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1.

'12 tips for teaching environmental sustainability to health professionals'.

Schwerdtle, Patricia Nayna; Maxwell, Janie; Horton, Graeme; Bonnamy, James
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Background: As recognition of the health impacts of climate change and other environmental challenges increases, so too does the need for health care professionals to practice healthcare sustainably. Environmental sustainability in healthcare extends beyond our traditional understanding of environmental health, which is often limited to environmental hazards and disease. Health services, professional organizations, and training institutions are increasingly forming climate and sustainability position statements and policies accordingly. To prepare future health professionals for global environmental change, environmental sustainability must be meaningfully integrated into health curricula.Aim: To provide educators with 12 tips for integrating environmental sustainability into health professional education.Methods: The authors reviewed the literature relating to climate change, environmental sustainability and health, and health professional education. By combining findings from this search with reflections on their own experience in clinical and public health teaching across nursing and midwifery, paramedicine, medicine, and public health, the authors developed recommendations for integrating environmental sustainability into health professional education.Results: These 12 tips can be used to teach students and qualified health professionals in nursing, allied health, and medicine to practice healthcare in an environmentally sustainable manner.Conclusions: Empowering health professionals to practice environmentally sustainable healthcare has economic, social, health, and environmental benefits. Teaching environmental sustainability to health professionals enhances existing learning by updating curricula with the latest evidence of how environmental determinants of health are rapidly changing and enables both educators and students to make an important contribution to safeguarding human health, the environment, and healthcare for future generations.
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2.

Ecological and health risks of soil and grape heavy metals in long-term fertilized vineyards (Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province of Iran).

Mirzaei, Mohsen; Marofi, Safar; Solgi, Eisa; Abbasi, Mozhgan; Karimi, Roohollah; Riyahi Bakhtyari, Hamid Reza
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Heavy metal pollution in food-producing ecosystems resulting from long-term fertilizing and other agricultural practices is causing major concern due to its health risk potential for human and other organisms. This study was designed to investigate heavy metal concentrations (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd) and assess their ecological risk using contamination factor (Cf), pollution load index (PLI) and ecological risk index. Health risk assessment (HRA) was also estimated by investigating non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of soil via oral ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation, and health risk of grape consumption. To this aim, 38 fertilized vineyards of the region were investigated during harvesting seasons of 2016 and 2017. The results showed a same ranking order of the metals in the soil and grape that was Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd. The average concentrations of Zn and Pb in the grape samples were significantly higher than the national permissible limits. According to Cf and PLI indices, Cd had the most ecological risk compared to the other studied metals. The HRA results showed that adults and children are not exposed to non-carcinogenic risk from the studied heavy metals in the vineyard soils. But, it was a tolerable level of carcinogenic health risk only by Cr in some of the vineyards. The PLI had most significant correlation (p < 0.01) with the other studied indices. So, it can be considered as a rapid and applicable index to assess ecological and health risk of heavy metals in the region. To food-chain security and community health, some comprehensive managing plans are necessary to increase farmer's awareness about the standard amount of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Furthermore, continuous monitoring of heavy metals in soil and grape of the vineyards should be performed.
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3.

Our health, our planet: a cross-sectional analysis on the association between health consciousness and pro-environmental behavior among health professionals.

Shimoda, Akihiro; Hayashi, Hana; Sussman, David; Nansai, Keisuke; Fukuba, Isao; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kondo, Naoki
| Idioma(s): Inglés
One possible predictive factor that affects both pro-environmental behavior and health behavior is health consciousness (a psychological state where an individual is aware of and involved in his/her health condition). We examined the relationship between health consciousness and two pro-environmental behaviors (recycling and green purchasing) within health professionals in a Japanese large hospital. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed a significant association between health consciousness and recycling behavior, while there was no association between health consciousness and green purchasing behavior. We assume that health consciousness can certainly be a factor promoting pro-environmental behavior, but that it may have been insufficient to cause green purchasing, because of the organizational norm of recycling in the Japanese context. Given that there is previous evidence about the relationship between health consciousness and health behavior, health consciousness might be a predictive factor that encourages both health behavior and pro-environmental behavior simultaneously.
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4.

