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1.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-13192

RESUMEN

Durante a Oficina do Projeto BVS Saúde Indígena (TA4/TC93), realizada pela BIREME/OPAS/OMS com SESAI/MS no Dia Nacional dos Povos Indígenas, Giovana Cruz Mandulão, Coordenadora-Geral de Gestão do Conhecimento, da Informação, da Avaliação e do Monitoramento da Secretaria de Saúde Indígena, realiza intervenção em homenagem e defesa dos povos indígenas do Brasil.


Asunto(s)
Brasil/etnología , Derechos Humanos , Indígenas Sudamericanos , Territorio Sociocultural , Pueblos Indígenas , Violencia Étnica , Discurso , Salud de Poblaciones Indígenas
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12684, 2024 06 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830920

RESUMEN

Climate change is recognised to lead to spatial shifts in the distribution of small pelagic fish, likely by altering their environmental optima. Fish supply along the Northwest African coast is significant at both socio-economic and cultural levels. Evaluating the impacts of climatic change on small pelagic fish is a challenge and of serious concern in the context of shared stock management. Evaluating the impact of climate change on the distribution of small pelagic fish, a trend analysis was conducted using data from 2363 trawl samplings and 170,000 km of acoustics sea surveys. Strong warming is reported across the Southern Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME), extending from Morocco to Senegal. Over 34 years, several trends emerged, with the southern CCLME experiencing increases in both wind speed and upwelling intensity, particularly where the coastal upwelling was already the strongest. Despite upwelling-induced cooling mechanisms, sea surface temperature (SST) increased in most areas, indicating the complex interplay of climatic-related stressors in shaping the marine ecosystem. Concomitant northward shifts in the distribution of small pelagic species were attributed to long-term warming trends in SST and a decrease in marine productivity in the south. The abundance of Sardinella aurita, the most abundant species along the coast, has increased in the subtropics and fallen in the intertropical region. Spatial shifts in biomass were observed for other exploited small pelagic species, similar to those recorded for surface isotherms. An intensification in upwelling intensity within the northern and central regions of the system is documented without a change in marine primary productivity. In contrast, upwelling intensity is stable in the southern region, while there is a decline in primary productivity. These environmental differences affected several small pelagic species across national boundaries. This adds a new threat to these recently overexploited fish stocks, making sustainable management more difficult. Such changes must motivate common regional policy considerations for food security and sovereignty in all West African countries sharing the same stocks.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Ecosistema , Peces , Seguridad Alimentaria , Animales , Peces/fisiología , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Temperatura
5.
Glob Health Action ; 17(1): 2342634, 2024 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726584

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Financial exclusion is a human rights issue affecting health equity. Evidence demonstrates that financial exclusion is exacerbated for people with disability and those in low- to middle-income countries (LMIC). Barriers to financial access include limited demand for services, banking inadequacies in catering to people with disability, and insufficiently accessible information technologies (ICT) and infrastructure. OBJECTIVES: This scoping review sought to identify barriers to and facilitators of financial inclusion for people with disability in LMIC. As a secondary objective, the study explored the potential of financial education and ICT utilisation as viable strategies for enhancing financial inclusion. METHODS: This review utilised the Arksey and O'Malley framework and PRISMA Checklist for systematic literature examination and data extraction. The WHO's Environmental Factors guided the analysis to propose potential interventions and to generate recommendations. RESULTS: The review analysed 26 publications from various global regions and fields including finance, business, technology, health and disability policy. It identified consistent financial inclusion barriers for people with disability, resulting in a set of global recommendations across attitudes, environment, technology, services, and policy. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations include using ICT, digital innovation and multi-stakeholder collaboration to address the financial barriers experienced by people with disability. These efforts, rooted in social justice, aim to include people with disability in LMIC as valued financial sector participants, promoting health and equity.


Main findings: There are global access barriers and enablers to financial inclusion for people living with disability. Recommendations to improve access include countering stigma and attitudinal barriers, engaging in user centred design of financial services,providing financial education and ensuring accessibility of assistive technology and ICT, along with the physical environment of the bank.Added knowledge: This study reviews the literature and offers a global overview of financial inclusion for people with disabilities, along with recommendations for universally applicable actions to enhance access.Global health impact for policy and action: Identifying barriers to financial inclusion and suggesting strategies to overcome them provides valuable guidance for policymakers and advocates working to improve access to financial services for people with disability.


