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1.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA ; 11(6): e1598, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441456

RESUMEN

It has been nearly 63 years since the first characterization of an RNA triple helix in vitro by Gary Felsenfeld, David Davies, and Alexander Rich. An RNA triple helix consists of three strands: A Watson-Crick RNA double helix whose major-groove establishes hydrogen bonds with the so-called "third strand". In the past 15 years, it has been recognized that these major-groove RNA triple helices, like single-stranded and double-stranded RNA, also mediate prominent biological roles inside cells. Thus far, these triple helices are known to mediate catalysis during telomere synthesis and RNA splicing, bind to ligands and ions so that metabolite-sensing riboswitches can regulate gene expression, and provide a clever strategy to protect the 3' end of RNA from degradation. Because RNA triple helices play important roles in biology, there is a renewed interest in better understanding the fundamental properties of RNA triple helices and developing methods for their high-throughput discovery. This review provides an overview of the fundamental biochemical and structural properties of major-groove RNA triple helices, summarizes the structure and function of naturally occurring RNA triple helices, and describes prospective strategies to isolate RNA triple helices as a means to establish the "triplexome". This article is categorized under: RNA Structure and Dynamics > RNA Structure and Dynamics RNA Structure and Dynamics > RNA Structure, Dynamics and Chemistry RNA Structure and Dynamics > Influence of RNA Structure in Biological Systems.

2.
J Med Humanit ; 41(1): 21-39, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879836

RESUMEN

This essay brings together critical perspectives from the discrete traditions of artists' books and the medical humanities to examine artists' books by three contemporary artists - Penny Alexander, Martha A. Hall and Amanda Watson-Will - that treat experiences of illness and wellbeing. Through its focus on a multimodal and multisensory art form that has allegiances with, but is not reduced to, narrative, the essay adds to recent calls to rethink key assumptions of illness narrative study and to challenge utilitarian approaches. In particular, it draws attention to the aesthetic and imaginative elements of illness communication by exploring how artists' books represent lived experiences in a distinctively palpable way and offer an "intimate authority" that extends beyond narrative legitimacy or a form of struggle against the medical gaze. By interrogating narrative's dominance in medical humanities research, the essay further expands awareness of illness experiences that resist conventional forms of representation (such as chronic illness), and of alternative reflective practices within healthcare education that encourage engagement with both mind and body.


Asunto(s)
Arte , Libros , Estética , Humanidades , Relaciones Interpersonales
3.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 9(1)ene.-jun. 2017.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-844918

RESUMEN

En una lista de 15 descubrimientos relevantes del siglo XX, la revista TIME incluyó los siete siguientes: 1. Descubrimiento de la Penicilina --- Sir Alexander Fleming, 1927 2. La radiodifusión y televisión --- Reginald Aubrey, John Logie Baird, 1925 3. El descubrimiento del Láser --- A. Rutherford, 1913 4. El descubrimiento del código genético --- James Watson, Francis Crick, 1953 5. La creación del microchip y la fibra óptica --- Karmeling Onnes, 1970 6. Aislamiento del virus VIH --- Luc Montagnier, 1983 7. La clonación completa de un ser vivo (oveja Dolly) --- Ian Wilmut, 1997 La Informática Médica tiene que ver con cada uno de estos siete jalones epocales. El descubrimiento de una molécula capaz de atacar microorganismos invasores sin afectar las células del organismo huésped permitió salvar decenas de millones de vidas. Si bien la penicilina fue descubierta por accidente, en nuestro tiempo se utilizan herramientas bioinformáticas para diseñar nuevos antibióticos. El QSAR y el acoplamiento molecular o docking están entre los enfoques más prometedores para combatir infecciones desde la bioinformática. La radiodifusión, la televisión, los microchips y la fibra óptica aparecen como los precursores del andamiaje tecnológico sobre el que se sustenta la telemedicina, un quehacer que ha permitido poner los avances de la medicina moderna al servicio de las comunidades rurales apartadas. El modelo de reconocimiento resonante desarrollado por Irena Cosic ha mostrado la posibilidad teórica de utilizar la radiación Laser coherente y de baja intensidad para combatir infecciones y tratar otras enfermedades, lo que promete ser una alternativa viable a la farmacoterapia. El descubrimiento del código genético fue la antesala del desciframiento del genoma humano y de numerosas especies biológicas. Sobre ese edificio se sustenta la bioinformática moderna. Las herramientas bioinformáticas nos han propuesto nuevos enfoques para combatir el virus del VIH, la pandemia que ha condenado a muerte a millones de personas, especialmente en el continente africano. Hoy las técnicas de clonación se combinan con enfoques bioinformáticos para combatir diferentes enfermedades, el cáncer entre ellas. A diferencia de otras ciencias biomédicas, la informática médica requiere de una menor cantidad de recursos y si se la logra utilizar con eficiencia, puede colocar a muchos grupos de investigaciones en nuestro país entre la avanzada de la investigación biomédica mundial. Desde las páginas de nuestra revista estamos apostando por ese camino desde hace ya 17 años, y aspiramos a más(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XX , Informática Médica/normas , Investigación Científica y Desarrollo Tecnológico
4.
Behav Anal ; 37(1): 1-12, 2014 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27274955

