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1.
Nature ; 614(7948): 486-491, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725931

RESUMO

Brain anatomy provides key evidence for the relationships between ray-finned fishes1, but two major limitations obscure our understanding of neuroanatomical evolution in this major vertebrate group. First, the deepest branching living lineages are separated from the group's common ancestor by hundreds of millions of years, with indications that aspects of their brain morphology-like other aspects of their anatomy2,3-are specialized relative to primitive conditions. Second, there are no direct constraints on brain morphology in the earliest ray-finned fishes beyond the coarse picture provided by cranial endocasts: natural or virtual infillings of void spaces within the skull4-8. Here we report brain and cranial nerve soft-tissue preservation in Coccocephalus wildi, an approximately 319-million-year-old ray-finned fish. This example of a well-preserved vertebrate brain provides a window into neural anatomy deep within ray-finned fish phylogeny. Coccocephalus indicates a more complicated pattern of brain evolution than suggested by living species alone, highlighting cladistian apomorphies1 and providing temporal constraints on the origin of traits uniting all extant ray-finned fishes1,9. Our findings, along with a growing set of studies in other animal groups10-12, point to the importance of ancient soft tissue preservation in understanding the deep evolutionary assembly of major anatomical systems outside of the narrow subset of skeletal tissues13-15.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo , Peixes , Fósseis , Animais , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Crânio , Nervos Cranianos/anatomia & histologia
2.
J Fish Biol ; 102(4): 893-903, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647819

RESUMO

Computed tomography (CT) scanning and other high-throughput three-dimensional (3D) visualization tools are transforming the ways we study morphology, ecology and evolutionary biology research beyond generating vast digital repositories of anatomical data. Contrast-enhanced chemical staining methods, which render soft tissues radio-opaque when coupled with CT scanning, encompass several approaches that are growing in popularity and versatility. Of these, the various diceCT techniques that use an iodine-based solution like Lugol's have provided access to an array of morphological data sets spanning extant vertebrate lineages. This contribution outlines straightforward means for applying diceCT techniques to preserved museum specimens of cartilaginous and bony fishes, collectively representing half of vertebrate species diversity. This study contrasts the benefits of using either aqueous or ethylic Lugol's solutions and reports few differences between these methods with respect to the time required to achieve optimal tissue contrast. It also explores differences in minimum stain duration required for different body sizes and shapes and provides recommendations for staining specimens individually or in small batches. As reported by earlier studies, the authors note a decrease in pH during staining with either aqueous or ethylic Lugol's. Nonetheless, they could not replicate the drastic declines in pH reported elsewhere. They provide recommendations for researchers and collections staff on how to incorporate diceCT into existing curatorial practices, while offsetting risk to specimens. Finally, they outline how diceCT with Lugol's can aid ichthyologists of all kinds in visualizing anatomical structures of interest: from brains and gizzards to gas bladders and pharyngeal jaw muscles.


Assuntos
Iodo , Animais , Iodo/química , Meios de Contraste/química , Corantes , Encéfalo , Peixes
3.
Semin Cell Dev Biol ; 145: 22-27, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659472

RESUMO

Patterns of integration and modularity among organismal traits are prevalent across the tree of life, and at multiple scales of biological organization. Over the past several decades, researchers have studied these patterns at the developmental, and evolutionary levels. While their work has identified the potential drivers of these patterns at different scales, there appears to be a lack of consensus on the relationship between developmental and evolutionary integration. Here, we review and summarize key studies and build a framework to describe the conceptual relationship between these patterns across organismal scales and illustrate how, and why some of these studies may have yielded seemingly conflicting outcomes. We find that among studies that analyze patterns of integration and modularity using morphological data, the lack of consensus may stem in part from the difficulty of fully disentangling the developmental and functional causes of integration. Nonetheless, in some empirical systems, patterns of evolutionary modularity have been found to coincide with expectations based on developmental processes, suggesting that in some circumstances, developmental modularity may translate to evolutionary modularity. We also advance an extension to Hallgrímsson et al.'s palimpsest model to describe how patterns of trait modularity may shift across different evolutionary scales. Finally, we also propose some directions for future research which will hopefully be useful for investigators interested in these issues.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fenótipo
4.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 306(2): 326-342, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36128598