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo , Personas con Discapacidad , Humanos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Equidad en Salud , Derechos Humanos
7.
Cuad Bioet ; 35(113): 41-57, 2024.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734922

RESUMEN

n recent decades there has been an undeniable inflationary process of human rights that has contributed to their trivialization and consequent discrediting. It is not surprising that after the third generation of rights there is no longer agreement on the content and scope of the following generations, which include rights whose subject is not the human being (but nature, the environment or animals) or, if it is, the individual claims from the State his right to satisfy a desire that he feels is necessary for his personal development. The emergence of ″desire-rights″ is the clearest proof of this inflationary and arbitrary process of human rights, radically transforming the entire human rights system. This article studies the emergence of these desire-rights, showing their historical origins and main philosophical presuppositions, as well as their most common characteristic features.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Cultura , Características Culturales
8.
Lancet Planet Health ; 8(5): e284, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729668
9.
Georgian Med News ; (348): 154-160, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38807410

RESUMEN

There is no health without mental health. The rich links between mind, body and the environment have been well-documented for decades. As the third decade of the millennium begins, nowhere in the world has achieved parity between mental and physical health and this remains a significant human development challenge. An important message within that collective failure is that without addressing human rights seriously, any investment in mental health will not be effective. Attacks on universal human rights principles threaten the physical, political, social, and economic environment, and actively undermine the struggle for positive mental health and well-being. Mental health systems worldwide are dominated by a reductionist biomedical model that uses medicalization to justify coercion as a systemic practice and qualifies the diverse human responses to harmful underlying and social determinants (such as inequalities, discrimination, and violence) as "disorders" that need treatment. In such a context, the main principles of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities are actively undermined and neglected. This approach ignores evidence that effective investments should target populations, relationships, and other determinants, rather than individuals and their brains. How that dominance is overcome requires transformative human rights action. However, action that focuses only on strengthening failing mental health-care systems and institutions is not compliant with the right to health. The locus of the action must be recalibrated to strengthen communities and expand evidence-based practice that reflects a diversity of experiences. Such community-led recalibration enables the necessary social integration and connection required to promote mental health and well-being more effectively and humanely.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Trastornos Mentales , Humanos , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Enfermos Mentales/legislación & jurisprudencia
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0304034, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38814969

RESUMEN

Internal displacement of populations due to armed conflicts can substantially impact a region's Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) and the efforts towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of conflict-driven Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) on vegetation cover and environmental sustainability in the Kas locality of Darfur, Sudan. Supervised classification and change analysis were performed on Sentinel-2 satellite images for the years 2016 and 2022 using QGIS software. The Sentinel-2 Level 2A data were analysed using the Random Forest (RF) Machine Learning (ML) classifier. Five land cover types were successfully classified (agricultural land, vegetation cover, built-up area, sand, and bareland) with overall accuracies of more than 86% and Kappa coefficients greater than 0.74. The results revealed a 35.33% (-10.20 km2) decline in vegetation cover area over the six-year study period, equivalent to an average annual loss rate of -5.89% (-1.70 km2) of vegetation cover. In contrast, agricultural land and built-up areas increased by 17.53% (98.12 km2) and 60.53% (5.29 km2) respectively between the two study years. The trends of the changes among different LULC classes suggest potential influences of human activities especially the IDPs, natural processes, and a combination of both in the study area. This study highlights the impacts of IDPs on natural resources and land cover patterns in a conflict-affected region. It also offers pertinent data that can support decision-makers in restoring the affected areas and preventing further environmental degradation for sustainability.


Asunto(s)
Conflictos Armados , Refugiados , Sudán , Humanos , Imágenes Satelitales , Agricultura , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Ambiente , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos
11.
Kit de ferramentas de transformação digitalOPAS/EIH/IS/23-0013.
Monografía en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-59552

RESUMEN

Um dos oito princípios orientadores da transformação digital no setor de saúde promovidos pela Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde é o dos direitos humanos. Esta sinopse de políticas apresenta conceitos chave, linhas de ação recomendadas e indicadores para monitoramento, com o objetivo de avançar nesse domínio.


