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[Technogenic environmental pollution and the public health: analysis and prognosis].

Savilov, E D; Anganova, E V; Ilina, S V; Stepanenko, L A
| Idioma(s):
Technogenic risk factors are very aggressive for a human health. Due to the progressive increase in environmental pollution the problem of the adverse impact of these factors on the health of both the human population as a whole, and individual groups every year is becoming increasingly important. At that the influence of anthropogenic pollution on the various manifestations of infectious pathology in the scientific literature is presented very modestly. In this paper there is presented a review of research devoted to the problem of the interrelationship of man-made pollution of the environment and public health.
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Carta de Porto Alegre sobre Saúde Planetária (1º Simpósio Internacional de Saúde Planetária, Porto Alegre, 2017)/ Porto Alegre Charter on Planetary Health (1st International Symposium on Planetary Health, Porto Alegre, 2017)/ Carta de Porto Alegre sobre Salud Planetaria (1º Simposio Internacional de Salud Planetaria, Porto Alegre, 2017)

Sirena, Sergio Antonio; Baldisserotto, Julio; Stein, Airton Tetelbon; Dora, Carlos; Barros, Enrique; Jotz, Geraldo Pereira
| Idioma(s): Portugués
Os participantes do 1º Simpósio Internacional de Saúde Planetária, reunidos em Porto Alegre, propõem que se dissemine a discussão do tema e se articule a resposta e a contribuição do sistema de saúde aos crescentes desafios que enfrenta a saúde da população decorrentes da mudança climática, poluição, redução da biodiversidade e outros fatores ambientais The participants of the 1st International Symposium on Planetary Health, held in Porto Alegre, propose to disseminate the discussion of the theme and articulate the response and contribution of the health system to the growing challenges facing the health of the population due to climate change, pollution, reduction of biodiversity and other environmental factors. Los participantes del 1º Simposio Internacional de Salud Planetaria, reunidos en Porto Alegre, proponen la diseminación de la discusión del tema y articulación de la respuesta y la contribución del sistema de salud a los crecientes desafíos que enfrenta la salud de la población derivada del cambio climático, contaminación, reducción de la biodiversidad y otros factores ambientales.
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Methodology to define biological reference values in the environmental and occupational fields: the contribution of the Italian Society for Reference Values (SIVR).

Aprea, Maria Cristina; Scapellato, Maria Luisa; Valsania, Maria Carmen; Perico, Andrea; Perbellini, Luigi; Ricossa, Maria Cristina; Pradella, Marco; Negri, Sara; Iavicoli, Ivo; Lovreglio, Piero; Salamon, Fabiola; Bettinelli, Maurizio; Apostoli, Pietro
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: Biological reference values (RVs) explore the relationships between humans and their environment and habits. RVs are fundamental in the environmental field for assessing illnesses possibly associated with environmental pollution, and also in the occupational field, especially in the absence of established biological or environmental limits. OBJECTIVES: The Italian Society for Reference Values (SIVR) determined to test criteria and procedures for the definition of RVs to be used in the environmental and occupational fields. METHODS: The paper describes the SIVR methodology for defining RVs of xenobiotics and their metabolites. Aspects regarding the choice of population sample, the quality of analytical data, statistical analysis and control of variability factors are considered. The simultaneous interlaboratory circuits involved can be expected to increasingly improve the quality of the analytical data. RESULTS: Examples of RVs produced by SIVR are presented. In particular, levels of chromium, mercury, ethylenethiourea, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, 2,5-hexanedione, 1-hydroxypyrene and t,t-muconic acid measured in urine and expressed in micrograms/g creatinine (µg/g creat) or micrograms/L (µg/L) are reported. CONCLUSIONS: With the proposed procedure, SIVR intends to make its activities known to the scientific community in order to increase the number of laboratories involved in the definition of RVs for the Italian population. More research is needed to obtain further RVs in different biological matrices, such as hair, nails and exhaled breath. It is also necessary to update and improve the present reference values and broaden the portfolio of chemicals for which RVs are available. In the near future, SIVR intends to expand its scientific activity by using a multivariate approach for xenobiotics that may have a common origin, and to define RVs separately for children who may be exposed more than adults and be more vulnerable.
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[Environment and health: priorities for preventive medicine].

Rakhmanin, Yu A; Mikhaylova, R I
| Idioma(s):
Contemporary environmental factors influencing the formation of the environment and public health have been analyzed The increasing chemical pollution of the environment (air water, soil, living environment), and the intensification of the impact of physical factors in the first place, "electromagnetic smog" associated with the widespread use of appliances and computer equipment, cellular threaten public health have been shown. In this connection, there were determined priorities and main directions of research in the platform "Preventive Environment", approved by Ministry of Health of Russia, which is based on the concept of the factor prevention of noninfectious diseases.
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Estimating the pollution characteristics and health risks of potentially toxic metal(loid)s in urban-industrial soils in the Indus basin, Pakistan.