RESUMEN

Developments culminating in the nineteenth century, along with the predictable collapse of introspective psychology, meant that the rise of behavioral psychology was inevitable. In 1913, John B. Watson was an established scientist with impeccable credentials who acted as a strong and combative promoter of a natural science approach to psychology when just such an advocate was needed. He never claimed to have founded "behavior psychology" and, despite the acclaim and criticism attending his portrayal as the original behaviorist, he was more an exemplar of a movement than a founder. Many influential writers had already characterized psychology, including so-called mental activity, as behavior, offered many applications, and rejected metaphysical dualism. Among others, William Carpenter, Alexander Bain, and (early) Sigmund Freud held views compatible with twentieth-century behaviorism. Thus, though Watson was the first to argue specifically for psychology as a natural science, behaviorism in both theory and practice had clear roots long before 1913. If behaviorism really needs a "founder," Edward Thorndike might seem more deserving, because of his great influence and promotion of an objective psychology, but he was not a true behaviorist for several important reasons. Watson deserves the fame he has received, since he first made a strong case for a natural science (behaviorist) approach and, importantly, he made people pay attention to it.

5.
Br J Neurosurg ; 16(2): 96-9; discussion 99-101, 2002 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12046746

RESUMEN

On the basis of the judgements of the Court of First Instance, and of the Court of Appeal, (Michael Alexander Watson versus British Board of Control Limited) the causation aspects of two sequential acute subdural haematomas sustained by a boxer, are critically examined. The beneficial effects in this case of 'resuscitation' at the ringside, and its feasibility, are very doubtful. So also are the practicability and benefit of direct transfer to a neurosurgical department, with the timing of operation being advanced by some 45 minutes, or more probably by only 15 minutes.


Asunto(s)
Boxeo/lesiones , Hematoma Subdural Agudo/complicaciones , Hematoma Subdural Agudo/cirugía , Adulto , Boxeo/legislación & jurisprudencia , Inglaterra , Humanos , Responsabilidad Legal , Masculino , Resucitación , Factores de Tiempo
6.
Anesthesiol Clin North Am ; 18(3): 663-76, 2000 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10989714

RESUMEN

Telemedicine began from the humble beginnings of the first telephone call from Alexander Graham Bell to his associate, Watson. These systems already have been used for educational programs, consultative care, image transfer, second opinions, and direct acute patient care. Most of the original programs failed because of several reasons, primarily because of lack of funding when a grant ended. The major lesson of these programs is that a solid business plan is needed initially for long-term survival. The reliability of telemedical examinations has been demonstrated superficially, but more conclusive work in this area is needed. Studies that evaluate clinical, financial, and satisfaction outcomes are required simultaneously. Further integration of medical informatics into telemedicine systems is needed before these systems can achieve more acceptance. Twenty years ago, few people predicted this technologic revolution. Innovations arise almost daily. The future seems promising for telemedical systems, but much work is required. Partnerships with industry must move beyond niche projects, and regulatory and medicolegal issues must be resolved. Anesthesiologists can expect their practice to be affected directly by technology, and should embrace it, evaluate it, and help lead its use in this millennium.


Asunto(s)
Telemedicina , Humanos , Atención Perioperativa , Mecanismo de Reembolso , Telemedicina/economía , Telemedicina/legislación & jurisprudencia
7.
Ann Clin Biochem ; 34 ( Pt 5): 460-510, 1997 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9293303

RESUMEN

Requirements for the provision of an efficient and reliable service for drugs of abuse screening in urine have been summarized in Part I of this review. The requirements included rapid turn-around times, good communications between requesting clinicians and the laboratory, and participation in quality assessment schemes. In addition, the need for checking/confirmation of positive results obtained for preliminary screening methods was stressed. This aspect of the service has assumed even greater importance with widespread use of dip-stick technology and the increasing number of reasons for which drug screening is performed. Many of these additional uses of drug screening have possible serious legal implications, for example, screening school pupils, professional footballers, parents involved in child custody cases, persons applying for renewal of a driving licence after disqualification for a drug-related offence, doctors seeking re-registration after removal for drug abuse, and checking for compliance with terms of probation orders; as well as pre-employment screening and work-place testing. In many cases these requests will be received from a general practitioner or drug clinic with no indication of the reason for which testing has been requested. This also raises the serious problems of a chain of custody, provision of two samples, stability of samples, and secure and lengthy storage of samples in the laboratory-samples may be requested by legal authorities several months after the initial testing. The need for confirmation of positive results is now widely accepted but it may be equally important to confirm unexpected negative results. Failure to detect the presence of maintenance drugs may lead to the patient being discharged from a drug treatment clinic and, if attendance at the clinic is one of the terms of continued employment, to dismissal. It seems likely that increasing abuse of drugs and the efforts of regulatory authorities to control this, will lead to the manufacture of more designer drugs. Production of substituted phenethylamines was facilitated by the drug makers' cook book, 'PIHKAL' (Phenethylamines I Have Known And Loved) by Dr Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin, and production of substituted tryptamines is promised in their next book, TIHKAL. Looking to the future, laboratories will need to ensure that they can detect and quantitate an ever-increasing number of drugs and related substances. The question of confidence in results of drugs of abuse testing raised in 1993 by Watson has assumed even greater importance as a result of attention focused on the OJ Simpson trial in Los Angeles. Toxicological investigations are likely to be challenged more frequently in the future. Even if analyses have been performed by GC-MS, there is a need to establish the level of match between the spectrum of the unknown substance and a library spectrum which is considered acceptable for legal purposes. It will also be essential to ensure that computer libraries contain spectra for all substances likely to be encountered in drugs of abuse screening.


