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Why "improved" water sources are not always safe.

Shaheed, Ameer; Orgill, Jennifer; Montgomery, Maggie A; Jeuland, Marc A; Brown, Joe
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Existing and proposed metrics for household drinking-water services are intended to measure the availability, safety and accessibility of water sources. However, these attributes can be highly variable over time and space and this variation complicates the task of creating and implementing simple and scalable metrics. In this paper, we highlight those factors - especially those that relate to so-called improved water sources - that contribute to variability in water safety but may not be generally recognized as important by non-experts. Problems in the provision of water in adequate quantities and of adequate quality - interrelated problems that are often influenced by human behaviour - may contribute to an increased risk of poor health. Such risk may be masked by global water metrics that indicate that we are on the way to meeting the world's drinking-water needs. Given the complexity of the topic and current knowledge gaps, international metrics for access to drinking water should be interpreted with great caution. We need further targeted research on the health impacts associated with improvements in drinking-water supplies.
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The public health effects of water and sanitation in selected West African countries.

Alagidede, P; Alagidede, A N
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: This paper examines access to water and improved sanitation target under the Millennium Development Goal 7c (MDG 7c) for six West African countries: Chad, Niger, Nigeria, Mauritania, Sierra Leone and Togo. The article outlines some possible causes for the slow progress in achieving the MDG 7c, examines the public health effects of missing the targets, and charts paths for policy makers to consider in bringing these targets to acceptable levels. METHODS: The study is based on secondary data analysis of trends in water and sanitation indicators for the six countries from 2000 to 2014. The data are drawn from the World Development Indicators (WDI) of the World Bank, and the World Health Organisation Joint Monitoring Programme (WHO JMP) and WaterAid Africa Wash Map. The performance of each country in the two indicators is presented and judged against the target set under MDG 7c. Forecasts based on the expiry of the MDG's in 2015 and the time required to achieve the targets are carried out. RESULTS: The study showes that while some progress has been made in improved water, sanitation showed slow progress for all the countries between 2000 and 2014. The goal of attaining acceptable sanitation shows that the six West African countries have lagged behind the MDG 7c target and the progress is equally slow. CONCLUSION: At the current rate of progress if strong public and private sector intervention mechanisms are not instituted across the board, the six West African countries under study would continue to lag behind the rest of the world in terms of access to improved water and sanitation. This has consequences for poverty alleviation and the risk of the re-emergence of neglected tropical diseases.
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[The quantitative classification and survey of sanitation of urban secondary water supply in Haidian district of Beijing].

Zhai, Miao-miao; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Yong-quan; Zhang, Jia-sheng; Yang, Xin; Hao, Shi-jia; Wang, Xu; Kang, Jun-jie
| Idioma(s):
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sanitary status of urban secondary water supply facilities in Haidian district of Beijing. METHODS: Adopting the quantitative classification table drafted by the Bureau for Sanitation Inspection and Supervision of Haidian district, we carried quantitative classification (A, B, C grade) on all 1725 secondary water supply facilities in Haidian district for two times. At the same time, we collected 20 residential areas with stratified random sampling method. As the public points in the first quantitative classification, the effect of level publicity on changing the sanitary grade of the secondary water supply facilities were observed. RESULTS: In the first two times of quantitative classification, A-level and B-level secondary water supply facilities took up 81.04% (1398/1725) and 89.04% (1536/1725) of all secondary water supply facilities respectively; the ratio of effective sanitary permits achieved 86.14% (1486/1725) and 92.35% (1593/1725) respectively; and the ratio of effective water quality test reports achieved 86.60% (1494/1725) and 97.10% (1675/1725) respectively. There were 52 secondary water supply facilities in 20 collected areas, including 8 A-level, 27 B-level and 17 C-level secondary water supply facilities before level publicity, and 19, 29 and 4 after level publicity. The impact of level publicity on changing the sanitary grade of the secondary water supply facilities was statistically significant (χ(2) = 12.60, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: The city secondary water supply facilities in Haidian district are overall in good sanitary conditions. Quantitative classification and level publicity can effectively improve the sanitary status of secondary water supply facilities.
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Água e saúde no município de Igarapé-Açu, Pará/ Water and health in Igarapé-Açu, Pará, Brazil

Sousa, Rafaela Sales de; Menezes, Luciana Gonçalves Creão de; Felizzola, Juliana Feitosa; Figueiredo, Ricardo de Oliveira; Sá, Tatiana Deane de Abreu; Guerra, Gutemberg Armando Diniz
| Idioma(s): Portugués
Resumo Este artigo visa analisar e compreender a relação entre água e saúde em comunidades rurais situadas na microbacia do igarapé Cumaru, município de Igarapé-Açu (PA), nordeste paraense. São avaliados a captação e o tratamento de água para o consumo humano, considerando as práticas de esgoto sanitário realizadas cotidianamente pela população rural dessa microbacia, visto que têm implicação direta na saúde da população local. Este trabalho baseia-se em pesquisa de campo com uma abordagem quali-quantitativa. Utilizou-se questionário fechado para o levantamento das fontes de captação, saneamento rural e usos de insumos agrícolas. Foram consideradas observações feitas por agricultores familiares da região ao focar o funcionamento do estabelecimento agrícola, a fim de observar de diversos ângulos a relação entre água e saúde no seu entendimento. Observou-se que a vulnerabilidade das fontes de água acessadas pela população é um fator que contribui para a contaminação das fontes, caracterizando consequentemente uma ameaça à saúde da população rural. Entretanto, nota-se a percepção da população quanto às fontes de água mais profundas, como poços tubulares, sendo estes prioritários para captação de água para ingestão. Abstract This article aims to analyze and understand the relationship between water and health in rural communities located in the watershed of Cumaru stream, in the municipality Igarapé-Açu, Northeast of Pará state. The harvesting and treatment of the water conducted by the rural population for human consumption were assessed, considering their practices of sanitary sewer, since these aspects have direct impact on their health. This study is based on field research with a quantitative approach. Closed questionnaire was used to raise the sources of water harvesting, rural sanitation, and use of agricultural inputs. We used participant observation, when focusing on the functioning of the agricultural establishment, to observe from various angles the relationship between water and health. We noted that the vulnerability of the water resources accessed by the population is a factor that contributes to the contamination of the sources, therefore a threat to the health of the rural population. However, the perception of the population is notable regarding deeper water sources, such as tube wells, which are priorities for water harvesting.
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Global challenges in water, sanitation and health

