenced samples were of the Omicron variant, with subvariants of concern known to evade the immune system being detected, such as BQ.1 and XBB.2. Other SARS-CoV-2 positive samples collected from other health centers in the community outside the surveillance sites were included into SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequencing with similar patterns with respect to variants. In all, the ILI/SARI surveillance system has shown to be an efficient, cost-effective, and sustainable program, providing a ready platform to monitor the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in communities at the national level while remaining vigilant for the persistent threat of influenza. The integration of SARS-CoV-2 detection and genomic surveillance into the influenza surveillance program will strengthen the laboratory response capacity, as well as facilitate the timely release of SARS-CoV-2 genomic information to be used to complement the multiple response strategies for COVID-19 pandemic mitigation.IMPORTANCERespiratory pathogens cause high rates of morbidity and mortality globally and have high pandemic potential. During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, influenza surveillance was significantly interrupted because of resources being diverted to SARS-CoV-2 testing and sequencing. Based on recommendations from the World Health Organization, the Uganda Virus Research Institute, National Influenza Center laboratory integrated SARS-CoV-2 testing and genomic sequencing into the influenza surveillance program. We describe the results of influenza and SARS-CoV-2 testing of samples collected from 16 sentinel surveillance sites located throughout Uganda as well as SARS-CoV-2 testing and sequencing in other health centers. The surveillance system showed that both SARS-CoV-2 and influenza can be monitored in communities at the national level. The integration of SARS-CoV-2 detection and genomic surveillance into the influenza surveillance program will help facilitate the timely release of SARS-CoV-2 information for COVID-19 pandemic mitigation and provide important information regarding the persistent threat of influenza.

19.
S Afr Med J ; 113(9): 36-41, 2023 09 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37882122

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The population of people aged ≥60 years continues to increase globally, and has been projected by the United Nations Population Division to increase to 21% of the total population by 2050. In addition, the number of older people living with HIV has continued to increase owing to the introduction of antiretroviral therapy as a treatment for HIV-infected people. Most of the older people living with HIV are in sub-Saharan Africa, an area that faces the biggest burden of HIV globally. Despite the high burden, there are limited reliable data on how HIV directly and indirectly affects the health and wellbeing of older people within this region. OBJECTIVE: To showcase the availability of data on how HIV directly and indirectly affects the health and wellbeing of older people in Uganda and South Africa (SA). METHODS: The World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), in collaboration with Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (MRC/UVRI and LSHTM) Uganda Research Unit and the Africa Health Research Institute (AHRI) in SA, started the SAGE Wellbeing of Older People Study (WOPS) in Uganda and SA in 2009. Since initiation, respondents have been surveyed every 2 years, with four waves of surveys conducted in Uganda and three waves in South Africa. RESULTS: The available datasets consist of two cohorts of people, aged >50 years, who were surveyed every 2 years between 2009 and 2018. The prevalence of HIV positivity over this period increased from 39% to 54% in Uganda and 48% to 62% in SA. The datasets provide comparisons of variables at a household level and at an individual level. At the individual level, the following measures can be compared longitudinally for a 10-year period for the following variables: sociodemographic characteristics; work history and benefits; health states and descriptions; anthropometrics performance tests and biomarkers; risk factors and preventive health behaviours; chronic conditions and health services coverage; healthcare utilisation; social cohesion; subjective wellbeing and quality of life; and impact of caregiving. CONCLUSION: This article describes the WOPS in Uganda and SA, the population coverage of this study, and the survey frequency of WOPS, survey measures, data resources available, the data resource access and the strengths and weaknesses of the study. The article invites interested researchers to further analyse the data and answer research questions of interest to enhance the impact of these data.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Humanos , Anciano , Uganda/epidemiología , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
BMC Neurol ; 23(1): 373, 2023 Oct 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37858118

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and, according to the Global Burden of Disease estimates in 2015, was the fastest growing neurological disorder globally with respect to associated prevalence, disability, and deaths. Information regarding the awareness, diagnosis, phenotypic characteristics, epidemiology, prevalence, risk factors, treatment, economic impact and lived experiences of people with PD from the African perspective is relatively sparse in contrast to the developed world, and much remains to be learned from, and about, the continent. METHODS: Transforming Parkinson's Care in Africa (TraPCAf) is a multi-faceted, mixed-methods, multi-national research grant. The study design includes multiple sub-studies, combining observational (qualitative and quantitative) approaches for the epidemiological, clinical, risk factor and lived experience components, as appropriate, and interventional methods (clinical trial component). The aim of TraPCAf is to describe and gain a better understanding of the current situation of PD in Africa. The countries included in this National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Global Health Research Group (Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa and Tanzania) represent diverse African geographies and genetic profiles, with differing resources, healthcare systems, health and social protection schemes, and policies. The research team is composed of experts in the field with vast experience in PD, jointly led by a UK-based and Africa-based investigator. DISCUSSION: Despite the increasing prevalence of PD globally, robust data on the disease from Africa are lacking. Existing data point towards the poor awareness of PD and other neurological disorders on the continent and subsequent challenges with stigma, and limited access to affordable services and medication. This multi-site study will be the first of its kind in Africa. The data collected across the proposed sub-studies will provide novel and conclusive insights into the situation of PD. The selected country sites will allow for useful comparisons and make results relevant to other low- and middle-income countries. This grant is timely, as global recognition of PD and the public health challenge it poses builds. The work will contribute to broader initiatives, including the World Health Organization's Intersectoral global action plan on epilepsy and other neurological disorders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN77014546 .


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Enfermedad de Parkinson , Humanos , Enfermedad de Parkinson/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Parkinson/terapia , Atención a la Salud , Sudáfrica , Nigeria
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