Asunto(s)
Barbitúricos/orina , Buprenorfina/orina , Cannabinoides/orina , Dietilamida del Ácido Lisérgico/orina , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias/métodos , Benzodiazepinas/sangre , Benzodiazepinas/orina , Buprenorfina/sangre , Ciclizina/análisis , Dextropropoxifeno/análisis , Combinación de Medicamentos , Fentanilo/orina , Humanos , Ketamina/sangre , Ketamina/orina , Metadona/análogos & derivados , Metadona/análisis , Metadona/sangre , Metadona/orina , Pentazocina/análisis
8.
J Biol Chem ; 271(24): 14596-603, 1996 Jun 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8662961

RESUMEN

The differentiated spores of Dictyostelium are surrounded by an extracellular matrix, the spore coat, which protects them from environmental factors allowing them to remain viable for extended periods of time. This presumably is a major evolutionary advantage. This unique extracellular matrix is composed of cellulose and glycoproteins. Previous work has shown that some of these spore coat glycoproteins exist as a preassembled multiprotein complex (the PsB multiprotein complex) which is stored in the prespore vesicles (Watson, N., McGuire, V., and Alexander, S (1994) J. Cell Sci. 107, 2567-2579). Later in development, the complex is synchronously secreted from the prespore vesicles and incorporated into the spore coat. We now have shown that the PsB complex has a specific in vitro cellulose binding activity. The analysis of mutants lacking individual subunits of the PsB complex revealed the relative order of assembly of the subunit proteins and demonstrated that the protein subunits must be assembled for cellulose binding activity. These results provide a biochemical explanation for the localization of this multiprotein complex in the spore coat.


Asunto(s)
Dictyostelium/metabolismo , Proteínas de la Matriz Extracelular/biosíntesis , Glicoproteínas/biosíntesis , Animales , Celulosa/metabolismo , Cromatografía de Afinidad , Dictyostelium/genética , Dictyostelium/crecimiento & desarrollo , Disacáridos , Epítopos/análisis , Matriz Extracelular/fisiología , Glicoproteínas/aislamiento & purificación , Sustancias Macromoleculares , Modelos Estructurales , Monosacáridos , Complejos Multiproteicos , Esporas Fúngicas
9.
Aust N Z J Surg ; 61(10): 780-8, 1991 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1929980

RESUMEN

This paper concerns a dispute at the Adelaide Hospital in September 1896 between Professor Archibald Watson, Pathologist, Honorary Consulting Surgeon and sole remaining University teacher at the hospital, and Alexander Disney Leith Napier, who had arrived from England to fill the place of the honorary surgeons who had resigned from the hospital. Watson accused Napier of incompetence in his management of 'Mrs L.', who died after a femoral hernia operation. Mrs L had a form of internal hernia causing intestinal obstruction, whereas all the medical attendants, including Watson, originally thought an old femoral hernia was the cause of her illness. By fortuitous coincidence the operation on the femoral hernia could have cured the internal hernia if the band of omentum attached to the femoral hernia had been divided. Watson became aware of the band at the post-mortem and then asserted that the operation should have taken it into account. Napier complained to the Board of the Hospital, alleging that Watson had misrepresented the facts when he conducted the post-mortem on the patient and that he was disloyal to the hospital. The Board found the complaint proved and invited Watson to resign; he declined and was dismissed. Undaunted, Watson circulated a privately printed pamphlet (entitled 'Mrs L.'s case'), which re-stated the events of the case and graphically described his post-mortem findings. It was submitted to the Chairman of a Select Committee of the Legislative Council of South Australia established to review the running of the hospital. The Committee recommended the setting up of a Royal Commission but the Government let the matter lapse.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)


Asunto(s)
Cirugía General/historia , Hernia Femoral/cirugía , Historia del Siglo XIX , Hospitales de Enseñanza/historia , Humanos , Obstrucción Intestinal/cirugía , Australia del Sur
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