RESUMO

Complex prey processing requires the repositioning of food between the teeth, as modulated by a soft tissue appendage like a tongue or lips. In this study, we trace the evolution of lips and ligaments, which are used during prey capture and prey processing in an herbivorous group of fishes. Pacus (Serrasalmidae) are Neotropical freshwater fishes that feed on leaves, fruits, and seeds. These prey are hard or tough, require high forces to fracture, contain abrasive or caustic elements, or deform considerably before failure. Pacus are gape-limited and do not have the pharyngeal jaws many bony fishes use to dismantle and/or transport prey. Despite their gape limitation, pacus feed on prey larger than their mouths, relying on robust teeth and a hypertrophied lower lip for manipulation and breakdown of food. We used histology to compare the lip morphology across 14 species of pacus and piranhas to better understand this soft tissue. We found that frugivorous pacus have larger, more complex lips which are innervated and folded at their surface, while grazing species have callused, mucus-covered lips. Unlike mammalian lips or tongues, pacu lips lack any intrinsic skeletal or smooth muscle. This implies that pacu lips lack dexterity; however, we found a novel connection to the primordial ligament which suggests that the lips are actuated by the jaw adductors. We propose that pacus combine hydraulic repositioning of prey inside the buccal cavity with direct oral manipulation, the latter using a combination of a morphologically heterodont dentition and compliant lips for reorienting food.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Dieta , Lábio , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Mamíferos , Língua
5.
Integr Comp Biol ; 62(2): 406-423, 2022 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675320

RESUMO

Evolutionary transitions between marine and freshwater ecosystems have occurred repeatedly throughout the phylogenetic history of fishes. The theory of ecological opportunity predicts that lineages that colonize species-poor regions will have greater potential for phenotypic diversification than lineages invading species-rich regions. Thus, transitions between marine and freshwaters may promote phenotypic diversification in trans-marine/freshwater fish clades. We used phylogenetic comparative methods to analyze body size data in nine major fish clades that have crossed the marine/freshwater boundary. We explored how habitat transitions, ecological opportunity, and community interactions influenced patterns of phenotypic diversity. Our analyses indicated that transitions between marine and freshwater habitats did not drive body size evolution, and there are few differences in body size between marine and freshwater lineages. We found that body size disparity in freshwater lineages is not correlated with the number of independent transitions to freshwaters. We found a positive correlation between body size disparity and overall species richness of a given area, and a negative correlation between body size disparity and diversity of closely related species. Our results indicate that the diversity of incumbent freshwater species does not restrict phenotypic diversification, but the diversity of closely related taxa can limit body size diversification. Ecological opportunity arising from colonization of novel habitats does not seem to have a major effect in the trajectory of body size evolution in trans-marine/freshwater clades. Moreover, competition with closely related taxa in freshwaters has a greater effect than competition with distantly related incumbent species.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Água Doce , Animais , Peixes/genética , Filogenia
6.
Ecol Evol ; 10(8): 3769-3783, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313635

RESUMO

Habitat occupancy can have a profound influence on macroevolutionary dynamics, and a switch in major habitat type may alter the evolutionary trajectory of a lineage. In this study, we investigate how evolutionary transitions between marine and freshwater habitats affect macroevolutionary adaptive landscapes, using needlefishes (Belonidae) as a model system. We examined the evolution of body shape and size in marine and freshwater needlefishes and tested for phenotypic change in response to transitions between habitats. Using micro-computed tomographic (µCT) scanning and geometric morphometrics, we quantified body shape, size, and vertebral counts of 31 belonid species. We then examined the pattern and tempo of body shape and size evolution using phylogenetic comparative methods. Our results show that transitions from marine to freshwater habitats have altered the adaptive landscape for needlefishes and expanded morphospace relative to marine taxa. We provide further evidence that freshwater taxa attain reduced sizes either through dwarfism (as inferred from axial skeletal reduction) or through developmental truncation (as inferred from axial skeletal loss). We propose that transitions to freshwater habitats produce morphological novelty in response to novel prey resources and changes in locomotor demands. We find that repeated invasions of different habitats have prompted predictable changes in morphology.