Asunto(s)
Salud Digital , Derechos Humanos
12.
Cairo; World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean; 2024-05.
en Inglés | WHO IRIS | ID: who-376750

RESUMEN

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development includes a vision of healthy lives and well-being for all at all ages. This major report provides an update on progress towards the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region. It presents regional trends between 2010 and 2022 for 50 health-related SDG indicators using available data from WHO and estimates from other United Nations agencies. The report reveals some successes at the country level amid a marked slowdown regionally with setbacks across indicators on health health risks and determinants and access to services. We are at the halfway point for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: to reverse current trends and ensure the health and well-being of our population we must take bold steps now.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Sostenible , Objetivos , Pobreza , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Trastornos Nutricionales , Hambre , Promoción de la Salud , Agricultura , Educación , Equidad de Género , Abastecimiento de Agua , Saneamiento , Derecho al Trabajo , Desarrollo Económico , Justicia Social , Región Mediterránea
15.
J Law Med Ethics ; 52(1): 196-204, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38818607

RESUMEN

This Paper argues that to protect at-risk communities - and all Americans - from the deadly effects of environmental racism, Congress must pass the Environmental Justice for All Act. The Act is intended to "restore, reaffirm, and reconcile environmental justice and civil rights." It does so by restoring an individual's right to sue in federal court for discrimination based on race, ethnicity, or national origin regardless of intent under the Civil Rights Act of 1964, strengthening the National Environmental Policy Act, and providing economic incentives focused on environmental justice.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Racismo , Humanos , Racismo/legislación & jurisprudencia , Estados Unidos , Neoplasias/prevención & control , Derechos Civiles/legislación & jurisprudencia , Justicia Ambiental
17.
BMC Med Ethics ; 25(1): 62, 2024 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773588

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Respect for human rights and bioethical principles in prisons is a crucial aspect of society and is proportional to the well-being of the general population. To date, these ethical principles have been lacking in prisons and prisoners are victims of abuse with strong repercussions on their physical and mental health. METHODS: A systematic review was performed, through a MESH of the following words (bioethics) AND (prison), (ethics) AND (prison), (bioethics) AND (jail), (ethics) AND (jail), (bioethics) AND (penitentiary), (ethics) AND (penitentiary), (prison) AND (human rights). Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and after PRISMA, 17 articles were included in the systematic review. RESULTS: Of the 17 articles, most were prevalence studies (n.5) or surveys (n.4), followed by cross-sectional studies (n.3), qualitative studies (n.1), retrospective (n.1) and an explanatory sequential mixed-methods study design (n.1). In most cases, the studies associated bioethics with prisoners' access to treatment for various pathologies such as vaccinations, tuberculosis, hepatitis, HIV, it was also found that bioethics in prisons was related to the mental health of prisoners, disability, ageing, the condition of women, the risk of suicide or with the request for end-of-life by prisoners. The results showed shortcomings in the system of maintaining bioethical principles and respect for human rights. CONCLUSIONS: Prisoners, in fact, find it difficult to access care, and have an increased risk of suicide and disability. Furthermore, they are often used as improper organ donors and have constrained autonomy that also compromises their willingness to have end-of-life treatments. In conclusion, prison staff (doctors, nurses, warders, managers) must undergo continuous refresher courses to ensure compliance with ethical principles and human rights in prisons.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Prisioneros , Prisiones , Humanos , Respeto , Discusiones Bioéticas , Bioética , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/ética
19.
Indian J Med Ethics ; IX(2): 154-158, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755770

RESUMEN

This commentary looks at the Kerala Public Health Act (KPHA), passed on November 28, 2023, through the lens of public health ethics. While the Act recognises the importance of prevention and strengthening of social systems, it falters in the public health ethics and human rights framework, ignoring international public health principles such as the Siracusa Principles and guidelines for individual diseases such as tuberculosis. The Covid-19 pandemic in India itself offers ample learnings, which have been disregarded, on the need for caution against state overreach. Principles such as autonomy, privacy/confidentiality, transparency, accountability, rule of law, least harm etc have not even been given token consideration, making this law a potential tool of abuse, particularly against already vulnerable communities.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Pública , Humanos , India , COVID-19/prevención & control , Salud Pública/ética , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , SARS-CoV-2 , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Pandemias
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