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Challenges and Opportunities for Urban Environmental Health and Sustainability: the HEALTHY-POLIS initiative.

Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dear, Keith; Wilkinson, Paul
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Cities around the world face many environmental health challenges including contamination of air, water and soil, traffic congestion and noise, and poor housing conditions exacerbated by unsustainable urban development and climate change. Integrated assessment of these risks offers opportunities for holistic, low carbon solutions in the urban environment that can bring multiple benefits for public health. The Healthy-Polis consortium aims to protect and promote urban health through multi-disciplinary, policy-relevant research on urban environmental health and sustainability. We are doing this by promoting improved methods of health risk assessment, facilitating international collaboration, contributing to the training of research scientists and students, and engaging with key stakeholders in government, local authorities, international organisations, industry and academia. A major focus of the consortium is to promote and support international research projects coordinated between two or more countries. The disciplinary areas represented in the consortium are many and varied, including environmental epidemiology, modelling and exposure assessment, system dynamics, health impact assessment, multi-criteria decision analysis, and other quantitative and qualitative approaches. This Healthy-Polis special issue presents a range of case studies and reviews that illustrate the need for a systems-based understanding of the urban environment.
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Profile of noise pollution in Lucknow city and its impact on environment.

Kisku, G C; Sharma, Kailash; Kidwai, M M; Barman, S C; Khan, A H; Singh, Ramesh; Mishra, Divya; Bhargava, S K
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Automobiles, construction, festivals, factories, stations, diesel shades, garages and workshops are sources of noise. Vehicles are increasing enormously beyond the carrying capacity of the road. Study was carried out at 12 locations with sound level meter to assess day time and night time noise levels of Lucknow city. In residential areas, noise ranged between 67.7 to 78.9 and 52.9 to 56.4; in commercial cum traffic areas 74.8 to 84.2 and 68.2 to 74.9 and in industrial areas 76.9-77.2 and 72.2-73.1 dB(A) during day and night time respectively. Values were higher than their prescribed standards which may pose a significant impact on quality of life.
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Open public spaces and physical activity facilities: study of systematic observation of the environment/ Espaços públicos de lazer e estruturas para atividade física: estudo de observação sistemática do ambiente

Manta, Sofia Wolker; Lopes, Adalberto Aparecido dos Santos; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Benedetti, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the quantity and quality of open public spaces (OPS) and physical activity (PA) facilities in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina. A descriptive survey was carried out in 2015 on the quantity, type and quality of OPS and PA facilities. The quality of OPS and PA facilities were assessed by systematic observation. A quality index of OPS (score -3 to 6 points) was divided into three categories, poor (category ≤0), average (0.1 to 2.9) and good quality (category ≥3). For analysis, descriptive statistics were used. Of the 214 OPS, the highest proportion was squares/gardens (n = 128, 59.8%). Of the 214 OPS, 59.8% were squares/gardens. About 51.9% (n = 111) of OPS had good quality. A higher proportion of comfort items obtained good quality, such as lighting (54.7%), trash cans (45.8%) and garden benches (55.1%). In more than 60.0% of OPS, there were no incivilities. Of the 377 PA facilities identified, 53.6% presented good quality and 13.8% poor quality. Playgrounds (29.4%), outdoor gyms (15.9%) and soccer fields/courts (14.9%) were more frequent, only the latter less than half had good quality (28,6%). There were no PA facilities in 29.0% of OPS. A higher proportion of OPSs have good quality, but less than half require improvement, comfort, less incivility and greater diversity of PA facilities. This may promote greater visits to OPS and leisure opportunities, including the practice of PA. Resumo Objetivou-se analisar a quantidade e a qualidade dos espaços públicos de lazer e estruturas para atividades físicas em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina. Realizou-se, no ano de 2015, um levantamento descritivo da quantidade, tipo e qualidade dos espaços públicos de lazer (EPL) e estruturas para atividade física (AF). A qualidade dos EPL e estruturas para AF foi avaliada por meio de observação sistemática. Um índice de qualidade dos EPL (escore -3 a 6 pontos) foi categorizado em três níveis, qualidade ruim (categoria ≤0), média (0,1 a 2,9) e boa (categoria ≥3). Para análise fez-se uso da estatística descritiva. Dos 214 EPL, maior proporção foi de praças/jardins (n=128; 59,8%). Em 51,9% (n=111) dos EPL tinham qualidade boa. Maior proporção de itens de conforto obteve qualidade boa como iluminação (54,7%), lixeiras (45,8%) e bancos (55,1%). Em mais de 60,0% dos EPL inexistiam incivilidades. Das 377 estruturas para AF identificadas, 53,6% apresentaram qualidade boa e 13,8% qualidade ruim. Os parquinhos infantis (29,4%), academias ao ar livre (15,9%) e campos/canchas de futebol (14,9%) foram mais frequentes, apenas este último menos da metade apresentou qualidade boa (28,6%). Em 29,0% dos EPL inexistiam estruturas para AF. Maior proporção dos EPL tem boa qualidade, mas ainda menos da metade necessitam de melhorias, em conforto, menores incivilidades e maior diversidade de estruturas para AF. Isso poderá promover maior visitação aos EPL e oportunidade de lazer, incluindo a prática de AF.
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Elektromagnitnaia sostavliaiushchaia sovremennoi urbanizirovannoi sredy./ [Electromagnetic components of a modern urbanized environment].

