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1.
Salud Publica Mex ; 65(1, ene-feb): 70-81, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36750070

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Describir el proceso para diseñar una estrategia de comunicación con el fin de promover el uso del etiqueta-do frontal de advertencia (EFA) y la selección de alimentos saludables en niños, niñas y adolescentes (NNA) mexicanos. Material y métodos. Estudio de cuatro fases con esco-lares, adolescentes y cuidadores: 1) investigación formativa (18 grupos focales, n= 179); 2) talleres de cocreación con NNA (n= 33); 3) diseño de la estrategia, con base en el modelo de comportamiento COM-B; y 4) prueba piloto (seis grupos focales, n= 52). RESULTADOS: La estrategia de comunicación debería mejorar la comprensión del EFA y los conocimientos sobre la relación de los ingredientes críticos (calorías, grasas saturadas, grasas trans, sodio, edulcorantes y cafeína) y la enfermedad; asimismo, debería resaltar las consecuencias positivas de una alimentación saludable y las negativas del consumo excesivo de alimentos con sellos, así como destacar que los alimentos naturales tienen un menor costo y mejor calidad que los alimentos con sellos; se deben ofrecer sugerencias de preparaciones atractivas y saludables con alimentos naturales. Conclusión. La investigación formativa y la participación de NNA en la creación de la campaña fueron esenciales para diseñar una estrategia cultu-ralmente pertinente con potencial de impacto. El proceso y los resultados del estudio podrían informar sobre esfuerzos en contextos parecidos al de México.


Assuntos
Estudos Retrospectivos , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , México
2.
Salud Publica Mex ; 65(6, nov-dic): 547-549, 2023 Nov 13.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38060922

RESUMO

Las encuestas poblacionales de salud proporcionan información valiosa para orientar las políticas públicas e identificar la eficiencia de los procesos de atención y de los perfiles epidemiológicos de diversas exposiciones y entidades mórbidas. El uso adecuado de datos demográficos de alta calidad, representativos y oportunos, puede ayudar indirectamente a los ciudadanos a vivir vidas más sanas y más largas. Por esta razón, los datos de las encuestas nacionales de salud, al contar con estándares de elevada calidad, son muy útiles para la formulación de políticas de salud, la utilización de indicadores para realizar investigación operativa y para la monitorización de la calidad de los procesos de atención. Consecuentemente, hacer alusión a la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (Ensanut) que implementa el Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública (INSP) es asociarla con un proyecto emblemático de la Secretaría de Salud de México.

3.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 47: e102, 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37363622

RESUMO

Objective: Analyze, from the perspective of international health, data on migration and health contained in El Salvador's information systems and regulatory documentation. Method: The information and documentation systems of the Virtual Center for Regulatory Documentation of the Ministry of Health of El Salvador were reviewed in detail. Regulatory documentation on migration and health from the websites of the Central American Integration System (SICA), the Mesoamerican Initiative, and the Plan of the Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle was also studied. Results: None of the six information systems of the Ministry of Health of El Salvador captures either immigration status or access to and use of health services. Of the 52 national documents studied, 50 do not specify actions on migration and health. Conclusions: Not all the information systems provide data on access to and use of health services, nor information on pro-health behaviors or early warnings that are useful for decision-making by health authorities. The guidelines contained in the Salvadoran regulatory framework do not address actions related to migration and health.


Objetivo: Analisar os sistemas de informação e a documentação regulatória de El Salvador referentes a migração e saúde sob a perspectiva da saúde internacional. Método: Foi realizada uma análise detalhada dos sistemas de informação e da documentação contida no Centro Virtual de Documentação Regulatória do Ministério da Saúde de El Salvador. Além disso, foi realizada uma análise da documentação regulatória sobre migração e saúde contida nos sites do Sistema de Integração Centro-Americana (SICA), da Iniciativa Mesoamericana e do Plano da Aliança para a Prosperidade do Triângulo Norte. Resultados: Nenhum dos seis sistemas de informação do Ministério da Saúde de El Salvador captura a situação migratória e o acesso e uso dos serviços de saúde. Dos 52 documentos nacionais analisados, 50 não especificam ações relacionadas a migração e saúde. Conclusões: Nem todos os sistemas de informação registram o acesso aos serviços de saúde e seu uso, comportamentos favoráveis à saúde ou alertas precoces, dados que são úteis para a tomada de decisões pelas autoridades de saúde. As diretrizes do marco regulatório salvadorenho não abordam ações relacionadas à migração e à saúde.

