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1.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-7, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765411

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the properties of garlic as a growth promoter in larvae of angelfish Pterophyllum scalare and its benefits during transport of juveniles of this species. The experiment was conducted in recirculation aquaculture system, consisting of 20 tanks of 40 L equipped with independent water input and output. We used 1,400 larvae distributed among five treatments, with four repetitions, which totaled 20 experimental units. The treatments were 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg of garlic extract per kilo of feed. The results showed that the inclusion of levels of garlic extract in the feed did not significantly effect the fishs development or their transport. Neither did the inclusion of levels of garlic extract affect the survival of the larvae during the trial period. New research with extracts of higher dosages should be performed to elucidate the effect of garlic extract as a growth promoter.(AU)


O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades do alho como promotor de crescimento em larvas de acará bandeira Pterophyllum scalare e seus benefícios no transporte de juvenis da mesma espécie. O experimento foi conduzido em sistema de recirculação composto por 20 aquários de 40 L de volume útil, dotado de entrada e saída de água independentes e teve a duração de 40 dias. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado (DIC), com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, totalizando 20 unidades experimentais. Foram utilizadas 1.400 larvas de acará bandeira (Pterophyllum scalare) divididas entre os tratamentos. Os tratamentos consistiram em: 0, 50, 100, 200 e 400 mg de extrato de alho por quilo de ração. Os resultados mostraram que não houve efeito significativo dos níveis de inclusão do extrato do alho sobre os índices zootécnicos avaliados e posteriormente no transporte dos juvenis. Também não foi observado influência na sobrevivência das larvas durante o período experimental. Novas pesquisas com dosagens maiores de extratos devem ser realizados para melhor elucidação do efeito do extrato de alho como promotor de crescimento.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Perciformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alho , Dieta
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250003, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339392

RESUMO

Abstract This study estimated the length-weight relationships of 16 fish species occurring close to the shores of sandy beaches along the lower Negro River basin, Brazilian Amazon. The specimens were captured for one day each month, in October to November 2016, early in the morning and early evening, using trawl net (20 m taken for standard length (SL - 0.1 cm precision) and total weight (TW - 0.01 g precision). The parameters a and b of the equation WT = a.LTb were estimated. The a values ranged from 0.0018 to 0.0226 and b values ranged from 2.5271 to 3.3244. This study also provides new data on of maximum lengths for six species, Amazonsprattus scintilla, Brycon pesu, Moenkhausia megalops, Pachyurus paucirastrus, Reganella depressa and Trachydoras microstomus, and new reports of the LWRs parameters of 15 fish species.


Resumo Este estudo estimou as relações comprimento-peso de 16 espécies de peixes que ocorrem às margens de praias arenosas ao longo da bacia do baixo Rio Negro, Amazônia brasileira. As espécies foram capturadas durante um dia de cada mês, de outubro a novembro de 2016, no início da manhã e no início da noite, usando rede de cerco (20 m de comprimento e 3,5 m de altura, 5 malha mm entre nós opostos). As medidas foram feitas para comprimento padrão (SL - precisão de 0,1 cm) e peso total (TW - precisão de 0,01 g). Os parâmetros a e b da equação WT = a.LTb foram estimados. Os valores de a variaram de 0,0018 a 0,0226 e os valores de b variaram de 2,5271 a 3,3244. Este estudo também fornece novos dados sobre comprimentos máximos para seis espécies, Amazonsprattus scintilla, Brycon pesu, Moenkhausia megalops, Pachyurus paucirastrus, Reganella depressa e Trachydoras microstomus, e novos reportes dos parâmetros da LWRs de 15 espécies de peixes.


Assuntos
Animais , Perciformes , Caraciformes , Characidae , Brasil , Rios
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246180, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278550

RESUMO

Abstract In fisheries, the phenomenon known as fishing down food webs is supposed to be a consequence of overfishing, which would be reflected in a reduction in the trophic level of landings. In such scenarios, the resilience of carnivorous, top predator species is particularly affected, making these resources the first to be depleted. The Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, exemplifies a predator resource historically targeted by artisanal fisheries on the Brazilian coast. The present work analyzes landings in three periods within a 50-year timescale on the Parana coast, Southern Brazil, aiming to evaluate whether historical production has supposedly declined. Simultaneously, the diet was analyzed to confirm carnivorous habits and evaluate the trophic level in this region. Surprisingly, the results show that from the 1970's to 2019 Serra Spanish mackerel production grew relatively to other resources, as well as in individual values. The trophic level was calculated as 4.238, similar to other Scomberomorus species, consisting of a case where landings increase over time, despite the high trophic level and large body size of the resource. The results agree with a recent global assessment that has demystified a necessary correlation between high trophic level and overexploitation, but possible factors acting on the present findings are discussed.