Multiple morbidities and health conditions of waste-loaders in Mumbai: A study of the burden of disease and health expenditure.

Salve, Pradeep S; Chokhandre, Praveen; Bansod, Dhananjay W
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Study assesses the effects of solid-waste loading on workers, the resultant development of occupational morbidities, and economic burden of these morbidities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 360 municipal workers from six of 24 municipal wards in Mumbai. The nearest neighborhood method of Propensity Score Matching (PSM) examined the impact of waste-loading on the development of morbidities and to identify the risk factors - multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), injury, eye and skin infections found significantly higher for waste-loaders compared to comparison group. The PSM method revealed that the occupation of waste-loading significantly raised the risk of injury (34%), MSDs (23%), eye (19%), skin infection (15%) and disability (15%), compared to comparison group. Significantly higher health expenditure is observed among waste-loaders who have sought treatment in private health facility than public. The study recommends to offer assistance the medical insurance for reducing the financial burden on waste-loaders.
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5.

Comparison of microclimate measurements and perceptions as part of a global evaluation of environmental quality at neighbourhood scale.

Lemonsu, A; Amossé, A; Chouillou, D; Gaudio, N; Haouès-Jouve, S; Hidalgo, J; Le Bras, J; Legain, D; Marchandise, S; Tudoux, B
| Idioma(s): Inglés
The EUREQUA project raises the issue of the definition and evaluation of the environmental quality of neighbourhoods. The approach consists of integrating and cross-referencing observable data characterising the physical environment and people's perception of their quality of life. The study area is a neighbourhood in Toulouse (France) with high social and typo-morphological diversity, subject to noise and air pollution nuisances. Three 3-day field campaigns were organised in January, April, and June 2014. Instrumented and commented walks took place three times per day. For each one, measurements of physical environmental parameters and surveys were performed simultaneously at six locations in the neighbourhood. The study focuses on microclimate and thermal comfort issues. It aims to compare in situ meteorological data of air temperature, humidity, wind speed, and mean radiant temperature, with quantitative results rating human perception of heat, humidity, wind, and thermal comfort. The variability in perception and measurements is mainly driven by seasonal effects, especially for heat and humidity, and, to a lesser extent, for wind. Wind perception and measurement also vary spatially, thus highlighting site effects. Linear models indicate a positive link between heat perception and mean radiant temperature, as well as between wind perception and mean and standard deviation of wind speed (with a higher sensitivity of people to wind under winter climate conditions). Finally, it is found that perception of thermal comfort is only slightly linked to the different microclimate dimensions, and is rather driven by other appreciation factors and emotional criteria related to the general environmental quality of the study area.
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7.

Neighborhood air pollution and household environmental health as it relates to respiratory health and healthcare utilization among elderly persons with asthma.

Arnetz, Bengt B; Arnetz, Judy; Harkema, Jack R; Morishita, Masako; Slonager, Kathleen; Sudan, Sukhesh; Jamil, Hikmet
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Objective: The study investigated the associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5; <2.5 µm in diameter), indoor environment, pulmonary function, and healthcare utilization in a vulnerable group of elderly persons with asthma. We hypothesized that environmental conditions were associated with adverse pulmonary health outcomes. Methods: The study involved elderly (n = 76; mean age 64.6 years; 48 women) vulnerable persons in Detroit, Michigan, USA, with physician-diagnosed asthma. Exposure variables included measured outdoor PM2.5, self-rated outdoor and household environmental pollutants. Outcome variables were self-rated and measured pulmonary function, and asthma-related healthcare utilization. Results: Mean ambient PM2.5 concentrations during the study was 14.14 ± (S.D. 6.36) µg/m3 during the summer and 14.20 (6.33) during the winter (p = 0.95). In multiple regression analyses, adjusting for age and gender, mean 6-month concentration of PM2.5 was related to shortness of breath (SHOB; standardized ß = 0.26, p = 0.02) and inversely with self-rated respiratory health (SRRH; ß = 0.28, p = 0.02). However, PM2.5 did not predict lung function (FEV1% predicted and FEV1/FVC). However, PM2.5 was related to use of asthma controller drugs (ß = 0.38, p = 0.001). Participants' air pollution ratings predicted total healthcare utilization (ß = 0.33, p = 0.01). Conclusions: In elderly persons with asthma, living near heavy industry and busy highways, objective and perceived environmental pollution relate to participants' respiratory health and healthcare utilization. Importantly, air pollution might increase use of asthma controller drugs containing corticosteroids with implication for elderly persons' risk to develop osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease.
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8.