4.
Rev Med Chil ; 151(4): 524-529, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38687529

RESUMO

We report two unrelated patients with late-onset cerebellar ataxia associated with neuropathy and a long-standing dry cough. One patient had two siblings affected with sensory neuropathy and cough. Both probands had extensive investigations including genetics testing negative for most common ataxias as well as testing for paraneoplasic and other immunologic causes. Both patients showed an abnormal intronic expansion in the pentanucleotide AAGGG of the gene RFC1. This etiology is being reported as frequent cause of adult-onset ataxia; the presence of cough may lead to the correct diagnosis.


Assuntos
Ataxia Cerebelar , Mutação , Proteína de Replicação C , Humanos , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Masculino , Proteína de Replicação C/genética , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idade de Início , Idoso
5.
Rev Argent Microbiol ; 55(3): 235-239, 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36642684

RESUMO

A brain abscess is a focal infection characterized by a collection of pus in the brain parenchyma. It is a life-threatening condition that should be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible. We report here three cases of patients with otogenic brain abscesses of polymicrobial origin that had in common the isolation of Actinomyces europaeus, which has not been previously described in this location. A. europaeus was identified by the conventional methodology, matrix-associated laser deionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated by the epsilometric method, and all isolates showed sensitivity to penicillin, vancomycin and linezolid, whereas susceptibility to clindamycin and erythromycin was variable. MALDI-TOF MS identification allowed a quick and reliable species level identification in order to provide a rapid and effective response to avoid treatment delay that could lead to increased morbidity and even mortality.


Assuntos
Actinomyces , Abscesso Encefálico , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Actinomyces/genética , Abscesso Encefálico/complicações , Clindamicina , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
6.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e35, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509643

RESUMO

In 2019, the Pan American Health Organization approved a regional policy known as the Plan of Action for Strengthening Information Systems for Health 2019-2023, the design of which is the subject of this article. This analysis was carried out from the point of view of the development of the plan of action, as well as its implementation, in the light of the theoretical concepts of Harold Lasswell and Charles Lindblom. In the study of this policy, consideration was given to context, focus on problems, diversity, and the variety of methods used. The impartial search for the public interest, design of practical policies, needs of public officials, and provision of recommendations are discussed. The policy can be implemented regardless of the administrative configuration of countries and territories, or the political power that other institutions may exercise. Its design is oriented toward universal access to health services in the countries of the Americas, taking into account cultural and linguistic diversity, including indigenous populations, which shows that it was contextualized for a region with high rates of inequities.


Em 2019, a Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde aprovou uma política regional conhecida como Plano de Ação para o Fortalecimento dos Sistemas de Informação para a Saúde 2019-2023, cujo design é o tema deste artigo. A análise foi realizada tanto do ponto de vista de sua elaboração quanto de sua implementação, à luz dos conceitos teóricos de Harold Lasswell e Charles Lindblom. O seguinte estudo de política foi realizado a partir de uma reflexão sobre seu contexto, orientação para os problemas, diversidade e multiplicidade dos métodos utilizados. Da mesma forma, foi feita uma reflexão sobre a busca imparcial do interesse público, o design de políticas práticas, a satisfação das necessidades dos funcionários públicos e a oferta de recomendações. A política pode ser implementada independentemente da configuração administrativa dos países e territórios ou do poder político que outras instituições possam exercer. Seu design visa ao acesso universal aos serviços de saúde para a região das Américas, levando em consideração a diversidade cultural e linguística, incluindo populações indígenas, mostrando que foi contextualizado para uma região com altos índices de iniquidade.

7.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e167, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36133431

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the differences in treatment coverage of patients with systemic arterial hypertension and the proportion of patients with controlled AHT, between December 2020 and December 2021 in health facilities that implemented the HEARTS Initiative, and to explore the facilitators and barriers related to information systems in Mexico. Methods: Descriptive ecological observational study. The results at health facilities that have begun implementing the HEARTS Initiative (n=29) in Chiapas and Sonora were compared, with respect to the variables of treatment coverage and control of AHT, across four periods (semesters) in 2020 and 2021. Results: There were more women than men in treatment and with controlled AHT in the different age groups. Some barriers were identified in information systems (e.g., multiplicity of systems, lack of interoperability, limited internet connectivity in health facilities), as well as facilitators (e.g., free access to information, availability of data from previous years, generation of estimates and projections). Conclusions: Sixteen (55%) of the implementing facilities improved the proportion of patients with controlled AHT in the period covered by the study. It is important to monitor indicators at the process level, and this should be accompanied by a redistribution of functions in health teams. It is also important to ensure a supply of medicines to enhance the effectiveness of the strategy. It is suggested to strengthen implementation with the key drivers for the control of arterial hypertension.