Bobrakov, S N; Kartashev, A G
| Idioma(s):
The investigations of intensity of electromagnetic field in the range of frequencies 30 MGz-300 GGz were carried out in Tomsk. The percentage contribution of every frequency subrange in to total intensity electromagnetic field of Tomsk was estimated. So for frequency range 30-100 MGz it corresponds to 4.3%; for 100-200 MGz--7.4%; for 200-300 MGz--4.6% and 300 MGz-300 GGz corresponds to 83.7%. Thus, the investigations of a level of electromagnetic field of an anthropogenous origin allowed estimation of the integrated level of electromagnetic field in the range of frequencies 30 MGz-300 GGz and construction of the spatial distribution of an electrical component of the field, and also revealing the basic sources of electromagnetic pollution.
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Indicatori ambientali in dieci città italiane (2001-2005): i dati di qualità dell'aria per la sorveglianza epidemiologica./ [Environmental indicators in ten Italian cities (2001-2005): the air quality data for epidemiological surveillance].

Berti, Giovanna; Chiusolo, Monica; Grechi, Daniele; Grosa, Mauro; Rognoni, Magda; Tessari, Roberta; Pacelli, Barbara; Scarnato, Corrado; Mallone, Sandra; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Stafoggia, Massimo; Primerano, Roberto; Accetta, Gabriele; Dessì, Maria Patrizia; Cernigliaro, Achille; De'Donato, Francesca; Zanini, Gabriele; Forastiere, Francesco
| Idioma(s): Italiano
OBJECTIVE: to produce environmental indicators suitable for an epidemiological surveillance in 10 Italian cities part of the EpiAir Project (2001-2005). METHODS: the environmental parameters that correlate to relevant health effects are the particles with diameters less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM10), the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and the ozone (O3). The necessary meteorological data are: temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure and apparent temperature.We have identified some criteria to select monitoring stations and have taken standard methods of calculation to produce environmental indicators starting from the daily data available after closely evaluating the completeness of the existing data. Furthermore, we have checked the homogeneity of the selected data to ensure that it represents the population's exposure. RESULTS: close examination of descriptive statistics shows a critical situation of the considered pollutants. The analysis of the yearly state underlines for PM10 values higher than 40 microg/m3 in the area of Mestre-Venice and in Milan, Turin, Bologna e Taranto. For NO2, values are consistently above 40 microg/m3 in Milan, Turin, Bologna, Florence, Rome and Palermo. For ozone, the concentrations were stable, with the exception of Summer 2003 when we recorded, on average, an increase of 13% compared to the mean value estimated for the ten cities during the study period, especially in Mestre-Venice, Turin and Palermo. CONCLUSIONS: it is important to ensure the consistency of the methods and instruments in environmental monitoring. To evaluate health effects and perform interventions over the longterm, it is therefore fundamental that the data be homogenous, especially during the periodic reorganizations and rationalizations of air quality management. It is also necessary to include daily meteorological data that influence pollutant dispersion and population health status.
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21st century research in urban WASH and health in sub-Saharan Africa: methods and outcomes in transition.

