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1.

[The primary medical sanitary care and characteristics of drinking water supply of population].

Nechaev, V S; Saurina, O S
| Idioma(s):
The article considers characteristics of organization ofprimary medical sanitary care on territory with carcinogenic risks related to drinking water supply as exemplified by the Orlovskaia oblast. The importance of registration by local health authorities the sources of permanent chemical pollution of drinking water. The analysis of the State program of the Orlovskaia oblast "The development of health care in the Orlovskaia oblast in 2013-2020". The necessity of additional inclusion of issue related to healthy drinking water supply of population to prevent development of malignant neoplasms and prevalence of oncologic morbidity on oblast territory.
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2.

Getting the basic rights - the role of water, sanitation and hygiene in maternal and reproductive health: a conceptual framework.

Campbell, Oona M R; Benova, Lenka; Gon, Giorgia; Afsana, Kaosar; Cumming, Oliver
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: To explore linkages between water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and maternal and perinatal health via a conceptual approach and a scoping review. METHODS: We developed a conceptual framework iteratively, amalgamating three literature-based lenses. We then searched literature and identified risk factors potentially linked to maternal and perinatal health. We conducted a systematic scoping review for all chemical and biological WASH risk factors identified using text and MeSH terms, limiting results to systematic reviews or meta-analyses. The remaining 10 complex behavioural associations were not reviewed systematically. RESULTS: The main ways poor WASH could lead to adverse outcomes are via two non-exclusive categories: 1. 'In-water' associations: (a) Inorganic contaminants, and (b) 'water-system' related infections, (c) 'water-based' infections, and (d) 'water borne' infections. 2. 'Behaviour' associations: (e) Behaviours leading to water-washed infections, (f) Water-related insect-vector infections, and (g-i) Behaviours leading to non-infectious diseases/conditions. We added a gender inequality and a life course lens to the above framework to identify whether WASH affected health of mothers in particular, and acted beyond the immediate effects. This framework led us to identifying 77 risk mechanisms (67 chemical or biological factors and 10 complex behavioural factors) linking WASH to maternal and perinatal health outcomes. CONCLUSION: WASH affects the risk of adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes; these exposures are multiple and overlapping and may be distant from the immediate health outcome. Much of the evidence is weak, based on observational studies and anecdotal evidence, with relatively few systematic reviews. New systematic reviews are required to assess the quality of existing evidence more rigorously, and primary research is required to investigate the magnitude of effects of particular WASH exposures on specific maternal and perinatal outcomes. Whilst major gaps exist, the evidence strongly suggests that poor WASH influences maternal and reproductive health outcomes to the extent that it should be considered in global and national strategies.
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3.

The public health effects of water and sanitation in selected West African countries.

Alagidede, P; Alagidede, A N
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: This paper examines access to water and improved sanitation target under the Millennium Development Goal 7c (MDG 7c) for six West African countries: Chad, Niger, Nigeria, Mauritania, Sierra Leone and Togo. The article outlines some possible causes for the slow progress in achieving the MDG 7c, examines the public health effects of missing the targets, and charts paths for policy makers to consider in bringing these targets to acceptable levels. METHODS: The study is based on secondary data analysis of trends in water and sanitation indicators for the six countries from 2000 to 2014. The data are drawn from the World Development Indicators (WDI) of the World Bank, and the World Health Organisation Joint Monitoring Programme (WHO JMP) and WaterAid Africa Wash Map. The performance of each country in the two indicators is presented and judged against the target set under MDG 7c. Forecasts based on the expiry of the MDG's in 2015 and the time required to achieve the targets are carried out. RESULTS: The study showes that while some progress has been made in improved water, sanitation showed slow progress for all the countries between 2000 and 2014. The goal of attaining acceptable sanitation shows that the six West African countries have lagged behind the MDG 7c target and the progress is equally slow. CONCLUSION: At the current rate of progress if strong public and private sector intervention mechanisms are not instituted across the board, the six West African countries under study would continue to lag behind the rest of the world in terms of access to improved water and sanitation. This has consequences for poverty alleviation and the risk of the re-emergence of neglected tropical diseases.
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4.

[The quantitative classification and survey of sanitation of urban secondary water supply in Haidian district of Beijing].

Zhai, Miao-miao; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Yong-quan; Zhang, Jia-sheng; Yang, Xin; Hao, Shi-jia; Wang, Xu; Kang, Jun-jie
| Idioma(s):
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sanitary status of urban secondary water supply facilities in Haidian district of Beijing. METHODS: Adopting the quantitative classification table drafted by the Bureau for Sanitation Inspection and Supervision of Haidian district, we carried quantitative classification (A, B, C grade) on all 1725 secondary water supply facilities in Haidian district for two times. At the same time, we collected 20 residential areas with stratified random sampling method. As the public points in the first quantitative classification, the effect of level publicity on changing the sanitary grade of the secondary water supply facilities were observed. RESULTS: In the first two times of quantitative classification, A-level and B-level secondary water supply facilities took up 81.04% (1398/1725) and 89.04% (1536/1725) of all secondary water supply facilities respectively; the ratio of effective sanitary permits achieved 86.14% (1486/1725) and 92.35% (1593/1725) respectively; and the ratio of effective water quality test reports achieved 86.60% (1494/1725) and 97.10% (1675/1725) respectively. There were 52 secondary water supply facilities in 20 collected areas, including 8 A-level, 27 B-level and 17 C-level secondary water supply facilities before level publicity, and 19, 29 and 4 after level publicity. The impact of level publicity on changing the sanitary grade of the secondary water supply facilities was statistically significant (χ(2) = 12.60, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: The city secondary water supply facilities in Haidian district are overall in good sanitary conditions. Quantitative classification and level publicity can effectively improve the sanitary status of secondary water supply facilities.
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6.