Objetivo: Comparar a diferença de cobertura e proporção de pacientes com hipertensão arterial sistêmica controlada entre dezembro de 2020 e dezembro de 2021 em estabelecimentos de saúde que implementam a Iniciativa HEARTS, e explorar os facilitadores e as barreiras relacionados aos sistemas de informação no México. Métodos: Estudo observacional ecológico descritivo. Os resultados dos estabelecimentos de saúde que iniciaram a implementação da Iniciativa HEARTS (n=29) em Chiapas e Sonora foram comparados em relação às variáveis de cobertura de atenção e controle da hipertensão, em 4 períodos (semestres) de 2020 a 2021. Resultados: Há um maior número de mulheres em tratamento e controladas em relação aos homens nas diferentes faixas etárias. Foram identificadas algumas barreiras (por exemplo, multiplicidade de sistemas, falta de interoperabilidade e conexão limitada à internet nos estabelecimentos de saúde) e facilitadores (por exemplo, livre acesso à informação, disponibilidade de dados de anos anteriores e geração de estimativas e projeções) nos sistemas de informação. Conclusões: Cinquenta e cinco por cento dos estabelecimentos em implementação (16 estabelecimentos) melhoraram a proporção de pacientes controlados no período analisado. É importante monitorar os indicadores no nível de processos ­tal monitoramento deve ser acompanhado por uma redistribuição das funções das equipes de saúde. Deve-se também assegurar o fornecimento de medicamentos para aumentar a eficácia da estratégia. Sugere-se fortalecer a implementação com os principais impulsionadores para o controle da hipertensão.

8.
Rev Med Chil ; 150(5): 603-610, 2022 May.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37906760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People base their health decisions on the information they obtained from their environment, which includes health care providers, the media, and interpersonal networks. Learning about patterns of information acquisition allows the identification of people's preferred sources. AIM: To report the results of a survey about health information seeking, source trust, and routine exposure to health information. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A health information trend survey, modeled after the U.S. National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey was answered by 1411 Chilean participants aged over 25 years. RESULTS: Seventy six percent of respondents sought general health information at least once. Internet (32%) and the health care center (30%) were the most common sources. One fourth of respondents sought, during the last 30 days, information about physical activity, and one third about fruit and vegetable consumption. Physicians and other healthcare workers were the most trusted sources, but only half of participants recalled having received a recommendation from them regarding the practice of healthy behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: This survey about health information seeking is a valuable tool to learn about people's health information environments and how these contents can influence their practices.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Adulto , Humanos , Idoso , Chile , Inquéritos e Questionários , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
9.
Rev Med Chil ; 150(9): 1206-1213, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37358131

RESUMO

Bad news communication is a frequent and difficult task for health care professionals. There are valuable protocols that systematize this task through a series of steps. However, these protocols have important limitations. The objective of this work is to analyze the main shortcomings of the protocols for CMN, according to the available ethical and clinical evidence. An orientation by objectives is recommended, considering that communication of bad news is a contextual process that involves different actors, and that requires reflection and flexibility to determine the best course of action according to the circumstances of each particular case. The importance of affectionate attention for patients and their relatives is highlighted.