Resumo Na pesca, o fenômeno fishing down food webs, ou 'pescando teias tróficas abaixo', expressa a redução do nível trófico na composição das capturas, e tem origem tradicionalmente atribuída à sobrepesca. Sob intenso extrativismo, a resiliência das espécies carnívoras, predadoras de topo, é particularmente afetada, sendo seus estoques os primeiros a entrarem em depleção. A cavala, ou serra, ou sororoca, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, é exemplo de recurso predador historicamente alvo da pesca artesanal, de pequena escala, na costa brasileira. O presente trabalho analisa os valores de desembarque do recurso em três períodos ao longo de 50 anos na costa paranaense, sul do Brasil, com objetivo de avaliar se sua produção tem efetivamente diminuído. Ainda, estuda-se a dieta da espécie na região, para confirmar seus hábitos carnívoros e avaliar o nível trófico na região. Os resultados mostram que, surpreendentemente, dos anos 1970 para 2019 a produção de S. brasiliensis tem aumentado em valores absolutos, bem como relativamente à de outros recursos, em que pese o nível trófico 4,238, similar a outras espécies do gênero. Constata-se que a pesca da cavala na região de estudo constitui um caso de aumento nos desembarques a despeito de elevado nível trófico e grande tamanho corpóreo. Os resultados concordam com recente levantamento em nível mundial, que nega existir correlação necessária entre sobrepesca e nível trófico alto, mas fatores que podem explicar os resultados do presente trabalho são discutidos.


Assuntos
Animais , Perciformes , Pesqueiros , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Cadeia Alimentar
4.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 149: 97-108, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678355

RESUMO

Invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) represent an ongoing ecological threat within temperate and tropical waters. Relatively little is known regarding the overall health of P. volitans and their potential for spreading pathogens in non-native regions. Lionfish collected from inshore reefs of Grenada, West Indies, in 2019 and 2021 were identified as P. volitans based on cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 barcoding. Gross and microscopic examination of tissues revealed myxozoan plasmodia in the hearts of 24/76 (31.6%) lionfish by histopathology or wet mount cytology. Further histopathologic examination revealed severe granulomatous inflammation and myofiber necrosis associated with developing plasmodia and presporogonic life stages. Fresh myxospores were morphologically and molecularly consistent with Kudoa hypoepicardialis, being quadrate in apical view with 4 valves and 4 equal polar capsules. The spore body was 5.1-7.9 (mean: 6.0) µm long, 8.1-9.8 (8.7) µm wide, and 6.9-8.5 (7.7) µm thick. Polar capsules were 2.3-2.7 (2.5) µm long and 0.9-1.6 (1.3) µm wide. 18S small subunit rDNA sequences were 99.81-99.87% similar to sequence data from the original description of the species. Novel 28S large subunit rDNA and elongation factor 2 data, which did not match any previously reported species, were provided. This is the first account of a myxozoan parasite of P. volitans, a new host record and locality for K. hypoepicardialis, and one of few reports describing pathogen-associated lesions in invasive lionfish.


Assuntos
Myxozoa , Perciformes , Animais , Cápsulas , DNA Ribossômico , Granada , Espécies Introduzidas , Myxozoa/genética , Perciformes/parasitologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9514, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680914

