biblioteca virtual en salud

BVS - Literatura Cientifica y Técnica

 

Historico de búsqueda  ()

Su selección  ()

Collapse All  Ocultar
Expand All  Mostrar
Texto completo (83)
Idioma
Año
Resultados  1-10 de 251
Enviar resultado
adicionar en sua lista
1.

Fifth Regional Meeting of Managers of National Programs for the Elimination of Trachoma as a Public Health Problem in the Americas. (Lima, August 1-3 2018)

Pan American Health Organization
| Idioma(s): Inglés
The Fifth Regional Meeting of Managers of National Programs for the Elimination of Trachoma as a Public Health Problem in the Americas brought together collaborators, strategic partners, and representatives of the countries that are implementing activities for trachoma control and elimination in the Region: Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela...This meeting addressed topics including global, regional and country-specific advances toward elimination of the disease. There was special emphasis on the challenge of incorporating trachoma into countries’ political and development agendas, since the disease usually occurs in areas where social determinants converge, intensifying gaps in care and inequity in health. Participants underscored the need for integrated efforts using intersectoral interventions, joining together the efforts of the ministries of health with those of other ministries, and transborder efforts to define and carry out joint actions to continue to move forward as a Region in the process of eliminating the disease.
adicionar en sua lista
2.

Quinta Reunión de Gerentes de los Programas Nacionales para la Eliminación del Tracoma como Problema de Salud Pública de las Américas. (Lima, 1 al 3 de agosto de 2018)

Organización Panamericana de la Salud
| Idioma(s): Español
La Quinta Reunión Regional de Gerentes de los Programas Nacionales para la Eliminación del Tracoma como Problema de Salud Pública en las Américas reunió a colaboradores, socios estratégicos y representantes de los países que están realizando actividades para el control y eliminación del tracoma en la Región: Brasil, Colombia, Guatemala, México, Paraguay, Perú, y Venezuela...En esta reunión se abordaron temas como los progresos mundiales, regionales y de los diferentes países hacia la eliminación de la enfermedad. Se hizo especial énfasis en el reto que representa la necesidad de incluir al tracoma en las agendas políticas y de desarrollo de los países, debido a que la enfermedad usualmente se presenta en zonas donde confluyen determinantes sociales, profundizando las brechas de atención e inequidad en salud. Se expuso la necesidad de un trabajo integral con intervenciones intersectoriales, sumando los esfuerzos de los ministerios de salud con los de otros ministerios, así como la necesidad del trabajo transfronterizo para definir y realizar acciones conjuntas que permitan seguir avanzando en el proceso de eliminación de la enfermedad como Región.
adicionar en sua lista
3.

Quinta reunião de gestores dos programas nacionais para a eliminação do tracoma como problema de saúde pública das Américas. (Lima, 1 a 3 de agosto de 2018)

Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde
| Idioma(s): Portugués
A Quinta Reunião Regional de Gestores dos Programas Nacionais para a Eliminação do Tracoma como um Problema de Saúde Pública nas Américas reuniu colaboradores, parceiros estratégicos e representantes dos países que estão realizando atividades de controle e eliminação do tracoma na Região: Brasil, Colômbia, Guatemala, México, Paraguai, Peru e Venezuela...Esta reunião abordou questões como o progresso global, regional e nacional para a eliminação da doença. Foi dada ênfase especial à necessidade de incluir o tracoma nas agendas políticas e de desenvolvimento dos países, dado que a doença geralmente ocorre em áreas de confluência dos determinantes sociais, aprofundando as lacunas na atenção e as iniquidades em saúde. Foi expressa a necessidade de um trabalho integral com intervenções intersetoriais, somando os esforços dos ministérios da saúde com os de outros ministérios, bem como a necessidade de um trabalho transfronteiriço para definir e realizar ações conjuntas que permitam continuar avançando no processo de eliminação da doença na Região.
adicionar en sua lista
4.

