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Development of a context-sensitive physical activity intervention for persons living with HIV and AIDS of low socioeconomic status using the behaviour change wheel.

Mabweazara, S Z; Leach, L L; Ley, C.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 774, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208375

BACKGROUND:

Regular physical activity (PA) has been recommended for the management of HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this study was to develop a contextualised intervention for promoting PA among women living with HIV and AIDS (WLWHA) of low socioeconomic status (SES). A secondary aim of the study was to optimise the PA intervention using behavioural theory/ frameworks derived from preliminary studies and the literature.

METHODS:

The Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) for designing behaviour change interventions was used. This method was further supplemented by evidence from the literature, systematic literature review (SLR), a concurrent mixed methods study and two cross-sectional studies. The SLR aided in determining the theoretical frameworks to inform the intervention, the specific PA behaviours to be targeted by the intervention, the intervention functions, the intervention policy category and the mode of delivery of the intervention. The concurrent mixed methods study was used to identify key factors that needed to change in order for participants to engage in regular PA. The first cross-sectional study was used to determine the gender to be targeted by the study. The second cross-sectional study was used to determine the domain and intensity of PA to target in the intervention.

RESULTS:

A face-to-face context-sensitive PA intervention employing 14 behavioural change techniques was designed. The PA intervention (a) utilised the Transtheoretical model of behaviour change and the Social Cognitive theory as the underpinning theoretical frameworks (b) included convenient PAs, such as walking, doing simple home-based exercises, engaging in activities of daily living or doing simple exercises at the community centre (c) used education, reward, training in PA, modelling exercise activities and enablement to increase the opportunity to engage in PA as intervention functions (d) used service provision as policy priorities, and (e) used a direct face-to-face mode of delivery.

CONCLUSIONS:

The PA intervention emphasises behavioural techniques for increasing PA participation, such as goal-setting, self-monitoring, strategies for overcoming PA barriers, social support and rewards. The intervention employs strategies that highlight low-cost local PA resources and opportunities to help HIV infected women of low SES to participate in PA. The BCW provides a useful and comprehensive framework for the development of evidence and theory-based PA interventions for PLWHA of low SES. The BCW can thus be used in the development of interventions that 'talk' to policy by bridging the health inequality gap.