7.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 303(1): 30-43, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30332722

RESUMO

The serrasalmids: piranhas, pacus, and their relatives, are ubiquitous Neotropical fishes with diverse diets, ecologies, and behaviors. Serrasalmids have a bony, serrated keel which lines the underbellies of these fishes, the structure for which the family is named. We examined the diversity and structure of the keel in piranhas and allies using micro-computed tomography scanning in over 30 species of serrasalmids, a third of the species richness for the family, and for 95 total characiform specimens. The keel is highly diverse across serrasalmids, with serrae shape dictating the overall form of the keel. Serrae shape varies considerably among different species and even within keels themselves. The keel morphology can be divided into distinct anterior and posterior regions, as separated by the pelvic fins. Compared to other characiform fishes, serrasalmid skeletons are frequently damaged. Gouging perforations and signs of healing (serrae fusion) are common on the keel. We propose the keel is a defensive structure based on the high incidence of injury (>50%) in our dataset. This is the highest incidence of damage ever recorded in the skeletons of bony fishes. The loss of the anterior keel region in rheophilic taxa suggests competing performance demands and selective pressures on this structure. Competition and aggression among conspecifics or confamilials is a frequently invoked phenomenon for explaining animal weaponry and armor in terrestrial vertebrates. The keel in serrasalmids and other instances of armor in fishes could be complementary study systems for examining competitive rivalry in vertebrates. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2018 American Association for Anatomy.


Assuntos
Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Caraciformes/anatomia & histologia , Caraciformes/fisiologia , Animais , Filogenia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
8.
Evol Dev ; 21(5): 278-293, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449734

RESUMO

Tooth replacement in piranhas is unusual: all teeth on one side of the head are lost as a unit, then replaced simultaneously. We used histology and microCT to examine tooth-replacement modes across carnivorous piranhas and their herbivorous pacu cousins (Serrasalmidae) and then mapped replacement patterns onto a molecular phylogeny. Pacu teeth develop and are replaced in a manner like piranhas. For serrasalmids, unilateral tooth replacement is not an "all or nothing" phenomenon; we demonstrate that both sides of the jaws have developing tooth rows within them, albeit with one side more mineralized than the other. All serrasalmids (except one) share unilateral tooth replacement, so this is not an adaptation for carnivory. All serrasalmids have interlocking teeth; piranhas interdigitate lateral tooth cusps with adjacent teeth, forming a singular saw-like blade, whereas lateral cusps in pacus clasp together. For serrasalmids to have an interlocking dentition, their teeth need to develop and erupt at the same time. We propose that interlocking mechanisms prevent tooth loss and ensure continued functionality of the feeding apparatus. Serrasalmid dentitions are ubiquitously heterodont, having incisiform and molariform dentitions reminiscent of mammals. Finally, we propose that simultaneous tooth replacement be considered as a synapomorphy for the family.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Caraciformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dentição , Odontogênese , Animais , Filogenia
9.
Integr Comp Biol ; 59(2): 432-442, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161224