Carga de enfermedad atribuible al uso del tabaco en Paraguay y potencial impacto sanitario y económico del aumento del precio a través de impuestos/ Burden of disease attributable to tobacco use in Paraguay, and potential health and financial impact of increasing prices through taxing

Bardach, Ariel; Cañete, Felicia; Sequera, Víctor Guillermo; Palacios, Alfredo; Alcaraz, Andrea; Rodríguez, Belén; Caporale, Joaquín; Augustovski, Federico; Pichon-Riviere, Andrés
| Idioma(s): Español
RESUMEN Objetivos. Estimar la carga de enfermedad asociada al consumo de tabaco en Paraguay y evaluar el potencial efecto económico y sanitario del aumento de precio mediante impuestos. Materiales y métodos. Se diseñó un modelo de microsimulación de Monte Carlo que incorporó la historia natural, costos y calidad de vida de enfermedades asociadas al tabaquismo para el 2015. Asimismo, se estimó el impacto en varios escenarios de aumento de impuestos sobre la prevalencia de tabaquismo y la recaudación fiscal. Resultados. 3354 personas mueren al año en Paraguay por consecuencia del tabaquismo. El 19 % de las muertes son por enfermedad isquémica cardíaca, el 15 % por accidentes cerebrovasculares. El 77 % de las muertes por enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y el 83 % de cáncer de pulmón son atribuibles al tabaquismo. Estas enfermedades en Paraguay representan un costo médico directo anual de más de 1,5 x 106 millones de guaraníes, mientras la recaudación impositiva por la venta de cigarrillos apenas llega a cubrir un 20 % de este gasto. Un aumento en el precio de los cigarrillos del 50 % vía impuestos, podría llevar a evitar 2507 muertes en diez años y generar recursos por 2,4 x 106 millones por ahorro en gastos sanitarios y aumento de recaudación. Conclusiones. El costo y la carga de enfermedad asociado al consumo de tabaco en el sistema de salud es elevado en Paraguay. Un aumento del precio de los cigarrillos a través de los impuestos tendría importantes beneficios sanitarios y podría compensar parcialmente los costos sanitarios. ABSTRACT Objectives . To consider the burden of disease associated to tobacco consumption in Paraguay and to evaluate the potential economic and health effect of price increase through taxes. Materials and Methods . A Monte Carlo simulation model was designed incorporating natural history, costs, and quality of life of diseases associated to smoking for 2015. Also, several scenarios were considered for the impact of tax raises on the prevalence of smoking and fiscal collection. Results . In Paraguay, 3,354 people die every year as a consequence of smoking. Nineteen percent of deaths are due to cardiac ischemia, 15% due to stroke. 77% of deaths due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 83% of lung cancer can be attributed to smoking. These diseases in Paraguay represent an annual direct medical cost of more than 1.5 trillion PYG, while the tax collection from cigarette sales barely covers 20% of this expense. A 50% increase in the price of cigarettes via taxes could avoid 2507 deaths in ten years and generate resources by 2.4 trillion in savings in health expenses and tax of collection. Conclusions . The cost and the burden of disease associated to tobacco consumption is high in the health system in Paraguay. An increase in cigarette price through taxes could have significant health benefits and could offset health costs in part.
adicionar en sua lista
5.

Respuesta doméstica a las recomendaciones sanitarias de intervención sobre ambiente y perros en una localidad con transmisión de leishmaniasis visceral (Pto. Iguazú, Argentina, 2014­2016)/ Domestic response to intervention based on health recommendations on the environment and dogs in a locality with transmission of visceral leishmaniosis (Pto. Iguazú, Argentina, 2014-2016)

