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Impact of dedicated space, dialysis equipment, and nursing staff on the transmission of hepatitis C virus in a hemodialysis unit of the middle east.
Am J Infect Control ; 31(1): 26-33, 2003 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12548254
ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:

Infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is endemic in hemodialysis (HD) units, especially in Middle Eastern countries. The meticulous isolation policy recommended for patients with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in an HD unit resulted in a significant drop in HBV incidence globally. This study was developed to prospectively investigate the impact of an identical isolation policy on incidence of nosocomial HCV infection in this HD unit of the Middle East.

METHODS:

In phase I of the study, we retrospectively reviewed the records of 189 patients with a mean age of 47.5 +/- 11.4 years (range, 15-85 years) who were receiving maintenance HD from December 7, 1995, to December 6, 2000, for the mean duration of 73 +/- 6.3 months (range, 3-144 months) to record the prevalence of HCV. Factors such as blood transfusions and dialytic age (time span that patient has received dialysis since its initiation) implicated in transmission of HCV in the HD unit also were recorded. Phase II involved stringent isolation of anti-HCV positive patients detected during phase I through provision of dedicated space, dialysis equipment, and nursing staff from December 7, 2000, to December 6, 2001. Liver function and anti-HCV tests were repeated for all the 198 patients every 6 months to identify new HCV seroconversions.

RESULTS:

An HCV prevalence rate of 43.9% (83/189) and an annual HCV seroconversion rate of 6.8% were identified in this cohort. No significant association with blood tranfusion was observed. Eighty-three anti-HCV positive (43.9%) patients had a mean dialytic age of 48.5 +/- 14.2 months compared with 25.0 +/- 8.6 months among 106 (56.1%) anti-HCV negative patients (relative risk [RR], 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-5.86; P <.001). Only 2 new HCV seroconversions (1.01% [2/198]) were identified.

CONCLUSIONS:

Evidently, the sharing of facilities in a high-risk HD environment for a prolonged dialytic age facilitates the nosocomial transmission of HCV infection. A significant decline of annual seroconversion rate from 6.8% to 1.01% (odds ratio [OR], 7.535; 95% CI, 1.598-48.89; P <.005) suggests that a comprehensive, strictly enforced isolation policy for HCV-positive patients may play a significant role in limiting HCV transmission in HD units, just as it has in drastically reducing HBV transmission in these settings.
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Coleções: Bases de dados internacionais Base de dados: MEDLINE Assunto principal: Isolamento de Pacientes / Infecção Hospitalar / Controle de Infecções / Hepatite C / Unidades Hospitalares de Hemodiálise Aspecto clínico: Etiologia Limite: Adolescente / Adulto / Idoso / Feminino / Humanos / Masculino / Meia-Idade País/Região como assunto: Ásia Idioma: Inglês Revista: Am J Infect Control Ano de publicação: 2003 Tipo de documento: Artigo