RESUMO

Convergent evolution is at the forefront of many form-function studies. There are many examples of multiple independent lineages evolving a similar morphology in response to similar functional demands, providing a framework for testing hypotheses of form-function evolution. However, there are numerous clades with underappreciated convergence, in which there is a perceived homogeneity in morphology. In these groups, it can be difficult to investigate causal relationships of form and function (e.g., diet influencing the evolution of jaw morphology) without the ability to disentangle phylogenetic signal from convergence. Leuciscids (Cypriniformes: Leuciscidae; formerly nested within Cyprinidae) are a species-rich clade of fishes that have diversified to occupy nearly every freshwater trophic niche, yet are considered to have relatively low morphological diversity relative to other large freshwater clades. Within the North American leuciscids, many genera contain at least one herbivore, insectivore, and larvaphage. We created 3D models from micro-computed tomography scans of 165 leuciscid species to measure functionally relevant traits within the pharyngeal jaws of these fishes. Using a published phylogeny, we tested these metrics for evolutionary integration, phylogenetic signal, and correlation with diet. Measurements of the pharyngeal jaws, muscle attachment areas, and teeth showed strong positive evolutionary correlation with each other and negative evolutionary correlation with measurements of the inter-ceratobranchial ligament (ICB ligament). Using diet data from published literature, we found extensive dietary convergence within Leuciscidae. The most common transitions we found were between herbivorous and invertivorous taxa and between insectivore types (aquatic vs. terrestrial). We document a trade-off in which herbivorous leuciscids have large teeth, short ICB ligaments, and large muscle attachment areas, whereas insectivorous leuciscids showed the opposite pattern. Inverse patterns of morphological integration between the ICB ligament the rest of the pharyngeal jaw correspond this dietary trade-off, which indicates that coordinated evolution of morphological traits contributes to functional diversity in this clade. However, these patterns only emerge in the context of phylogeny, meaning that the pharyngeal jaws of North American leuciscids converge by similar means (structural changes in response to dietary demands), but not necessarily to similar ends (absolute phenotype).


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Evolução Biológica , Cipriniformes/anatomia & histologia , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Cipriniformes/fisiologia , Faringe/anatomia & histologia
10.
J Morphol ; 280(6): 796-808, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950541

RESUMO

Durophagous predators consume hard-shelled prey such as bivalves, gastropods, and large crustaceans, typically by crushing the mineralized exoskeleton. This is costly from the point of view of the bite forces involved, handling times, and the stresses inflicted on the predator's skeleton. It is not uncommon for durophagous taxa to display an ontogenetic shift from softer to harder prey items, implying that it is relatively difficult for smaller animals to consume shelled prey. Batoid fishes (rays, skates, sawfishes, and guitarfishes) have independently evolved durophagy multiple times, despite the challenges associated with crushing prey harder than their own cartilaginous skeleton. Potamotrygon leopoldi is a durophagous freshwater ray endemic to the Xingu River in Brazil, with a jaw morphology superficially similar to its distant durophagous marine relatives, eagle rays (e.g., Aetomylaeus, Aetobatus). We used second moment of area as a proxy for the ability to resist bending and analyzed the arrangement of the mineralized skeleton of the jaw of P. leopoldi over ontogeny using data from computed tomography (CT) scans. The jaws of P. leopoldi do not resist bending nearly as well as other durophagous elasmobranchs, and the jaws are stiffest nearest the joints rather than beneath the dentition. While second moment has similar material distribution over ontogeny, mineralization of the jaws under the teeth increases with age. Neonate rays have low jaw stiffness and poor mineralization, suggesting that P. leopoldi may not feed on hard-shelled prey early in life. These differences in the shape, stiffness and mineralization of the jaws of P. leopoldi compared to its durophagous relatives show there are several solutions to the problem of crushing shelled prey with a compliant skeleton.


Assuntos
Força de Mordida , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Rajidae/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Brasil , Comportamento Alimentar , Água Doce , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
R Soc Open Sci ; 5(1): 171581, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29410862

RESUMO

Although rare within the context of 30 000 species of extant fishes, scale-feeding as an ecological strategy has evolved repeatedly across the teleost tree of life. Scale-feeding (lepidophagous) fishes are diverse in terms of their ecology, behaviour, and specialized morphologies for grazing on scales and mucus of sympatric species. Despite this diversity, the underlying ontogenetic changes in functional and biomechanical properties of associated feeding morphologies in lepidophagous fishes are less understood. We examined the ontogeny of feeding mechanics in two evolutionary lineages of scale-feeding fishes: Roeboides, a characin, and Catoprion, a piranha. We compare these two scale-feeding taxa with their nearest, non-lepidophagous taxa to identify traits held in common among scale-feeding fishes. We use a combination of micro-computed tomography scanning and iodine staining to measure biomechanical predictors of feeding behaviour such as tooth shape, jaw lever mechanics and jaw musculature. We recover a stark contrast between the feeding morphology of scale-feeding and non-scale-feeding taxa, with lepidophagous fishes displaying some paedomorphic characters through to adulthood. Few traits are shared between lepidophagous characins and piranhas, except for their highly-modified, stout dentition. Given such variability in development, morphology and behaviour, ecological diversity within lepidophagous fishes has been underestimated.