Mastrangelo, Andrea Verónica; Santini, María Soledad; Quintana, María Gabriela; Salomón, Oscar Daniel
| Idioma(s): Español
Introducción: La leishmaniasis visceral (LV) es una enfermedad parasitaria emergente en Argentina. En Puerto Iguazú, frontera con Brasil y Paraguay, en 2010 se registró presencia del vector y casos caninos; y en 2014-2015 dos casos humanos. Objetivo: Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar los cambios en el nivel micro escala después de dar a conocer a los convivientes el diagnóstico de LV canina (LVC), informándoles estrategias de manejo ambiental para reducir el contacto con el vector. Método: Es una investigación descriptiva, que indagó en dos momentos (2014 y 2016) una muestra no probabilística distribuida en base al criterio de mejor escenario para la presencia del vector (n = 55) en la que se seleccionaron, luego de un primer rastrillaje entomológico y de diagnóstico veterinario, puntos de muestreo con presencia de vectores y al menos un perro con LVC (n = 6/55). Resultados: Un único hogar implementó las modificaciones sugeridas. Esos cambios no resultaron suficientes para controlar la transmisión. La hipótesis es que las medidas de control requieren intervención a meso escala (el vecindario y no el domicilio), atendiendo al radio real de dispersión de vectores. Conclusiones: El riesgo de infección humana por LV se relaciona con el modo de vida, incluyendo las relaciones interespecie. Las relaciones humano-perro combinan especismo y poshumanismo, acotando la efectividad de la "tenencia responsable" como modelo de vínculo saludable. Introduction: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an emerging parasitic disease in Argentina. In Puerto Iguazú, border with Brazil and Paraguay, vector and canine cases were registered in 2010; and in 2014 and 2015 there were two human cases. Objective: The objective of this article is to analyze changes at the micro-scale level after informing the cohabitants of the diagnosis of canine LV (LVC), letting them know the environmental management strategies to reduce contact with the vector. Method: It is a descriptive researh, which investigated in two moments (2014 and 2016) a non-probabilistic sample distributed based on the criterion of the best scenario for the presence of the vector (n = 55). Sampling points with the presence of vectors and at least one dog with LVC (n = 6/55) were selected, after a first entomological and veterinary diagnosis raking. Results: A single household implemented the suggested modifications. The changes were not enough to control the transmission. The hypothesis is that the control measures require intervention at a meso-scale (the neighborhood instead of the home), taking into account the real radius of vector dispersion. Conclusions: The risk of human infection due to VL is related to the way of life, including interspecies relationships. The human-dog relationships combine speciesism and post-humanism, which limits the effectiveness of "responsible ownership" as model of a healthy bond.
adicionar en sua lista
6.

Determinantes sociais, condicionantes e desempenho dos serviços de saúde em países da América Latina, Portugal e Espanha/ Social Determinants, Conditions and Performance of Health Services in Latin American Countries, Portugal and Spain

Conill, Eleonor Minho; Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Piola, Sérgio Francisco; Silva, Silvio Fernandes da; Barros, Heglaucio da Silva; Báscolo, Ernesto
| Idioma(s): Portugués
Resumo A comparação é um recurso importante para identificar tendências ou intervenções que melhorem a qualidade dos serviços. Os países ibero-americanos não têm sido objeto de estudos dessa ordem, embora Portugal e Espanha venham acumulando um conhecimento relevante na condução de sistemas nacionais orientados pela atenção primária. O trabalho apresenta os resultados da matriz analítica do Observatório Iberoamericano de Políticas e Sistemas de Saúde, discutindo aspectos que se destacaram no acompanhamento dos sistemas de serviços da Argentina, Brasil, Colômbia, Espanha, Paraguai, Peru e Portugal, ao longo da primeira década do século XXI. Foi feita a análise de séries temporais de quarenta e cinco indicadores que apresentavam maior grau de completitude, divididos em determinantes sociais, condicionantes e desempenho. Três tendências são comuns a quase todos os países: aumento de sobrepeso, desequilíbrio da balança comercial em produtos farmacêuticos e aumento nos gastos dos sistemas. Este padrão de convergência mostra a necessidade de mudanças no modo de regular, organizar e prestar serviços com práticas e políticas públicas que garantam um cuidado integral, mas incorporem ações intersetoriais e de promoção permitindo a sustentabilidade dos sistemas. Abstract Comparison can be an important resource for identifying trends or interventions that improve the quality of health services. Although Portugal and Spain have accumulated important knowledge in primary health care-PHC driven national systems, the Ibero-American countries have not been object of comparative studies. This paper presents an assessment using an analytical dashboard created by the Ibero-American Observatory on Policies and Health Systems. It discusses aspects that have stood out in monitoring the service systems of Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Spain, Paraguay, Peru, and Portugal throughout the 21st century's first decade. Forty-five indicators and time series showing the highest completeness degree divided into social determinants, conditions and performance were analyzed. Three trends are common to almost all countries: overweight increase, negative trade balance for pharmaceutical products, and an increase in health system expenditure. This convergence trend reveals the need for changes in the way of regulating, organizing and delivering health services with public policies and practices that guarantee comprehensive care, including health promotion actions enabling systems sustainability.
adicionar en sua lista
7.