Assuntos
Relações Médico-Paciente , Revelação da Verdade , Humanos , Comunicação , Pessoal de Saúde
10.
Rev Med Chil ; 150(3): 353-360, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156720

RESUMO

Health systems do not have the capacity to finance all services. The impact of choosing one option or another is important in order to prioritize health resources. Citizen participation can help to set priorities or to select the interventions that will receive public funding. We reviewed the literature searching for articles that reported mechanisms to gather information about citizens' values or preferences about health system coverage. We identified 363 publications, 18 articles were analyzed in full, and 7 articles were included in the review. Three articles were European, two were from Australia and two from Latin America. The most commonly used mechanisms to gather information were interviews and surveys. We conclude that there is a limited number of articles with examples of tools to capture information about values and preferences in health decision processes. The main barrier observed was the lack of standardized processes to collect the values and preferences of the community.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Austrália , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Humanos , América Latina , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Aten Primaria ; 54(9): 102388, 2022 09.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779367

RESUMO

OBJETIVES: To know the influence of the companion in triadic clinical encounter on the quality of doctor-patient communication and the duration of the interview. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. LOCATION: 10 Primary Care Centers. PARTICIPANTS: Resident doctors of Family and Community Medicine. INTERVENTIONS: Peer review of video recordings of clinical demand consultations. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: CICAA-2 questionnaire to assess communication skills (improvable, acceptable or adequate); age and sex, reasons for consultation and duration of the interview. Bivariate and multivariate analyses. Ethical authorization, oral informed consent and custody of the video recordings. RESULTS: 73 RD (53.8% women, 32.9±7.7 years) participated with 260 interviews (60.3% women and 2.1±1.0 clinical demands). 27.7% of consultations with a companion (female sex 65.3%). The mean duration of the interviews was 8.5±4.0min. Clinical encounters lasted longer when a companion attended (2.7±0.5min more; p<.001 Student t) and with a greater number of clinical demands (40% with ≥3 reasons, p=0.048 X2). The mean value of the total score of the CICAA-2 scale (46.9±16.5; difference 4.6±2.3) and Task 2 (39.3±15.8 with difference 4.4±2.2) were higher when companion was present (p<.05 Student t). The model obtained with logistic regression shows a longer duration of the consultation with a companion (OR 1.2; CI [1.1-1.3]) and possibly a better score in Task 2 communication skills (OR 1.02; CI [0.99-1.1]). CONCLUSIONS: Triadic communications challenge the clinician's communication skills, improving their abilities to identify and understand patient problems, albeit at the cost of a greater investment of time.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Relações Médico-Paciente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta
12.
Adicciones ; 34(3): 197-207, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338244

RESUMO

The UPPS model of impulsivity has recently been proposed, has been widely applied to substance abuse and is one of those recommended in the context of Research Domain Criteria, RDoC. However, its application to the abuse of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has been very limited. In the present work, a sample of n = 748 (67% females) was recruited through the Internet, and the reduced version of the UPPS-P was administered, in addition to the MULTICAGE-TIC and the Prefrontal Symptoms Inventory (PSI-20). The psychometric properties of UPPS-P were satisfactory in terms of internal consistency (0.87 > ω > 0.75) and structural validity. Impulsivity measured by UPPS-P correlated with all MULTICAGE-TIC scales, although with a very small effect size, and with greater magnitude with prefrontal dysfunction symptoms. The impulsivity dimension most related to ICT abuse was Urgency (0.3 > r > 0.2). A structural analysis of all the variables was carried out, with impulsivity appearing as a product of the prefrontal malfunction that predicted, through Positive Urgency, the abuse of ICTs. Impulsivity does not seem to be the central nucleus of ICT abuse, but rather failures in the superior control of behavior, of which impulsivity would be a consequence, but not the most important. This makes it advisable to design cognitive rehabilitation interventions that improve the functioning of superior behavior control mechanisms in the prevention and treatment of ICT abuse.


El modelo UPPS de impulsividad se ha propuesto recientemente, ha sido ampliamente aplicado al abuso de sustancias y es uno de los recomendados en el contexto de investigación Research Domain Criteria, RDoC. Sin embargo, su aplicación al abuso de tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) ha sido muy limitado. En el presente trabajo se reclutó a través de Internet una muestra de n = 748 (67% mujeres) y se administró la versión reducida de la UPPS-P, además del MULTICAGE-TIC y el Inventario de Síntomas Prefrontales (ISP-20). Las propiedades psicométricas de la UPPS-P resultaron satisfactorias en consistencia interna (0,87 > ω >0,75) y validez estructural. La impulsividad medida por la UPPS-P correlacionó con todas las escalas del MULTICAGE-TIC, aunque con un tamaño del efecto muy pequeño, y con mayor magnitud con las de síntomas de mal funcionamiento prefrontal. Las dimensiones de impulsividad más relacionadas con el abuso de las TIC fueron las de Urgencia (0,3 > r > 0,2). Se realizó un análisis estructural de todas las variables apareciendo la impulsividad como un producto del mal funcionamiento prefrontal que predecía, a través de la Urgencia Positiva, el abuso de las TIC. La impulsividad no parece ser el núcleo central del abuso de las TIC, sino los fallos en el control superior de la conducta, de los que la impulsividad sería una consecuencia, pero no la más importante. Ello hace recomendable el diseño de intervenciones de rehabilitación cognitiva que mejoren el funcionamiento de los mecanismos de control superior de la conducta en la prevención y tratamiento del abuso de las TIC.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Tecnologia da Informação , Masculino , Psicometria
13.
Vertex ; 33(156): 35-43, 2022 06.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856781