12.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 15(4): e170097, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895108

RESUMO

A fundamental challenge for both sustainable fisheries and biodiversity protection in the Neotropics is the accurate determination of species identity. The biodiversity of the coastal sharks of Guyana is poorly understood, but these species are subject to both artisanal fishing as well as harvesting by industrialized offshore fleets. To determine what species of sharks are frequently caught and consumed along the coastline of Guyana, we used DNA barcoding to identify market specimens. We sequenced the mitochondrial co1 gene for 132 samples collected from six markets, and compared our sequences to those available in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) and GenBank. Nearly 30% of the total sample diversity was represented by two species of Hammerhead Sharks (Sphyrna mokarran and S. lewini), both listed as Endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Other significant portions of the samples included Sharpnose Sharks (23% - Rhizoprionodon spp.), considered Vulnerable in Brazilian waters due to unregulated gillnet fisheries, and the Smalltail Shark (17% - Carcharhinus porosus). We found that barcoding provides efficient and accurate identification of market specimens in Guyana, making this study the first in over thirty years to address Guyana's coastal shark biodiversity.(AU)


Um desafio fundamental para a pesca sustentável e a proteção da biodiversidade nos neotrópicos é a identificação precisa das espécies. A biodiversidade dos tubarões costeiros da Guiana é pouco compreendida, porém essas espécies estão sujeitas tanto à pesca artesanal quanto à pesca industrializada não costeira. Para determinar quais espécies de tubarões são frequentemente capturadas e consumidas ao longo do litoral da Guiana, utilizamos DNA barcoding para identificar espécimes comumente encontrados e adquiridos em mercados. Nós sequenciamos o gene mitocondrial coI para 132 espécimes adquiridos de seis mercados e comparamos estas sequências com as disponíveis no Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) e GenBank. Quase 30% da diversidade total amostrada foi constituída por duas espécies de tubarões martelo (Sphyrna mokarran e S. lewini), ambas listadas como espécies ameaçadas pela UICN. Outras porções significativas da amostragem incluem Cações-Frango (23% - Rhizoprionodon spp.), considerados vulneráveis em águas brasileiras, devido a pesca de arrasto não regulamentada, e o Cação-azeiteiro (17% - Carcharhinus porosus). Descobrimos que o barcoding é uma forma identificação eficiente e precisa para espécimes de mercado na Guiana, tornando este estudo o pioneiro na documentação da biodiversidade dos tubarões costeiros da Guiana.(AU)


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Tubarões/classificação , Tubarões/genética , Biodiversidade , Elasmobrânquios
13.
Nature ; 540(7634): 532-533, 2016 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27974797
14.
Proc Biol Sci ; 283(1838)2016 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27629029

RESUMO

Chewing, characterized by shearing jaw motions and high-crowned molar teeth, is considered an evolutionary innovation that spurred dietary diversification and evolutionary radiation of mammals. Complex prey-processing behaviours have been thought to be lacking in fishes and other vertebrates, despite the fact that many of these animals feed on tough prey, like insects or even grasses. We investigated prey capture and processing in the insect-feeding freshwater stingray Potamotrygon motoro using high-speed videography. We find that Potamotrygon motoro uses asymmetrical motion of the jaws, effectively chewing, to dismantle insect prey. However, CT scanning suggests that this species has simple teeth. These findings suggest that in contrast to mammalian chewing, asymmetrical jaw action is sufficient for mastication in other vertebrates. We also determined that prey capture in these rays occurs through rapid uplift of the pectoral fins, sucking prey beneath the ray's body, thereby dissociating the jaws from a prey capture role. We suggest that the decoupling of prey capture and processing facilitated the evolution of a highly kinetic feeding apparatus in batoid fishes, giving these animals an ability to consume a wide variety of prey, including molluscs, fishes, aquatic insect larvae and crustaceans. We propose Potamotrygon as a model system for understanding evolutionary convergence of prey processing and chewing in vertebrates.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Arcada Osseodentária/fisiologia , Mastigação , Rajidae/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Água Doce , Insetos , Comportamento Predatório
15.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 1(1): 401-403, 2016 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33473497