Reservoir longitudinal gradient promotes ordered losses on diversity and density of Ephemeroptera community.

Melo, S M; Pinha, G D; Ragonha, F H; Fontes-Junior, H M; Takeda, A M
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Reservoir operations alter, eliminate or restrain the natural hydrologic cycles. Biotic community has become subject to these non-cyclic events, responding by reducing the species diversity. Ephemeroptera species present distinct responses to environmental deterioration such that poses this assemblage between the most useful groups in biomonitoring programs. We hypothesized an alteration in beta diversity at the longitudinal species gradient, which will be influenced mainly by species losses between zones. Changes in temporal beta diversity is also expected, but the main drivers of such alterations will be the species turnover between the sampling period. Ephemeroptera community was monitored in nine sampling points from Itaipu Reservoir, where were installed three sets of substrates composed by a float and 2 wooden substrates. We took biological samples in triplicates monthly, from June-01 to August-02. Our initial hypothesis was partially supported and with significant variations only for spatial approach, between the Reservoir zones. The generated ordering from Non-Metric Dimensional Scale - NMDS - corroborated with spatial analyzes, with the formation of two groups along the gradient zonation of the reservoir. The temporal ordination showed no clear pattern. As expected, the contribution to beta diversity was different for our two approaches, such that the loss of species was more important along the spatial gradient and despite of no significant result, the species replacement was more important among months. The spatial results lead us to infer that differences in limnological characteristics between zones are important for determining differences in Ephemeroptera composition and can reflect the dependency degree of the species in relation to the lentic and sometimes-lotic conditions, mainly in the riverine zone of reservoirs. On the other hand, the absence of a temporal pattern can be result of chaotic variations in the physical and chemical attributes imposed by the reservoir operation, disrupting continuity of the biota and natural succession processes.
adicionar en sua lista
8.

Hábitos saludables y estado nutricional en el entorno laboral/ Healthy habits and nutritional status in the work environment

Paredes, Fabiana G; Ruiz Díaz, Liz; González C, Natalia
| Idioma(s): Español
RESUMEN El entorno laboral es un ámbito propicio para la promoción de la salud, dado el tiempo dedicado al trabajo diariamente. Las enfermedades desencadenadas por hábitos inadecuados se traducen en un alto costo para los empleadores. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar el estado nutricional, hábitos de alimentación y de vida saludable en un grupo de funcionarios que cuenta con un programa de Entorno Laboral Saludable y otro grupo que no, en la ciudad del Asunción, Paraguay, en el año 2014. Se realizó evaluación antropométrica, nutricional y encuestas sobre hábitos saludables a 121 funcionarios de dos empresas distintas: 55 personas con entorno laboral saludable (Grupo A) y 66 personas sin el entorno laboral saludable (Grupo B). Se observaron diferencias entre grupos en : ingesta de tipos de alimentos, comer entre comidas, realización de comidas principales, horas de sueño y actividad física. No se hallaron diferencias en cuanto al estado nutricional, adiposidad abdominal, tiempo dedicado a la alimentación, calidad del sueño, consumo de tabaco y alcohol. Los resultados encontrados sugieren que un entorno laboral saludable predispone a la promoción de un estilo de vida saludable en un ambiente laboral. ABSTRACT The work environment is a good place for promoting health, given the time spent at work daily. Diseases triggered by inadequate habits result in high cost for employers. The aim of the study was to compare the nutritional status, eating habits and healthy life habits, in a group of employees participating in a Healthy Workplace program and another group that did not, in the city of Asunción, Paraguay, in 2014. One hundred and twenty one employees from two different companies: 55 people with a Healthy Work Environment (Group A) and 66 people without a healthy work environment (Group B). The subjetcs were evaluated with anthropometry, and nutritional and healthy habits surveys. Differences between groups were observed for intake of certain food groups, snacks, main meals, hours of sleep and physical activity. No differences in BMI, abdominal adiposity, time devoted to eating, sleep quality, and consumption of tobacco and alcohol were found. The results suggest that a healthy work environment may predisposes to the improvement of some habits related to a healthy lifestyle in a work environment.
adicionar en sua lista
9.

