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[Total neoadjuvant therapy followed by watch and wait approach or organ preservation for MRI stratified low-risk rectal cancer: early result from a prospective, single arm trial].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(3): 258-265, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192305

Objective:

To explore the safety and efficacy of watch and wait strategy and organ preservation surgery after total neoadjuvant treatment for MRI stratified low-risk rectal cancer.

Methods:

A prospective single arm phase Ⅱ trial developed at Department of Gastrointestinal Cancer, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute was preliminarily analyzed. Subjects were enrolled from August 2016 to January 2019. Low-risk rectal cancer with following MRI features were recruited mid-low tumor, mrT2-3b, MRF (-), EMVI (-), CRM (-), differentiation grade 1-3. Patients received intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) 50.6 Gy/22f with concurrent capecitabine and 4 cycles of consolidation CAPEOX. Patients with cCR/near-cCR confirmed by physical examination, rectal MRI, endoscopy, and serum CEA were recommended for watch & wait approach or local excision (LE). The main study outcomes were 2-year organ preservation rate (OPR) and sphincter preservation rate (SPR).

Results:

Thirty-eight patients were eligible for analysis, including 24 males and 14 females with median age of 56 years; 9 cases of mrT2 (23.7%), 14 cases of mrT3a (36.8%) and 15 cases of mrT3b (39.5%); 5 cases of well differentiated adenocarcinoma (13.2%), 32 cases of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma (84.2%) and 1 case of mucinous adenocarcinoma (2.6%). Carcinoemobryonic antigen (CEA) was elevated before treatment in 1 case. One case (2.6%) of grade 3 radiation dermatitis occurred during IMRT; 18 cases (47.4%) occurred grade 3 to 4 adverse events during consolidation chemotherapy. After total neoadjuvant treatment, the cCR and near-cCR rates were 42.1% (16/38) and 23.7% (9/38), respectively, while non-cCR rate was 34.2% (13/38). Twenty patients (20/38, 52.6%) of cCR or near-cCR underwent watch & wait approach, with a local regrowth rate of 20% (4/20). Four patients received LE, including one salvage LE. Thirteen patients (4 were ypCR) received radical resection, including 10 cases of initial low anterior resections (LAR), 1 cases of initial abdominal perineal resection (APR) and 2 cases of salvage LAR, four patients refused operation. The median follow-up time was 23.5 (8.5-38.3) months. At the last interview of follow-up, the OPR and SPR were 52.6% (20/38) and 84.2% (32/38), respectively. Only one patient developed lung metastasis and no local recurrence occurred after radical resection or LE.

Conclusion:

Total neoadjuvant treatment for low-risk rectal cancer achieves high cCR/near-cCR rate, with increased probability of receiving watch and wait approach and organ preservation in this subgroup.
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Texto completo: Disponível Coleções: Bases de dados internacionais Base de dados: MEDLINE Assunto principal: Neoplasias Retais / Terapia Neoadjuvante Aspecto clínico: Etiologia / Prognóstico / Terapia Limite: Feminino / Humanos / Masculino / Meia-Idade Idioma: Chinês Revista: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi Assunto da revista: Gastroenterologia Ano de publicação: 2020 Tipo de documento: Artigo País de afiliação: China