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Analysis of Triterpenoid Saponins Reveals Insights into Structural Features Associated with Potent Protein Drug Enhancement Effects.
Mol Pharm ; 17(2): 683-694, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913047
ABSTRACT
Plant-based saponins are amphipathic glycosides composed of a hydrophobic aglycone backbone covalently bound to one or more hydrophilic sugar moieties. Recently, the endosomal escape activity of triterpenoid saponins has been investigated as a potentially powerful tool for improved cytosolic penetration of protein drugs internalized by endocytic uptake, thereby greatly enhancing their pharmacological effects. However, only a few saponins have been studied, and the paucity in understanding the structure-activity relationship of saponins imposes significant limitations on their applications. To address this knowledge gap, 12 triterpenoid saponins with diverse structural side chains were screened for their utility as endosomolytic agents. These compounds were used in combination with a toxin (MAP30-HBP) comprising a type I ribosome-inactivating protein fused to a cell-penetrating peptide. Suitability of saponins as endosomolytic agents was assessed on the basis of cytotoxicity, endosomal escape promotion, and synergistic effects on toxins. Five saponins showed strong endosomal escape activity, enhancing MAP30-HBP cytotoxicity by more than 106 to 109 folds. These saponins also enhanced the apoptotic effect of MAP30-HBP in a pH-dependent manner. Additionally, growth inhibition of MAP30-HBP-treated SMMC-7721 cells was greater than that of similarly treated HeLa cells, suggesting that saponin-mediated endosomolytic effect is likely to be cell-specific. Furthermore, the structural features and hydrophobicity of the sugar side chains were analyzed to draw correlations with endosomal escape activity and derive predictive rules, thus providing new insights into structure-activity relationships of saponins. This study revealed new saponins that can potentially be exploited as efficient cytosolic delivery reagents for improved therapeutic drug effects.

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Texto completo: Disponível Coleções: Bases de dados internacionais Base de dados: MEDLINE Aspecto clínico: Predição / Prognóstico Idioma: Inglês Revista: Mol Pharm Assunto da revista: Biologia Molecular / Farmácia / Farmacologia Ano de publicação: 2020 Tipo de documento: Artigo País de afiliação: China