Água e saúde no município de Igarapé-Açu, Pará/ Water and health in Igarapé-Açu, Pará, Brazil

Sousa, Rafaela Sales de; Menezes, Luciana Gonçalves Creão de; Felizzola, Juliana Feitosa; Figueiredo, Ricardo de Oliveira; Sá, Tatiana Deane de Abreu; Guerra, Gutemberg Armando Diniz
| Idioma(s): Portugués
Resumo Este artigo visa analisar e compreender a relação entre água e saúde em comunidades rurais situadas na microbacia do igarapé Cumaru, município de Igarapé-Açu (PA), nordeste paraense. São avaliados a captação e o tratamento de água para o consumo humano, considerando as práticas de esgoto sanitário realizadas cotidianamente pela população rural dessa microbacia, visto que têm implicação direta na saúde da população local. Este trabalho baseia-se em pesquisa de campo com uma abordagem quali-quantitativa. Utilizou-se questionário fechado para o levantamento das fontes de captação, saneamento rural e usos de insumos agrícolas. Foram consideradas observações feitas por agricultores familiares da região ao focar o funcionamento do estabelecimento agrícola, a fim de observar de diversos ângulos a relação entre água e saúde no seu entendimento. Observou-se que a vulnerabilidade das fontes de água acessadas pela população é um fator que contribui para a contaminação das fontes, caracterizando consequentemente uma ameaça à saúde da população rural. Entretanto, nota-se a percepção da população quanto às fontes de água mais profundas, como poços tubulares, sendo estes prioritários para captação de água para ingestão. Abstract This article aims to analyze and understand the relationship between water and health in rural communities located in the watershed of Cumaru stream, in the municipality Igarapé-Açu, Northeast of Pará state. The harvesting and treatment of the water conducted by the rural population for human consumption were assessed, considering their practices of sanitary sewer, since these aspects have direct impact on their health. This study is based on field research with a quantitative approach. Closed questionnaire was used to raise the sources of water harvesting, rural sanitation, and use of agricultural inputs. We used participant observation, when focusing on the functioning of the agricultural establishment, to observe from various angles the relationship between water and health. We noted that the vulnerability of the water resources accessed by the population is a factor that contributes to the contamination of the sources, therefore a threat to the health of the rural population. However, the perception of the population is notable regarding deeper water sources, such as tube wells, which are priorities for water harvesting.
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7.

Global challenges in water, sanitation and health

Moe, Christine L.; Rheingans, Richard D.
| Idioma(s): Inglés
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8.

An exploration of multilevel modeling for estimating access to drinking-water and sanitation.

Wolf, Jennyfer; Bonjour, Sophie; Prüss-Ustün, Annette
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Monitoring progress towards the targets for access to safe drinking-water and sanitation under the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) requires reliable estimates and indicators. We analyzed trends and reviewed current indicators used for those targets. We developed continuous time series for 1990 to 2015 for access to improved drinking-water sources and improved sanitation facilities by country using multilevel modeling (MLM). We show that MLM is a reliable and transparent tool with many advantages over alternative approaches to estimate access to facilities. Using current indicators, the MDG target for water would be met, but the target for sanitation missed considerably. The number of people without access to such services is still increasing in certain regions. Striking differences persist between urban and rural areas. Consideration of water quality and different classification of shared sanitation facilities would, however, alter estimates considerably. To achieve improved monitoring we propose: (1) considering the use of MLM as an alternative for estimating access to safe drinking-water and sanitation; (2) completing regular assessments of water quality and supporting the development of national regulatory frameworks as part of capacity development; (3) evaluating health impacts of shared sanitation; (4) using a more equitable presentation of countries' performances in providing improved services.
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9.

Why "improved" water sources are not always safe.

Shaheed, Ameer; Orgill, Jennifer; Montgomery, Maggie A; Jeuland, Marc A; Brown, Joe
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Existing and proposed metrics for household drinking-water services are intended to measure the availability, safety and accessibility of water sources. However, these attributes can be highly variable over time and space and this variation complicates the task of creating and implementing simple and scalable metrics. In this paper, we highlight those factors - especially those that relate to so-called improved water sources - that contribute to variability in water safety but may not be generally recognized as important by non-experts. Problems in the provision of water in adequate quantities and of adequate quality - interrelated problems that are often influenced by human behaviour - may contribute to an increased risk of poor health. Such risk may be masked by global water metrics that indicate that we are on the way to meeting the world's drinking-water needs. Given the complexity of the topic and current knowledge gaps, international metrics for access to drinking water should be interpreted with great caution. We need further targeted research on the health impacts associated with improvements in drinking-water supplies.
Resultados  1-10 de 9.581