Moe, Christine L.; Rheingans, Richard D.
| Idioma(s): Inglés
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An exploration of multilevel modeling for estimating access to drinking-water and sanitation.

Wolf, Jennyfer; Bonjour, Sophie; Prüss-Ustün, Annette
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Monitoring progress towards the targets for access to safe drinking-water and sanitation under the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) requires reliable estimates and indicators. We analyzed trends and reviewed current indicators used for those targets. We developed continuous time series for 1990 to 2015 for access to improved drinking-water sources and improved sanitation facilities by country using multilevel modeling (MLM). We show that MLM is a reliable and transparent tool with many advantages over alternative approaches to estimate access to facilities. Using current indicators, the MDG target for water would be met, but the target for sanitation missed considerably. The number of people without access to such services is still increasing in certain regions. Striking differences persist between urban and rural areas. Consideration of water quality and different classification of shared sanitation facilities would, however, alter estimates considerably. To achieve improved monitoring we propose: (1) considering the use of MLM as an alternative for estimating access to safe drinking-water and sanitation; (2) completing regular assessments of water quality and supporting the development of national regulatory frameworks as part of capacity development; (3) evaluating health impacts of shared sanitation; (4) using a more equitable presentation of countries' performances in providing improved services.
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The case for the rope-pump in Africa: a comparative performance analysis.

Harvey, P A; Drouin, T
| Idioma(s): Inglés
The conventional handpump is the most popular technology choice for improved potable water supplies in rural sub-Saharan Africa. To date, however, it has failed to deliver satisfactory levels of sustainability, largely due to inadequate maintenance capacity. An alternative option to standardised imported handpumps is the locally manufactured rope-pump, which is considerably cheaper and easier to maintain but has been rejected in the past due to fears of impaired water quality. This paper presents the key aspects of a study in northern Ghana which compared the performance of rope-pumps with that of conventional handpumps, to determine whether or not the rope-pump provides a viable alternative for community water supplies across the subcontinent. User interviews, sanitary surveys, water quality analyses and technical performance measurements were used to develop a comparative performance analysis for the two pump types. The findings of the study indicated that the rope-pump out-performed the conventional handpump on the majority of counts and that, contrary to widespread perceptions, there was no significant difference between pump types with respect to the impact on microbiological water quality. Consequently, the rope-pump provides a significant technological opportunity to improve water supply sustainability in Africa.
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Reflexões sobre água de abastecimento e saúde pública: um estudo de caso na amazônia brasileira/ Considerations about water supply and public health: a case study in the Brazilian Amazônia

Giatti, Leandro Luiz
| Idioma(s): Portugués
Embora a Amazônia ostente grandioso patrimônio ambiental e abundância de recursos hídricos, é na região Norte do Brasil, contida neste notável bioma, que se verificam os piores índices de acesso a serviços e saneamento e respectivos indicadores de saúde pública. Por meio de estudo de caso efetuado na cidade de São Gabriel da Cachoeira, localizada à noroeste do Estado do Amazonas, com aproximadamente 18.000 habitantes e substancial parcela de população indígena, verificou-se a complexidade de fatores relacionados ao provimento de água e à melhoria da saúde pública para núcleos urbanos da Amazônia. A ausência de políticas concisas, as peculiaridades ambientais, as dificuldades logísticas e financeiras somam-se a questões socioculturais, a aspectos migratórios e a processo de urbanização desordenada, associada a impactos ambientais. Para mehoria da saúde pública nessas circunstâncias torna-se necessária uma abordagem interdisciplinar, que possibilite a gestão dos recursos hídricos, a implementação de saneamento básico e, não obstante a promoção de adesão dos habitantes.
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Global costs and benefits of reaching universal coverage of sanitation and drinking-water supply.

Hutton, Guy
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Economic evidence on the cost and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply supports higher allocation of resources and selection of efficient and affordable interventions. The study aim is to estimate global and regional costs and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply interventions to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target in 2015, as well as to attain universal coverage. Input data on costs and benefits from reviewed literature were combined in an economic model to estimate the costs and benefits, and benefit-cost ratios (BCRs). Benefits included health and access time savings. Global BCRs (Dollar return per Dollar invested) were 5.5 for sanitation, 2.0 for water supply and 4.3 for combined sanitation and water supply. Globally, the costs of universal access amount to US$ 35 billion per year for sanitation and US$ 17.5 billion for drinking-water, over the 5-year period 2010-2015 (billion defined as 10(9) here and throughout). The regions accounting for the major share of costs and benefits are South Asia, East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Improved sanitation and drinking-water supply deliver significant economic returns to society, especially sanitation. Economic evidence should further feed into advocacy efforts to raise funding from governments, households and the private sector.
Resultados  1-10 de 8.141