Salud ocupacional con énfasis en la protección del trabajador/a en Paraguay/ Occupational health with emphasis on the protection of workers in Paraguay

Flores, Laura; Giménez Caballero, Edgar; Peralta, Néstor
| Idioma(s): Español
Esta revisión en salud ocupacional con énfasis en la protección del trabajador/a del Paraguay tiene por objeto dar una mirada desde la historia para comprender la relación entre los sistemas de protección social, las coberturas en riesgos profesionales, los determinantes sociales, y la salud ocupacional, además de la importancia de la cobertura de estos riesgos, y la situación en Paraguay en referencia a estas coberturas en los diferentes sectores económicos y categorías ocupacionales como el empleado privado, el del sector público y el trabajador por cuenta propia. También se analiza el papel de los diferentes organismos del estado y las legislaciones vigentes, finalizando con las futuras legislaciones y los cambios necesarios para asegurar una protección eficaz en riesgos profesionales para los trabajadores y trabajadoras del país. This review on occupational health with an emphasis on the protection of workers in Paraguay aims to take a look from history to understand the relationship between social protection systems, occupational risk coverage, social determinants and occupational health, also the importance of coverage of these risks, and the situation in Paraguay in reference to these coverage in the different economic sectors and occupational categories such as the private employee, the public sector and the self-employed. It also analyzes the role of different state agencies and existing legislation, ending with future legislation and the necessary changes to ensure effective protection of occupational risks for workers in the country.
adicionar en sua lista
10.

Composición del gasto de bolsillo en el sistema de salud del Paraguay/ Composition of out-of-pocket health spending in the health system of Paraguay

Giménez Caballero, Edgar; Rodríguez, José Carlos; Ocampos, Gladys; Flores, Laura
| Idioma(s): Español
La protección financiera de la población, con equidad, es un objetivo del sistema de salud. Sin embargo, numerosas personas enfermas incurren en gasto de bolsillo (GBS) para obtener atención, situación que es inequitativa. El objetivo de este artículo fue analizar la composición del GBS, su magnitud y distribución en la población general y pobre. Como metodología se analizó el módulo de salud de la Encuesta Permanente de Hogares del 2014. La población que incurrió en GBS fue el 75,1% de la población enferma, 75,8% para los no pobres, 73,3% para los pobres no extremos y 73,0% para los pobres extremos. El GBS promedio fue de 54,5 USD; 63,3 USD para los no pobres; 26,2 USD para los pobres no extremos y 30,4 USD para los pobres extremos. El 53% del GBS fue por pagos por medicamentos, 22,6% debido a estudios de diagnóstico, 18,7% por hospitalizaciones y 5,7% por consultas. La proporción de GBS por compra de medicamentos fue mayor entre los pobres: 72,3% para los pobres extremos y 68,6% para los pobres no extremos. Si bien el GBS se acumuló 87% entre los no pobres la relación de los precios promedios sobre el ingreso promedio fue más elevado entre los pobres: 95,8% para los pobres extremos, 40,7% para los pobres no extremos y 21,4% para los no pobres, pero los gastos por hospitalizaciones pueden superar el ingreso total. Los resultados señalan inequidad en el financiamiento del sistema de salud paraguayo. Financial protection with equity for the population is an objective of the health system. However, many sick people incur pocket expenses to obtain care, a situation that is inequitable. The objective of this article is to analyze the composition of pocket expenses, its magnitude and distribution in the general and poor population. As a methodology, the health module of the Permanent Household Survey for 2014 was analyzed. The population that incurred in pocket expenses was 75.1% of the sick population, 75.8% of the non-poor, 73.3% of the non-extreme poor, and 73.0% of the extreme poor. The average pocket expenses was 54.5 USD, 63.3 USD for non-poor, 26.2 USD for non-extreme poor and 30.4 USD for extreme poor. Fifty three percent of the pocket expenses were for payments of medicines, 22.6% due to diagnostic studies, 18.7% for hospitalizations and 5.7% for consultations. The proportion of pocket expenses per drug purchase was higher among the poor: 72.3% for the extreme poor and 68.6% for the non-extreme poor. While pocket expenses accounted for 87.0% of the non-poor incomes, the ratio of average prices to average income was higher among the poor: 95.8% for extreme poor, 40.7% for non-extreme poor, and 21, 4% for non-poor, but hospitalization expenses may exceed total income. These data indicate inequity in the financing of the Paraguayan health system.
Resultados  1-10 de 251