Irshad, Samina; Liu, Guijian; Yousaf, Balal; Ullah, Habib; Ali, Muhammad Ubaid; Rinklebe, Jörg
| Idioma(s): Inglés
The Indus Basin Irrigation Network (IBIN) plays a vital role in the agricultural system of Pakistan, irrigating seventeen million hectares of cultivated areas. Rapid urbanization, industrialization, and agricultural activities along the Indus basin have influenced the soil quality and human health; it is, therefore, critical to know its pollution characteristics. Soil samples from Indus basin, i.e., Abbottabad (ABT), Haripur (HRP), Attock (ATC), and Islamabad (ISB) have been analyzed for the total contents of potentially toxic metal(loid)s (PTMs) in the top layer. The topsoil samples from 0 to 10 cm depth have been further investigated using different pollution indices and human health risk assessment models. The contamination degree of soil pollution was highest in ISB (33.75), followed by ABT (25.30) and ATC (23.57). The assessment of the daily intake of PTMs by children and adults through different pathways revealed ingestion as the significant exposure pathway. Cr was found to be the major element posing non-carcinogenic health risks to children at ATC whereas the non-carcinogenic risks posed by all other PTMs were within the safe limit. Furthermore, life-time carcinogenic risks for Ni followed by Cr and Cd were greatly exceeded at all locations and As at ATC and ISB for both age groups, but comparatively children were found to be at a higher risk of carcinogenicity. Hence, efficient remediation strategies are needed to reduce the increasing content and health risks of PTMs in the Indus basin.
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Environmental exposure and health effects in a highly polluted area of Northern Italy: a narrative review.

Alias, Carlotta; Benassi, Laura; Bertazzi, Luca; Sorlini, Sabrina; Volta, Marialuisa; Gelatti, Umberto
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Human health and well-being are strongly linked to the state of the environment. The high industrial pressure present in the Province of Brescia, located in Northern Italy, produced strong environmental and health concerns. This narrative review of the literature aims at identifying the studies focused on the association between exposure to environmental pollutants and health effects in the population living in this area. Thirteen papers fitted the inclusion criteria: five were focused on the connection among pollutants present in air matrix and health effects, seven on both air and soil, and one on soil. No study investigated the relationship with water pollution. The great variability in the analyzed end-points made it difficult to draw precise conclusions, but the fact that, in almost all the studies, the investigated health effects have a positive association with the exposure to different kinds of pollutants, allows us to hypothesize that the considered population is living in an area where the "environmental pressure" could produce significant health effects in the future.
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Zaitseva, N V; Ustinova, O Iu; Zemlianova, M A
| Idioma(s):
It the article there are reported methodological approaches to the development of medical and preventive technologies for rendering specialized medical, diagnostic and preventive care to the population residing in polluted areas. There is proposed the classification of medical and preventive technologies of specialized care to the population with risk- associated pathologies based on principles of assessing the character and level of risk, etiopathogenetic regularities of the development of risk-associated pathological process and the extent of its clinical and laboratory manifestation. There were distinguished four groups of medical and preventive technologies having specific goals and tasks, there was determined the group targeting of the medical and preventive actions, the area of there application and forms of their implementation. There were presented the main directions of medical and preventive actions taken within the technologies applied to various groups.
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Urban and transport planning, environmental exposures and health-new concepts, methods and tools to improve health in cities.

Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: The majority of people live in cities and urbanization is continuing worldwide. Cities have long been known to be society's predominant engine of innovation and wealth creation, yet they are also a main source of pollution and disease. METHODS: We conducted a review around the topic urban and transport planning, environmental exposures and health and describe the findings. RESULTS: Within cities there is considerable variation in the levels of environmental exposures such as air pollution, noise, temperature and green space. Emerging evidence suggests that urban and transport planning indicators such as road network, distance to major roads, and traffic density, household density, industry and natural and green space explain a large proportion of the variability. Personal behavior including mobility adds further variability to personal exposures, determines variability in green space and UV exposure, and can provide increased levels of physical activity. Air pollution, noise and temperature have been associated with adverse health effects including increased morbidity and premature mortality, UV and green space with both positive and negative health effects and physical activity with many health benefits. In many cities there is still scope for further improvement in environmental quality through targeted policies. Making cities 'green and healthy' goes far beyond simply reducing CO2 emissions. Environmental factors are highly modifiable, and environmental interventions at the community level, such as urban and transport planning, have been shown to be promising and more cost effective than interventions at the individual level. However, the urban environment is a complex interlinked system. Decision-makers need not only better data on the complexity of factors in environmental and developmental processes affecting human health, but also enhanced understanding of the linkages to be able to know at which level to target their actions. New research tools, methods and paradigms such as geographical information systems, smartphones, and other GPS devices, small sensors to measure environmental exposures, remote sensing and the exposome paradigm together with citizens observatories and science and health impact assessment can now provide this information. CONCLUSION: While in cities there are often silos of urban planning, mobility and transport, parks and green space, environmental department, (public) health department that do not work together well enough, multi-sectorial approaches are needed to tackle the environmental problems. The city of the future needs to be a green city, a social city, an active city, a healthy city.
Resultados  1-10 de 1.854