Polycystic ovary syndrome, medical semantics, and the political ecology of health in India.

Pathak, Gauri
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Within public health, investigations into the rise of metabolic syndrome disorders, such as obesity and type II diabetes, following on the heels of globalisation have tended to focus on the twin axes of diet and physical exercise. However, such a limited focus obscures wider transformations in bodily and health-related practices that emerge in response to globalisation. This paper is an exploration of public discourses about PCOS-a hormonal disorder that affects menstruation, is associated with obesity, heart disease, and type II diabetes, and has been on the rise in India since the liberalisation of its economy in 1991- and it examines the concerns regarding sociocultural, environmental, and political-economic changes brought by liberalisation that these discourses index. Attention to medical semantics, as revealed through public discourses about PCOS, can help counter the limited focus of diet and physical activity-centred models through an emphasis on the political ecology of health. Such engagement can reveal how an emerging relationship between the body and its environment, which is seen as characteristically modern, is implicated in the rise of metabolic disorders. It can also offer critical insights for biomedical and public health research into such disorders.
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9.

Comparison of occupational health problems of employees and self-employed individuals who work in different fields.

Park, Jungsun; Han, Boyoung; Kim, Yangho
| Idioma(s): Inglés
We used a representative sample of the working population of Korea to compare the occupational health problems of employees and self-employed individuals who performed different types of work. The Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) of 2014 was used to compare the working conditions and occupational safety and health (OSH) issues of employees and self-employed individuals performing different types of work. Relative to paid employees, self-employed individuals were older, more likely to perceive their health as bad, and had less education, longer working hours, more exposure to workplace ergonomic hazards, more musculoskeletal problems, and poorer mental well-being. Relative to those performing "mental work" or "emotional work", individuals performing "physical work" were more vulnerable to OSH problems. In conclusion, self-employed individuals in the sample were more vulnerable to OSH problems.
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10.

Climate-change information, health-risk perception and residents' environmental complaint behavior: an empirical study in China.

Wang, Shanyong; Jiang, Jingjing; Zhou, Yu; Li, Jun; Zhao, Dingtao; Lin, Shoufu
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Motivating residents to deliver environmental complaints is beneficial for environmental authorities to help them manage environmental issues and alleviate the adverse effects caused by climate change. The major aim of the present study is to understand how climate-change information and residents' health-risk perceptions (both physical and mental dimensions) affect residents' environmental complaint behavior. The research framework was developed according to planned behavior theory, risk perception behavior and information behavior models. This framework was empirically assessed by employing questionnaire survey data gathered from 1273 respondents in China. The results indicate that climate-change information and residents' health-risk perceptions have all significantly positive effects on residents' attitudes toward environmental complaints and their intention to submit environmental complaints. Meanwhile, residents' health-risk perception is also positively affected by climate-change information. Mental health-risk perception plays a much stronger role in determining a residents' attitude and intention to submit an environmental complaint than does physical health-risk perception. Furthermore, attitude toward environmental complaint, perceived behavioral control and subjective norm all have significantly positive effects on a residents' intention to submit an environmental complaint. Additionally, this study also addresses the intention-behavior gap and suggests a positive relationship between intention and behavior. The present study may provide some practical implications to motivate residents to submit environmental complaints.
Resultados  1-10 de 203.687