Mackinnon, Eve; Ayah, Richard; Taylor, Richard; Owor, Michael; Ssempebwa, John; Olago, L Daniel; Kubalako, Robinah; Dia, Anta Tal; Gaye, Cheikh; C Campos, Luiza; Fottrell, Edward
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Tackling global inequalities in access to Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) remains an urgent issue - 58% of annual diarrhoeal deaths are caused by inadequate WASH provision. A global context of increasing urbanisation, changing demographics and health transitions demands an understanding and impact of WASH on a broad set of health outcomes. We examine the literature, in terms of health outcomes, considering WASH access and interventions in urban sub-Saharan Africa from 2000 to 2017. Our review of studies which evaluate the effectiveness of specific WASH interventions, reveals an emphasis of WASH research on acute communicable diseases, particularly diarrhoeal diseases. In contrast, chronic communicable and non-communicable health outcomes were notable gaps in the literature as well as a lack of focus on cross-cutting issues, such as ageing, well-being and gender equality. We recommend a broader focus of WASH research and interventions in urban Africa to better reflect the demographic and health transitions happening. Abbreviations: CBA: Controlled Before and After; GSD: Government Service Delivery; IWDSSD: International Drinking-Water, Supply and Sanitation Decade (IDWSSD); KAP: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices; IBD: Irritable Bowel Diseases; MDG: Millennium Development Goals; NTD: Neglected Tropical Diseases; PSSD: Private Sector Service Delivery; SDG: Sustainable Development Goals; SSA: Sub Saharan Africa; SODIS: Solar Disinfection System; STH: Soil Transmitted Helminths; RCT: Randomised Control Trial; WASH: Water Sanitation and Hygiene; WHO: World Health Organization.
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An effective public health program to reduce urban heat islands in Québec, Canada/ Programa eficaz de salud pública para reducir las islas de calor urbano en Québec, Canada

Beaudoin, Mélanie; Gosselin, Pierre
| Idioma(s): Inglés
In 2005, the Government of the Province of Québec, Canada, adopted the Climate Change Action Plan for 2006 – 2012. The Institut national de santé publique du Québec (National Institute of Public Health of Québec), charged with implementing the health adaptation component of the Plan, worked to mitigate urban heat islands (UHI) by funding and evaluating 40 pilot projects. These projects explored different methods of fighting UHIs by greening cities in a participative and mobilizing approach led mainly by non-governmental organizations and municipalities. An assessment of temperatures before and after implementing various methods demonstrated that some actions enabled significant gains of coolness and more efficiently mitigated heat (reduction of concrete/asphalt surfaces, increasing vegetation, etc.). An assessment of quality of life showed that projects were positively received by users, especially by those living in vulnerable situations. A lifecycle analysis showed that from the environmental perspective, UHI mitigation measures that do not require fertilization or maintenance are preferable. Finally, communication efforts that raise awareness of UHI and mitigation are of significant importance to program success. En el 2005, el Gobierno de la provincia de Québec, Canadá, adoptó un plan de acción sobre el cambio climático para el período del 2006 al 2012. El Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública de Québec (Institut national de santé publique du Québec), encargado de la adaptación del plan para proteger la salud humana, dio un paso para mitigar las islas de calor urbanas (ICU) mediante el financiamiento y la evaluación de 40 proyectos piloto. En estos proyectos se exploraron diferentes métodos para combatir las ICU a base de aumentar las áreas verdes con arreglo a un enfoque participativo y movilizador impulsado principalmente por las organizaciones no gubernamentales y los municipios. Cuando se examinaron las temperaturas antes y después de aplicar distintos métodos, se observó que algunos habían llevado a un enfriamiento ambiental apreciable y que eran más eficientes para aliviar el calor (reducir las superficies de concreto y asfalto, plantar vegetación, y demás). Una evaluación enfocada en la calidad de vida indicó que los proyectos tuvieron buena acogida entre los usuarios, sobre todo los que vivían en situaciones de vulnerabilidad. Un análisis basado en el ciclo vital demostró que, desde el punto de vista ambiental, las medidas para la mitigación de las ICU que no requieren abono ni mantenimiento son las más aconsejables. Por último, las iniciativas de comunicación orientadas a sensibilizar al público en torno a las ICU y su mitigación son muy importantes para lograr que los programas rindan buenos resultados.
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Diagnóstico da disposição final dos resíduos sólidos urbanos na região da Associação dos Municípios do Alto Irani (AMAI), Santa Catarina/ Diagnosis of the final disposal of urban solid wastes in the region of the Association of the Cities at Alto Irani (AMAI), Santa Catarina State

