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1.

Climate-change information, health-risk perception and residents' environmental complaint behavior: an empirical study in China.

Wang, Shanyong; Jiang, Jingjing; Zhou, Yu; Li, Jun; Zhao, Dingtao; Lin, Shoufu
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Motivating residents to deliver environmental complaints is beneficial for environmental authorities to help them manage environmental issues and alleviate the adverse effects caused by climate change. The major aim of the present study is to understand how climate-change information and residents' health-risk perceptions (both physical and mental dimensions) affect residents' environmental complaint behavior. The research framework was developed according to planned behavior theory, risk perception behavior and information behavior models. This framework was empirically assessed by employing questionnaire survey data gathered from 1273 respondents in China. The results indicate that climate-change information and residents' health-risk perceptions have all significantly positive effects on residents' attitudes toward environmental complaints and their intention to submit environmental complaints. Meanwhile, residents' health-risk perception is also positively affected by climate-change information. Mental health-risk perception plays a much stronger role in determining a residents' attitude and intention to submit an environmental complaint than does physical health-risk perception. Furthermore, attitude toward environmental complaint, perceived behavioral control and subjective norm all have significantly positive effects on a residents' intention to submit an environmental complaint. Additionally, this study also addresses the intention-behavior gap and suggests a positive relationship between intention and behavior. The present study may provide some practical implications to motivate residents to submit environmental complaints.
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2.

Characterization of PM2.5-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at Two Central China Cities: Seasonal Variation, Sources, and Health Risk Assessment.

Wang, Qun; Dong, Zhangsen; Guo, Yue; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Zhenya; Zhang, Ruiqin
| Idioma(s): Inglés
In this study, ambient PM2.5 samples were collected from October 2014 to August 2015 in urban area of Luoyang (LY) and Pingdingshan (PDS), two medium-size industrial cities in central China. Sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed to investigate the seasonal variation, potential pollution sources, and health risk of PAHs bound to PM2.5 (PM2.5-bound PAHs). The diagnostic ratios analysis and positive matrix fraction (PMF) model were used to identify potential sources of PM2.5-bound PAHs. The annual average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM2.5-bound PAHs were 128 µg m-3 and 73 ng m-3 for LY, and 119 µg m-3 and 182 ng m-3 for PDS, respectively, both displaying seasonal trends with higher concentrations in winter and autumn than in spring and summer. BaP equivalent concentrations were 14.4 and 16.5 ng m-3 in LY and PDS, respectively. The predominant PAHs were 4-6 ring PAHs, with contribution of more than 80% at both sampling sites. PMF analysis revealed that coal combustion was the most important source of PM2.5-bound PAHs in LY and PDS, accounting for 37% and 39%, respectively, followed by traffic emissions (34% and 33% in LY and PDS, respectively). The average inhalation cancer risk (ICR) for a lifetime of 70 years were 12.5 × 10-4 and 14.3 × 10-4 in LY and PDS, respectively, which were much higher than US EPA guideline limit of 10-6. The traffic source and coal combustion source contributed the highest ICR values in LY and PDS, respectively.
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3.

Corruption and health outcomes within an economic and cultural framework.

Achim, Monica Violeta; Vaidean, Viorela Ligia; Borlea, Sorin Nicolae
| Idioma(s): Inglés
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between corruption and population health. Our cross-sectional sample covers 185 countries (54 high-income and 131 low-income countries) and the period of the analysis is 2005-2017. This research provides clear evidence that the level of corruption significantly affects physical health (expressed as life expectancy and Mortality rate) and mental health (expressed by happiness), under the moderating role of economic development and cultural framework. Moreover, we validate a powerful and positive correlation between the income level and both physical and mental health. Culture also has an important role in the corruption-health nexus, because we find evidence supporting four out of the six dimensions of culture (individualism versus collectivism, indulgence versus restraint, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity vs femininity) as having influence upon the physical and mental health of individuals. When we estimate the results on subsamples of countries (high-income and low-income countries), we validate a crisscross effect of corruption. Thus, a high level of corruption more deeply affects the physical health of population in low-income countries than in high-income countries. On the other hand, mental health is more pronouncedly affected by corruption in high-income countries than in low-income countries. This study may have important implications for national or international policy makers who need to acknowledge that anti-corruption policies play an important role in increasing population health, but they also need to adopt them according to the economic and cultural context of each nation.
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4.

A collective blame hypocrisy intervention enduringly reduces hostility towards Muslims.

Bruneau, Emile G; Kteily, Nour S; Urbiola, Ana
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Hostility towards outgroups contributes to costly intergroup conflict. Here we test an intervention to reduce hostility towards Muslims, a frequently targeted outgroup. Our 'collective blame hypocrisy' intervention highlights the hypocrisy involved in the tendency for people to collectively blame outgroup but not ingroup members for blameworthy actions of individual group members. Using both within-subject and between-subject comparisons in a preregistered longitudinal study in Spain, we find that our intervention reduces collective blame of Muslims and downstream anti-Muslim sentiments relative to a matched control condition and that the effects of the intervention persist one month and also one year later. We replicate the benefits of the intervention in a second study. The effects are mediated by reductions in collective blame and moderated by individual differences in preference for consistency. Together, these data illustrate that the collective blame hypocrisy intervention enduringly reduces harmful intergroup attitudes associated with conflict escalation, particularly among those who value consistency in themselves and others.
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5.