RESUMO

Omobranchus punctatus is native to the Indo-Pacific region and invasive in the Atlantic region, currently being considered one of the most widely distributed blenny species. However, recent molecular studies indicated that O. punctatus is a complex of species, with three divergent mtDNA lineages identified to date, stressing the need for a taxonomic revision. In this study, we used an integrative approach, combining morphological and genetic data, to shed light on the taxonomy and distribution of O. punctatus. Moreover, we provide the first genetic records of introduced populations in Brazil and discuss the introduction pattern of this species in this region. Morphological data shows that O. punctatus consists of at least five distinct and geographically restricted species: O. punctatus sensu stricto, O. dispar, O. sewalli, O. cf. kochi, and O. cf. japonicus. Species delimitation analyses performed using the mtDNA data available confirmed that O. punctatus sensu stricto, O. dispar and O. sewalli correspond to different species that started to diverge about 2.6 Mya. Furthermore, O. sewalli was identified as the invasive species colonizing Atlantic shores. The existence of historical oceanographic barriers, such as the emergence of the Sunda Shelf in the Eastern Indian Ocean during the Pleistocene, and the biological traits of these blennies are the most likely factors responsible for their genetic differentiation and subsequent speciation.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Animais , Brasil , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Espécies Introduzidas , Perciformes/genética , Filogenia
6.
J Parasitol ; 108(3): 226-237, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687322

RESUMO

Sunfish (Lepomis spp.) are among the most common piscine inhabitants of freshwater lakes and ponds in North America. Lepomis spp. breed at the same time creating hybrid zones, where genetically distinct populations mate and produce mixed offspring that are sexually viable hybrids. One aspect of hybridization that may have important consequences is parasitism and its patterns of recruitment in the hybrid sunfish. This study investigated these patterns both at the level of the individual parasite species as well as in the parasite communities infecting the fish. Two sample sites possessing hybrid sunfish populations were investigated: 1 system had bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus), and their hybrids, while the other system had bluegill sunfish (L. macrochirus), green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus), and their hybrids. The hybrids were infected by mostly generalist parasites that commonly infect all Lepomis spp. Most of the individual parasite species followed a dominance pattern (59.1%) of infection, where parasite abundance in hybrids resembled at least one of the parental species, with the remainder exhibiting intermediate levels of parasitism, supporting an additive pattern of parasite recruitment (40.1%). At the community level, the patterns of parasite recruitment differed in L. macrochirus × L. microlophus hybrids, which showed a dominance pattern, and L. macrochirus × L. cyanellus hybrids, which showed an additive pattern of parasite recruitment. These differences in parasite recruitment between hybrid groups may be attributed to varying degrees of dietary and niche overlap between the parental species in the 2 study systems.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Animais , Peixes , Lagos , América do Norte , Perciformes/parasitologia , Lagoas
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(2): e003022, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674532

RESUMO

Members of the order Trypanorhyncha are cestode parasites that are frequently found infecting the muscles of several marine fish species, affecting fish health and resulting in consumers' rejection. Seventy-five specimens of marine fish were freshly caught from boat landing sites at the Alexandria coast along the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt, including two Carangids, the greater amberjack Seriola dumerili and the gulley jack Pseudocarans dentex; two Serranids, the Haifa grouper Epinephelus haifensis and the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra. Forty-five fish were infected; the infection was recorded as blastocysts embedded in fish flesh. Blastocysts were isolated and ruptured; the generated plerocerci were described morphologically, where, four different species were recovered; Callitetrarhynchus gracilis, Callitetrarhynchus speciosus, Protogrillotia zerbiae, and Grillotia brayi. The taxonomic position of these parasites was justified by multiple-sequence alignment and a phylogenetic tree was constructed following maximum likelihood analysis of the 18s rRNA sequences of the recovered worms. The accession numbers MN625168, MN625169, MN611431and MN611432 were respectively assigned to the recovered parasites. The results obtained from the molecular analyses confirmed the morphological records of the recovered parasites. Since metacestodes are found in the musculature of infected fish specimens, it is necessary to remove these areas in the commercialization of fish.