França, Rosiléa Garcia; Ruaro, Édina Cristina Rodrigues
| Idioma(s): Portugués
O objetivo desse estudo foi diagnosticar o destino dos resíduos sólidos urbanos na região da AMAI (SC), composta por catorze municípios. Foram aplicados questionários às prefeituras e realizadas visitas nos municípios para mapear tanto lixões ativos e desativados como aterros controlados e sanitários. Os parâmetros utilizados foram: existência de cercas; tipo de cobertura; retirada dos resíduos antes da cobertura; proximidades com águas superficiais; presença de catadores ou animais; monitoramento e coleta de chorume e gás; distância de moradias e existência de coleta seletiva. A partir da pesquisa, foram localizados vinte e sete lixões desativados, sendo que dezoito deles receberam algum tipo de remediação; porém, em nenhum deles ocorreu de forma padrão. Detectou-se precariedade na remediação nos lixões desativados, pois a simples cobertura com terra não é suficiente, já que o material ali depositado continua poluindo através do chorume produzido. Atualmente, todos os municípios depositam os seus resíduos sólidos urbanos em aterros sanitários localizados em Xanxerê e Xaxim. Dos quatorze municípios, somente um possui coleta seletiva e ainda de forma precária. Atualmente, coleta-se 54,15 ton/dia de resíduos, totalizando-se uma média de 0,610 g/hab.dia de lixo, a um custo de R$ 1,78/hab para os cofres públicos mensalmente. The aim of this study was to carry out diagnosis about the destination given to the urban solid wastes in AMAI-SC region, which has fourteen cities. It was applied questionnaires to the city halls, and visits to map active and inactive dumps, controlled and sanitary landfill. It was investigated: the existence of fences, monitoring and collecting of gas and leachate, if they were next to the superficial waters, the presence of animals or collectors. It was considered, also, the distance of houses and/or urban mass and information about selective collection. It was found twenty and seven inactive dumps, where eighteen had received treatment. It was detected precariousness in remediation of all inactive dumps, because a single covering with land is not enough, therefore the material put there, keeps polluting through the production of lard and methane gas. Nowadays, all AMAI cities put their urban solid wastes in sanitary landfill found in Xanxerê and Xaxim. Among the fourteen cities, only one has selective collection, and in a precarious way, what reduces the useful life time of landfill, beyond being harmful to the environment. It is collected 54.15 tons/day of wastes, which sums 0.610 g/ of waste, costing R$ 1.78 to the public coffers monthly.
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A call for clinicians to act on planetary health.

Veidis, Erika M; Myers, Samuel S; Almada, Amalia A; Golden, Christopher D
| Idioma(s): Inglés
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