RESUMO

Three complete mitochondrial genomes of South American electric fishes (Gymnotiformes), derived from high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), are reported herein. We report the complete mitochondrial genome of the bluntnose knifefish Brachyhypopomus n.sp. VERD, determined from newly sequenced data. We also provide the complete mitochondrial genomes for Sternopygus arenatus and the electric eel Electrophorus electricus, assembled from previously published transcriptome data. The mitochondrial genomes of Brachyhypopomus n.sp. VERD, Sternopygus arenatus and Electrophorus electricus have 13 protein-coding genes, 1 D-loop, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNAs, and are 16,547, 16,667 and 16,906 bp in length, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the eight available mitochondrial genomes of gymnotiform fishes shows Apteronotus to be the sister lineage of other gymnotiformes, contradicting the "Sinusoidea" hypothesis that Apteronotidae and Sternopygidae are sister taxa.

16.
J Exp Biol ; 218(Pt 24): 3941-9, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26567348

RESUMO

All stingrays in the family Myliobatidae are durophagous, consuming bivalves and gastropods, as well as decapod crustaceans. Durophagous rays have rigid jaws, flat teeth that interlock to form pavement-like tooth plates, and large muscles that generate bite forces capable of fracturing stiff biological composites (e.g. mollusk shell). The relative proportion of different prey types in the diet of durophagous rays varies between genera, with some stingray species specializing on particular mollusk taxa, while others are generalists. The tooth plate module provides a curved occlusal surface on which prey is crushed, and this curvature differs significantly among myliobatids. We measured the effect of jaw curvature on prey-crushing success in durophagous stingrays. We milled aluminum replica jaws rendered from computed tomography scans, and crushed live mollusks, three-dimensionally printed gastropod shells, and ceramic tubes with these fabricated jaws. Our analysis of prey items indicate that gastropods were consistently more difficult to crush than bivalves (i.e. were stiffer), but that mussels require the greatest work-to-fracture. We found that replica shells can provide an important proxy for investigations of failure mechanics. We also found little difference in crushing performance between jaw shapes, suggesting that disparate jaws are equally suited for processing different types of shelled prey. Thus, durophagous stingrays exhibit a many-to-one mapping of jaw morphology to mollusk crushing performance.


Assuntos
Força de Mordida , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Arcada Osseodentária/fisiologia , Rajidae/anatomia & histologia , Rajidae/fisiologia , Exoesqueleto , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Bivalves , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Gastrópodes , Modelos Biológicos
17.
J Anat ; 227(3): 341-51, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26183820

RESUMO

Growth affects the performance of structure, so the pattern of growth must influence the role of a structure and an organism. Because animal performance is linked to morphological specialization, ontogenetic change in size may influence an organism's biological role. High bite force generation is presumably selected for in durophagous taxa. Therefore, these animals provide an excellent study system for investigating biomechanical consequences of growth on performance. An ontogenetic series of 27 cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) were dissected in order to develop a biomechanical model of the feeding mechanism, which was then compared with bite forces measured from live rays. Mechanical advantage of the feeding apparatus was generally conserved throughout ontogeny, while an increase in the mass and cross-sectional area of the jaw adductors resulted in allometric gains in bite force generation. Of primary importance to forceful biting in this taxon is the use of a fibrocartilaginous tendon associated with the insertion of the primary jaw adductor division. This tendon may serve to redirect muscle forces anteriorly, transmitting them within the plane of biting. Measured bite forces obtained through electrostimulation of the jaw adductors in live rays were higher than predicted, possibly due to differences in specific tension of actual batoid muscle and that used in the model. Mass-specific bite forces in these rays are the highest recorded for elasmobranchs. Cownose rays exemplify a species that, through allometric growth of bite performance and morphological novelties, have expanded their ecological performance over ontogeny.