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the importance of mental health actions for health personnel was emphasized and the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) was recommended. Given this unprecedented panorama, the objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention with ICTs for health personnel from first-level care networks in Berazategui, Buenos Aires, Argentina. METHOD: It was an exploratory qualitative research and evaluative design. The selection of subjects included intervened health personnel who agreed to participate. Satisfaction surveys were implemented, records of the intervening team and their meetings were analyzed. RESULTS: The intervention was effective: improvements in communication and interaction, self-care and a change to a proactive and creative attitude at work, decreased anxiety and stress were detected. As a protective factor, the fact of having a solid socio-affective network was highlighted. The effectiveness was characterized by influencing a repositioning of the health personnel with respect to the context, the task and the work ties. CONCLUSION: The use of ICTs was advantageous, enabled access to mental health care and generated the feeling of continuous support, strengthening the socio-affective network.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comunicação , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
14.
Vertex ; 33(157): 56-61, 2022 10 10.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36219188

RESUMO

Delivering the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease to the patient can cause situations that do not meet the necessary ethical professional standards. We present two cases in which the rash way such a diagnosis was delivered did not respect the principle of nonmaleficence. In both cases the revelation worsened the situation prior to the consultation, causing unfortunate distress to the patient and family. The blunt use of the term "Alzheimer", together with the insufficient information on the characteristics of the affection, seems to have been the main factor that produced a negative emotional impact, revealing an arrogant professional attitude of 'absolute' and unquestionable knowledge, without the necessary equity. A diagnosis of Alzheimer´s should be not only truthful but delivered with caution, above all things avoiding a further damage than that already brought about by the disease.


Al comunicar al paciente el diagnóstico de enfermedad de Alzheimer, pueden originarse situaciones no acordes con la necesaria conducta ética profesional. Presentamos dos casos en los que, al actuarse con imprudencia, no se respetó el requisito de no maleficencia, En ambos casos la revelación diagnóstica empeoró la situación previa a la consulta, provocando en el paciente y su familia decisiones y consecuencias desafortunadas. El uso abrupto y cortante del término "Alzheimer", junto a la información insuficiente sobre las características de la afección, parece haber sido el factor principal de un impacto emotivo negativo, mostrando una actitud profesional dueña de un saber "absoluto" e inapelable, en un vínculo sin equidad. El acto de comunicar un diagnóstico debe ajustarse al criterio de prudencia, y no solamente al de veracidad o exactitud, evitando por sobre todas las cosas provocar un daño mayor al ya causado por la enfermedad.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Comunicação , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Salud Publica Mex ; 63(3 May-Jun): 452-458, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098620

RESUMO

Objetivo. Describir y analizar el gasto de la Secretaría de Salud asociado con iniciativas de comunicación social de las campañas de prevención de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores (Zika, chikunguña y dengue) y la evaluación de impacto o resultados. Material y métodos. La in-formación se obtuvo de 690 contratos de prestación de servicios de comunicación social (2015-2017), asociados con dos declaraciones de emergencia epidemiológica (EE- 2-2015 y EE-1-2016). Resultados. Se concluye una débil evaluación de impacto del gasto público. No existe evidencia suficiente que demuestre la correspondencia del gasto en comunicación social con la efectividad y cumplimiento de las campañas. Conclusiones. Los hallazgos permiten definir recomendaciones para vigilar, transparentar y hacer más eficiente el gasto público. Existe información pública sobre el gasto; sin embargo, es necesario garantizar mecanismos de transparencia, trazabilidad de contratos y evaluación de impacto de las campañas.