Is Health Insurance Associated with Health Service Utilization and Economic Burden of Non-Communicable Diseases on Households in Vietnam?

Giang, Nguyen Hoang; Oanh, Tran Thi Mai; Anh Tuan, Khuong; Hong Van, Phan; Jayasuriya, Rohan
| Idioma(s): Inglés
The rising burden of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in developing countries has caused high out-of-pocket (OOP) health spending leading to many households suffering Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE). This study examined the association between health insurance (HI) on health-care utilization and the burden of OOP expenditure among people with reported NCDs and on their households in Vietnam.The study draws on a cross-sectional household survey of accessibility and utilization of health services in Vietnam. Data were obtained from three provinces to represent urban, rural and mountainous areas of the country. The study used a sample of 2,038 individuals with reported NCD aged over 18 years from 1,642 households having at least one person with reported NCD.The results show that people with reported NCD who had HI were twice as likely to use outpatient care compared with those without HI. Having more than one member with reported NCD resulted in double the odds of a household suffering CHE. Households in the three lowest wealth quintiles were more likely to encounter CHE and financial distress than economically better-off households. HI did not provide a protective effect to households, as there was no significant association between the HI status of household members with reported NCD and CHE or financial distress. Seeking care at higher-level facilities was significantly associated with CHE.This study highlights the need for evidence to design future HI-based interventions targeting susceptible populations to narrow the gaps in health service utilization among the population and mitigate financial catastrophe associated with NCDs.Abbreviations: NCD: Noncommunicable diseases; UHC: Universal Health Coverage; HI: Health insurance; CHE: Catastrophic health expenditure; OOP: Out of Pocket.
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6.

Aggregate health and economic burden of herpes zoster in the United States: illustrative example of a pain condition.

Harvey, Michael; Prosser, Lisa A; Rose, Angela M; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael R; Harpaz, Rafael
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Our objective was to develop comprehensive national estimates of the total burden of herpes zoster (HZ) among U.S. adults, including direct (ie, medical costs) and indirect (ie, productivity losses) costs, as well as its psychosocial impact (ie, quality of life losses). Using a patient-level microsimulation model, we projected health and economic outcomes among U.S. adults aged 18 years and older using a 10-year time horizon. We conducted a comprehensive systematic literature review to generate parameter values and conducted simulation modeling to generate our outcomes, including numbers of cases of uncomplicated HZ, postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), and ocular complications, productivity losses, and losses in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). We used a societal perspective for outcomes; the costing year was 2015. Projected outcomes for an unvaccinated population included 1.1 million HZ cases, 114,000 PHN cases, and 43,000 ocular complications annually, resulting in approximately 67,000 QALYs lost. HZ and its complications would incur costs of $2.4 billion in direct medical costs and productivity losses annually. Projected QALY losses were most sensitive to HZ and PHN health utility values in the model. Cost estimates were most sensitive to the probability of HZ and to the costs per episode of PHN. The national burden of direct, indirect, and psychosocial HZ costs is substantial. Our results can inform economic analyses for HZ vaccines. Comprehensive, national assessments of the total burden of other painful conditions would be very informative.
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7.

Universal Mental Health Interventions for Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review of Health Economic Evaluations.

Schmidt, Masja; Werbrouck, Amber; Verhaeghe, Nick; Putman, Koen; Simoens, Steven; Annemans, Lieven
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: Effective mental health interventions may reduce the impact that mental health problems have on young people's well-being. Nevertheless, little is known about the cost effectiveness of such interventions for children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this systematic review were to summarize and assess recent health economic evaluations of universal mental health interventions for children and adolescents aged 6-18 years. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched for relevant health economic studies, using a pre-developed search algorithm. Full health economic evaluations evaluating the cost effectiveness of universal mental health interventions were included, as well as evaluations of anti-bullying and suicide prevention interventions that used a universal approach. Studies on the prevention of substance abuse and those published before 2013 fell outside the scope of this review. Study results were summarised in evidence tables, and each study was subject to a systematic quality appraisal. RESULTS: Nine studies were included in the review; in six, the economic evaluation was conducted alongside a clinical trial. All studies except one were carried out in the European Union, and all but one evaluated school-based interventions. All evaluated interventions led to positive incremental costs compared to their comparators and most were associated with small increases in quality-adjusted life-years. Almost half of the studies evaluated the cost effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy-based interventions aimed at the prevention of depression or anxiety, with mixed results. Cost-effectiveness estimates for a parenting programme, a school-based social and emotional well-being programme and anti-bullying interventions were promising, though the latter were only evaluated for the Swedish context. Drivers of cost effectiveness were implementation costs; intervention effectiveness, delivery mode and duration; baseline prevalence; and the perspective of the evaluation. The overall study quality was reasonable, though most studies only assessed short-term costs and effects. CONCLUSION: Few studies were found, which limits the possibility of drawing strong conclusions about cost effectiveness. There is some evidence based on decision-analytic modelling that anti-bullying interventions represent value for money. Generally, there is a lack of studies that take into account long-term costs and effects. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019115882.
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8.

