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From Molecular and Emulsified Ion Sensors to Membrane Electrodes: Molecular and Mechanistic Sensor Design.
Acc Chem Res ; 52(5): 1400-1408, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017760
ABSTRACT
Selective molecular ion probes are often insoluble in water and require a hydrophobic solvent environment for strong and selective binding, which runs counter to the desire of utilizing them in a homogeneous solution. This Account aims to guide the reader on how such molecules, often coined ionophores, can be harnessed to design exceptionally useful optical and electrochemical sensors. We start here with some historical context on the design of such ionophores and continue with the explanation of the response mechanism of optical and potentiometric sensors and the role of combined components to build a robust ion sensor. This Account is addressed to nonspecialist readers and for this reason avoids extensive use of equations or theoretical considerations. The interested reader should turn to the original literature for further reading. Emulsified optical sensors are introduced as an initial example. Here, multiple reagents are confined in an attoliter sensing nanodroplet of the organic phase, immiscible with the aqueous sample phase. In this case, the ionophore molecules may retain their high affinity and selectivity to the target ion and the aqueous sample phase does not have to be modified. Emulsified optical sensors allow one to achieve the selective chemical sensing of ions, even with optically silent ionophores. Such ionophore-based nanodroplets are also discussed as a useful novel class of complexometric titration reagents and optical end point indicators with unique selectivities. We then turn our attention to potentiometric sensing probes and briefly discuss the unique opportunity of a direct characterization of ion-ionophore complexation properties offered by membrane electrodes. A carbonate-selective membrane electrode containing a highly selective tweezer-type ionophore with trifluoroacetophenone functional groups is then used as an example for the construction of a robust all-solid-state sensor. This potentiometric probe, in combination with a pH electrode, can directly measure PCO2 in freshwater lakes, demonstrating a dramatically improved response time relative to traditional sensors equipped with a gas-permeable membrane. In recent years, new sensing modes and electrode designs have been introduced to expand the application scope of ionophore-based potentiometric sensors. Membrane electrodes containing ionophores are placed under dynamic electrochemistry control to give important progress in the field. We specifically highlight our recent works by membranes that are controlled by chronopotentiometry (controlled current) for speciation analysis, by ion transfer voltammetry on thin sensing films for multianalyte detection, by exhaustive coulometry for potentially calibration-free sensors and with coulometric membrane pumps for the selective delivery of reagents.

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Texto completo: Disponível Coleções: Bases de dados internacionais Base de dados: MEDLINE Idioma: Inglês Revista: Acc Chem Res Ano de publicação: 2019 Tipo de documento: Artigo País de afiliação: Suíça