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Improving photosynthesis, plant productivity and abiotic stress tolerance - current trends and future perspectives.
J Plant Physiol ; 231: 415-433, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412849
ABSTRACT
With unfavourable climate changes and an increasing global population, there is a great need for more productive and stress-tolerant crops. As traditional methods of crop improvement have probably reached their limits, a further increase in the productivity of crops is expected to be possible using genetic engineering. The number of potential genes and metabolic pathways, which when genetically modified could result in improved photosynthesis and biomass production, is multiple. Photosynthesis, as the only source of carbon required for the growth and development of plants, attracts much attention is this respect, especially the question concerning how to improve CO2 fixation and limit photorespiration. The most promising direction for increasing CO2 assimilation is implementating carbon concentrating mechanisms found in cyanobacteria and algae into crop plants, while hitherto performed experiments on improving the CO2 fixation versus oxygenation reaction catalyzed by Rubisco are less encouraging. On the other hand, introducing the C4 pathway into C3 plants is a very difficult challenge. Among other points of interest for increased biomass production is engineering of metabolic regulation, certain proteins, nucleic acids or phytohormones. In this respect, enhanced sucrose synthesis, assimilate translocation to sink organs and starch synthesis is crucial, as is genetic engineering of the phytohormone metabolism. As abiotic stress tolerance is one of the key factors determining crop productivity, extensive studies are being undertaken to develop transgenic plants characterized by elevated stress resistance. This can be accomplished due to elevated synthesis of antioxidants, osmoprotectants and protective proteins. Among other promising targets for the genetic engineering of plants with elevated stress resistance are transcription factors that play a key role in abiotic stress responses of plants. In this review, most of the approaches to improving the productivity of plants that are potentially promising and have already been undertaken are described. In addition to this, the limitations faced, potential challenges and possibilities regarding future research are discussed.
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Texto completo: Disponível Coleções: Bases de dados internacionais Base de dados: MEDLINE Assunto principal: Fotossíntese / Desenvolvimento Vegetal / Produção Agrícola Idioma: Inglês Revista: J Plant Physiol Assunto da revista: Botânica Ano de publicação: 2018 Tipo de documento: Artigo