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Initiation of the ice phase by marine biogenic surfaces in supersaturated gas and supercooled aqueous phases.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(44): 19882-94, 2011 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21912788
ABSTRACT
Biogenic particles have the potential to affect the formation of ice crystals in the atmosphere with subsequent consequences for the hydrological cycle and climate. We present laboratory observations of heterogeneous ice nucleation in immersion and deposition modes under atmospherically relevant conditions initiated by Nannochloris atomus and Emiliania huxleyi, marine phytoplankton with structurally and chemically distinct cell walls. Temperatures at which freezing, melting, and water uptake occur are observed using optical microscopy. The intact and fragmented unarmoured cells of N. atomus in aqueous NaCl droplets enhance ice nucleation by 10-20 K over the homogeneous freezing limit and can be described by a modified water activity based ice nucleation approach. E. huxleyi cells covered by calcite plates do not enhance droplet freezing temperatures. Both species nucleate ice in the deposition mode at an ice saturation ratio, S(ice), as low as ~1.2 and below 240 K, however, for each, different nucleation modes occur at warmer temperatures. These observations show that markedly different biogenic surfaces have both comparable and contrasting effects on ice nucleation behaviour depending on the presence of the aqueous phase and the extent of supercooling and water vapour supersaturation. We derive heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients, J(het), and cumulative ice nuclei spectra, K, for quantification and analysis using time-dependent and time-independent approaches, respectively. Contact angles, α, derived from J(het)via immersion freezing depend on T, a(w), and S(ice). For deposition freezing, α can be described as a function of S(ice) only. The different approaches yield different predictions of atmospheric ice crystal numbers primarily due to the time evolution allowed for the time-dependent approach with implications for the evolution of mixed-phase and ice clouds.
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Texto completo: Disponível Coleções: Bases de dados internacionais Base de dados: MEDLINE Assunto principal: Água / Gases / Gelo Aspecto clínico: Predição / Prognóstico Idioma: Inglês Revista: Phys Chem Chem Phys Assunto da revista: Biofísica / Química Ano de publicação: 2011 Tipo de documento: Artigo País de afiliação: Estados Unidos