Assuntos
Comunicação em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/prevenção & controle , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Comunicação em Saúde/economia , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle
16.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 45: e111, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Characterize the content of communication products for COVID-19 prevention promoted by governments in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) for the general public. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-cutting, and exploratory study of the communication products for COVID-19 prevention published up to 28 February 2021 on official websites of the ministries of health of the 47 countries and territories of LAC. Quantitative and qualitative methods based on the dimensions recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) were employed, together with a social determinants of health (SDH) approach. The content analysis technique and investigator triangulation were used to improve internal validity. RESULTS: 3 253 information products were analyzed. In 47 countries and territories in LAC at least one product included a WHO recommendation; and in 46 at least one category or subcategory related to intermediate SDHs was addressed. Regarding structural SDHs, a gender approach was used in at least one product in only four countries, and an indigenous language in only seven countries. In 35 countries, at least one product was found to have erroneous information and in 13 countries the infodemic was not addressed. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial number of communication products for COVID-19 prevention were found, but they lacked an adequate diversity approach and comprehensive health approach, and they showed gaps and communication errors. The countries should review their health communication policies in the context of the pandemic.


OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o conteúdo dos produtos de comunicação dirigidos à população em geral, para a prevenção da COVID-19, promovidos pelos governos da América Latina e do Caribe (ALC). MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo, transversal e exploratório dos produtos de comunicação publicados até 28 de fevereiro de 2021 nos sites oficiais dos ministérios da Saúde de 47 países e territórios da ALC para a prevenção da COVID-19. Foram utilizados métodos quantitativos e qualitativos com base nas dimensões recomendadas pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) e enfoque nos determinantes sociais da saúde (DSS). Foram utilizadas as técnicas de análise de conteúdo e triangulação de investigador. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 3 253 produtos de informação. Nos 47 países e territórios da ALC, pelo menos um produto incluiu alguma recomendação da OMS, e em 46, foram abordadas algumas das categorias e subcategorias relacionadas aos DSS intermediários. Dos DSS estruturais, foram utilizados enfoque de gênero e alguma língua indígena em pelo menos um produto de apenas 4 e 7 países, respectivamente. Em 35 países foi encontrado pelo menos um produto com informações errôneas, e em 13 não foi abordada a infodemia. CONCLUSÕES: Foi encontrado um número considerável de produtos de comunicação para a prevenção da COVID-19; entretanto, eles não refletiam uma abordagem adequada à diversidade e à saúde integral, e apresentavam lacunas e erros de comunicação. Os países devem revisar suas políticas de comunicação em saúde no contexto da pandemia.

17.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 45: e108, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the role of statistical literacy and proper risk communication in communication strategies related to COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: A scoping review was carried out in January 2021, with the keywords "statistical literacy," "risk communication," "health communication," and "pandemic," in the Pan American Health Organization Virtual Health Library, PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Google Scholar databases. No filters were applied for dates, language, or publication type. RESULTS: Of the 87 articles identified, four met the inclusion criteria. Four main messages were recognized that relate statistical literacy and risk communication: 1) risk communication and statistical literacy level affect individual and collective decision-making; 2) communication of uncertainty should include what is known and not known with regard to statistics and risks; 3) the use of graphics and visuals is key to appropriately informing the population; and 4) different formats should be used to improve communication, always adjusted to the population's statistical literacy level. CONCLUSIONS: Statistical literacy plays a key role in communicating risks related to health in general and COVID-19 vaccination in particular. In health emergencies, proper communication of risk and associated uncertainty should be clear, transparent, and timely.


OBJETIVO: Descrever o papel da literacia estatística e da comunicação correta de riscos nas estratégias de comunicação relacionadas à vacinação contra a COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Em janeiro de 2021, foi realizada uma revisão de escopo com as palavras-chave "statistical literacy", "risk communication", "health communication" e "pandemic" nos bancos de dados da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde, PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO e Google Scholar. Não foi aplicado filtro de data, idioma ou tipo de publicação. RESULTADOS: Dos 87 artigos identificados, quatro atenderam aos critérios de inclusão. Foram reconhecidas quatro mensagens principais relacionadas à literacia estatística e à comunicação de risco: 1) a comunicação de risco e o nível de literacia estatística afetam a tomada de decisão individual e coletiva; 2) a comunicação da incerteza deve incluir o que é conhecido e desconhecido sobre estatísticas e riscos; 3) o uso de gráficos e visualizações é fundamental para informar adequadamente a população; e 4) devem ser usados diferentes formatos para melhorar a comunicação, sempre ajustados ao nível de literacia estatística da população. CONCLUSÕES: A literacia estatística desempenha um papel fundamental na comunicação dos riscos relacionados à saúde em geral e à vacinação contra a COVID-19 em particular. Em situações de emergência de saúde, a comunicação correta do risco e da incerteza a ele associada deve ser clara, transparente e oportuna.