Heterogeneous health classes for older adults and their regional disparities in China: based on multidimensional health.

Ye, L; Luo, J; Shia, B-C; Fang, Y
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVES: China is currently facing an unprecedented complex health demand from a rapidly aging population. Based on multidimensional health, this study aimed to identify heterogeneous latent health classes for older Chinese people, and assess regional disparities and associated sociodemographic factors. STUDY DESIGN: Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey in 2014 was adopted. METHODS: For 2886 participants aged 65 years and more without missing health indicators in physical, psychological, and social dimensions, latent class analysis was used to identify heterogeneous health. For 2128 participants with complete information, logistic regressions were used to examine how regional divisions and sociodemographic factors impact each identified class. RESULTS: Four classes were identified and labeled as 'Lacking Socialization' (17.4%), 'High Comorbidity' (13.7%), 'Functional Impairment' (7.1%), and 'Relative Health' (61.8%). When the Relative Health class was the reference, the likelihoods of the High Comorbidity and Functional Impairment classes were higher for older adults in eastern and central regions than in western regions. Those in eastern regions also tended to be in the Lacking Socialization class than in western regions. The effects of regional divisions on the different classes were significantly impacted by sociodemographic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Four health classes identified by multidimensional health have enhanced our understanding of heterogeneity among older Chinese people. By examining regional disparities in China, our study provided evidence for health policies addressing the issue of aging with respect to regional disparities.
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9.

Health outcomes, utilization, and equity in Chile: an evolution from 1990 to 2015 and the effects of the last health reform.

Núñez, A; Manzano, C A; Chi, C
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: Chile is an attractive case study because of the deep political changes that it underwent over a short period of time: from a universal health service (60s), through a neoliberal reform (70s) and onto a series of legislative reforms (80s-90s). This article aims to explore and assess the evolution of health outcomes, equity, and utilization in Chile through the last period of these reforms (1990-2015). STUDY DESIGN: Standardized health equity analysis. METHODS: We conducted a standardized economic analysis on health equity and healthcare utilization using the ADePT software (by the World Bank) and using data from the Chilean National Socio-economic Survey. We evaluated trends of health equity and examined concentration curves of health utilization of healthcare services and health outcomes such as children/elder/pregnant nutritional status, self-reported health, and physical limitations. RESULTS: Health outcomes such as nutritional problems in children and pregnant women were concentrated among the poor, while others such as high-relevance health conditions were similar for poorest and richest households. The concentration indexes for health outcomes suggested that income makes the distribution pro-poor. However, the opposite was true for age, in which the probability of health problems among rich individuals increased with age. The concentration curves for utilization of healthcare services showed that dental visits, laboratory exams, specialty visits, and hospitalizations were concentrated on the richest households, while the use of emergency services and preventive medicine were highly concentrated among poor individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Although a positive trend in the increase of healthcare service use among income groups was observed, a significant impact of the latest health reform was not observed.
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10.

A case study on pollution and a human health risk assessment of heavy metals in agricultural soils around Sinop province, Turkey.

Baltas, Hasan; Sirin, Murat; Gökbayrak, Emre; Ozcelik, Ali Erdem
| Idioma(s): Inglés
In the present study, the concentration levels of heavy metals such as Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Pb in soil samples collected from 88 sampling locations around Sinop Province, Turkey were measured using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF). To interpret and to evaluate the pollution status and distribution of heavy metals in soil, metal pollution parameters such as enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), pollution factor (CF) and pollution load index (PLI) and geo-spatial distribution patterns were used. The mean concentrations of Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Pb were found to be 194.73, 39,848.57, 85.02, 43.19, 65.10, 5.66, and 17.01 mg/kg, respectively. Results indicated that the mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, As, and Pb exceeded the world crustal average, with the exception of Fe, Cu, and As. Multivariate analysis results showed that Cr, Ni, Zn, As, and Pb levels in the investigated region were highly influenced by anthropogenic inputs such as agricultural practices. According to the health risk assessment model introduced by USEPA to evaluate the human health risks, the non-carcinogenic risk for children was above the threshold level, but low for adults. Total potential carcinogenic health risks for both children and adults in the study area were in acceptable range. Overall, when health risks are evaluated, it shows that children are more susceptible to non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health effects of trace metals compared to adults.
Resultados  1-10 de 203.687