Assuntos
Arcada Osseodentária , Músculos da Mastigação , Rajidae , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Força de Mordida , Comportamento Alimentar , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Arcada Osseodentária/fisiologia , Mastigação/fisiologia , Músculos da Mastigação/anatomia & histologia , Músculos da Mastigação/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Rajidae/anatomia & histologia , Rajidae/fisiologia , Tendões/anatomia & histologia , Tendões/fisiologia
18.
J Morphol ; 275(8): 862-81, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24652648

RESUMO

Chondrichthyans (sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) have simple feeding mechanisms owing to their relatively few cranial skeletal elements. However, the indirect association of the jaws to the cranium (euhyostylic jaw suspension) has resulted in myriad cranial muscle rearrangements of both the hyoid and mandibular elements. We examined the cranial musculature of an abbreviated phylogenetic representation of batoid fishes, including skates, guitarfishes and with a particular focus on stingrays. We identified homologous muscle groups across these taxa and describe changes in gross morphology across developmental and functional muscle groups, with the goal of exploring how decoupling of the jaws from the skull has effected muscular arrangement. In particular, we focus on the cranial anatomy of durophagous and nondurophagous batoids, as the former display marked differences in morphology compared to the latter. Durophagous stingrays are characterized by hypertrophied jaw adductors, reliance on pennate versus fusiform muscle fiber architecture, tendinous rather than aponeurotic muscle insertions, and an overall reduction in mandibular kinesis. Nondurophagous stingrays have muscles that rely on aponeurotic insertions onto the skeletal structure, and display musculoskeletal specialization for jaw protrusion and independent lower jaw kinesis, relative to durophagous stingrays. We find that among extant chondrichthyans, considerable variation exists in the hyoid and mandibular muscles, slightly less so in hypaxial muscles, whereas branchial muscles are overwhelmingly conserved. As chondrichthyans occupy a position sister to all other living gnathostomes, our understanding of the structure and function of early vertebrate feeding systems rests heavily on understanding chondrichthyan cranial anatomy. Our findings highlight the incredible variation in muscular complexity across chondrichthyans in general and batoids in particular.


Assuntos
Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Tubarões/anatomia & histologia , Rajidae/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Osso Hioide/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Zoology (Jena) ; 112(5): 351-61, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19428230

RESUMO

Organismal performance changes over ontogeny as the musculoskeletal systems underlying animal behavior grow in relative size and shape. As performance is a determinant of feeding ecology, ontogenetic changes in the former can influence the latter. The horn shark Heterodontus francisci consumes hard-shelled benthic invertebrates, which may be problematic for younger animals with lower performance capacities. Scaling of feeding biomechanics was investigated in H. francisci (n=16, 19-59cm standard length (SL)) to determine the biomechanical basis of allometric changes in feeding performance and whether this performance capacity constrains hard-prey consumption over ontogeny. Positive allometry of anterior (8-163N) and posterior (15-382N) theoretical bite force was attributed to positive allometry of cross-sectional area in two jaw adducting muscles and mechanical advantage at the posterior bite point (0.79-1.26). Mechanical advantage for anterior biting scaled isometrically (0.52). Fracture forces for purple sea urchins Strongylocentrotus purpuratus consumed by H. francisci ranged from 24 to 430N. Comparison of these fracture forces to the bite force of H. francisci suggests that H. francisci is unable to consume hard prey early in its life history, but can consume the majority of S. purpuratus by the time it reaches maximum size. Despite this constraint, positive allometry of biting performance appears to facilitate an earlier entry into the durophagous niche than would an isometric ontogenetic trajectory. The posterior gape of H. francisci is significantly smaller than the urchins capable of being crushed by its posterior bite force. Thus, the high posterior bite forces of H. francisci cannot be fully utilized while consuming prey of similar toughness and size to S. purpuratus, and its potential trophic niche is primarily determined by anterior biting capacity.


Assuntos
Força de Mordida , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Tubarões/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Biometria , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
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