18.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 45: e25, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995515

RESUMO

This article offers guidance on managing the infodemic in digital media, based on the experiences of news agencies at a time when an increase in journalistic production is coinciding with the response to the COVID-19 pandemic. A documentary review of the literature (scientific articles and documents from international agencies) on infodemics, infodemiology, and management of journalistic information during disasters and emergencies was carried out, as well as an analysis of the health and fact-checking sections on the websites and social networks of the Reuters, AFP and EFE news agencies. The accumulated experience reveals that it is not only useful but necessary for the media to make use of data analysis, service journalism, anticipation and prevention of false information, collaboration, narratives across different media, and media literacy both in consumers and producers of information. This article proposes a plan consisting of 10 actions (grouped into three stages: information collection, selection of journalistic information, and presentation of information) that can help digital media combat misinformation about health issues.


Nesta comunicação é proposto um guia para o controle da infodemia nas mídias digitais a partir da experiência adquirida pelas agências de notícias com a confluência entre a crescente produção jornalística e o enfrentamento à pandemia de COVID-19. Foi realizada uma revisão documental de artigos científicos e documentos de organismos internacionais sobre infodemia, infodemiologia e gestão da informação jornalística em desastres e emergências, bem como a análise das seções de saúde e checagem de fatos de sites e redes sociais das agências Reuters, AFP e EFE. A experiência acumulada demonstra não só a utilidade, mas também a necessidade de a mídia recorrer a análise de dados, serviço jornalístico, mecanismos para antecipar e prevenir fake news, colaboração, narrativa por diferentes mídias e educação midiática tanto dos consumidores da informação como dos que a produzem. É proposto um plano de 10 ações em três etapas ­ coleta de informação, seleção da informação jornalística e apresentação da informação ­ para servir de guia às mídias informativas digitais no combate à desinformação em saúde.

19.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 45: e61, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To provide a comprehensive workflow to identify top influential health misinformation about Zika on Twitter in 2016, reconstruct information dissemination networks of retweeting, contrast mis- from real information on various metrics, and investigate how Zika misinformation proliferated on social media during the Zika epidemic. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the top 5000 English-language Zika tweets, established an evidence-based definition of "misinformation," identified misinformation tweets, and matched a comparable group of real-information tweets. We developed an algorithm to reconstruct retweeting networks for 266 misinformation and 458 comparable real-information tweets. We computed and compared 9 network metrics characterizing network structure across various levels between the 2 groups. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in all 9 network metrics between real and misinformation groups. Misinformation network structures were generally more sophisticated than those in the real-information group. There was substantial within-group variability, too. CONCLUSIONS: Dissemination networks of Zika misinformation differed substantially from real information on Twitter, indicating that misinformation utilized distinct dissemination mechanisms from real information. Our study will lead to a more holistic understanding of health misinformation challenges on social media.

20.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(3): 366-377, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Communication gaps are common in emergency medicine. AIM: To know how the health information was delivered to users and relatives by the health care team in the Emergency Unit of a general hospital and how the standards dictated by the patients' rights and duties law were complied with. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Health care workers, patients and their relatives were subjected to semi-structured interviews, and their behavior was directly observed. RESULTS: Important gaps that violate the right to information of users and family members were detected. There is a paucity of minimal conditions to protect the confidentiality and privacy of the information about diagnosis, treatment, or prognosis. There is no time allocated to deliver information and there are no physical spaces for such purpose. CONCLUSIONS: The health care team is not trained in communication skills, crisis intervention and empathy. Empathy and good communication are essential for users and family members to perceive health care as satisfactory and safe and to comply with indications. The lack of protocols to inform family members about the death of a patient is the finding that most clearly accounts for the observed communication deficiencies.


Assuntos
Empatia , Hospitais Gerais , Comunicação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos
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