Assuntos
Bass , Cestoides , Cisticercose , Doenças dos Peixes , Perciformes , Animais , Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , Cisticercose/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Mar Mediterrâneo , Perciformes/parasitologia , Filogenia
8.
J Helminthol ; 96: e42, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35726565

RESUMO

Fully developed, sexually mature small male and female acanthocephalans, Microsentis wardae Martin & Multani, 1966 (Neoechinorhynchidae) reaching only 2.25 mm and 2.42 mm, respectively, were collected from the rectum of longjaw mudsuckers, Gillichthys mirabilis Cooper, in the salty marches of Anaheim Bay and San Diego Bay, California. Our specimens were half the size of those reported in the original description from the same host in Scammon's Lagoon over 700 km to the south. The ratio of proboscis and receptacle size to trunk size was markedly higher in our specimens compared to the larger specimens measured in the original description. The anatomy of all structures in our specimens from Anaheim Bay was comparable to that of the larger Scammon's Lagoon specimens that have apparently realized more growth in the Scammon's Lagoon. We have observed more structures that are not reported in the original description, especially evident from our scanning electron microscopy images, which are not possible to observe in the original line drawings. In our specimens, the micropores were unusually widely spaced and the energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed longitudinal hook sections with high levels of sulphur and phosphorus and moderate levels of calcium, but the whole hooks showed highest levels of sodium and magnesium - the biochemical hook signature of this species. Sequences of the small subunit (18S) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA were generated and compared with acanthocephalan sequences available from GenBank. As M. wardae comprises a monotypic genus, therefore, phylogenetic analyses inferred from the 18S gene showed its relationship with other species of closely related genera of Eoacanthocephala. This is the first report of molecular data of M. wardae.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos , Doenças dos Peixes , Helmintíase Animal , Mirabilis , Perciformes , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Filogenia , Raios X
9.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 134: 104460, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667467

RESUMO

CD40 and CD154 are well-characterized costimulatory molecules involved in adaptive humoral immunity in humans and other mammals. These two costimulatory molecules were found to be originated from teleost fish during vertebrate evolution. However, the functionality of fish CD40 and CD154 remains to be explored. In this study, we identified the CD40 and CD154 homologs (LcCD40 and LcCD154) from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea), a marine species of the perciform fish family. The LcCD40 and LcCD154 share conserved structural features to their mammalian counterparts, and are widely expressed in immune-relevant tissues and leukocytes at different transcriptional levels. Immunofluorescence staining and FCM analysis showed that LcCD40 and LcCD154 proteins are distributed on MHC-II+ APCs and CD4-2+ T cells, and are significantly upregulated in response to antigen stimulation. Co-IP assay exhibited strong association between LcCD40 and LcCD154 proteins. Blockade of LcCD154 with anti-LcCD154 antibody (Ab) or recombinant soluble LcCD40-Ig fusion protein remarkably decreased the MHC-II+ APC-initiated CD4+ T cell response upon Aeromonas hydrophila stimulation, and alloreactive T cell activation as examined by mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). These findings highlight the costimulatory role of LcCD40 and LcCD154 in T cell activities in Larimichthys crocea. Thus, the CD40 and CD154 costimulators may extensively participate in the regulation of multiple T cell-mediated immune responses in teleost fish. It is anticipated that this study would provide a cross-species understanding of the evolutionary history of CD40 and CD154 costimulatory signals from fish to mammals.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Linfócitos T , Animais , Antígenos CD40/genética , Ligante de CD40/genética , Interleucina-2 , Ativação Linfocitária , Mamíferos
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 180: 113799, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665616

RESUMO

Sediments in algal turfs can modify a wide variety of key ecological processes on coral reefs. While some larger reef fishes can remove these turf-bound sediments, the role of small, yet abundant, cryptobenthic fishes is currently unclear. To address this knowledge gap, we explored the extent to which the blenny, Ecsenius stictus, can shape sediment dynamics on coral reefs by quantifying their sediment ingestion and space use. Per unit body mass, E. stictus process sediments at comparable rates to key parrotfish and surgeonfish species. However, in absolute terms, E. stictus has a negligible influence on net sediment dynamics, despite their abundance. Behavioural observations and 3D photogrammetry reveal that E. stictus preferentially feed and rest on elevated surfaces; potentially because of low sediment loads on these surfaces. Overall, E. stictus may be responding to sediment loads rather than manipulating them; it is a passenger rather than a driver in reef processes.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Perciformes , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Peixes , Sedimentos Geológicos , Alimentos Marinhos
11.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 126: 12-20, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526799

RESUMO

LPCAT3, a subtype of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases, is a key enzyme in phosphatidylcholine remodeling pathway and plays a significant role in mediating inflammatory response in mammals. However, its inflammatory function in fish has yet to be discovered. Herein, this study aimed to investigate its role in inflammation in Larimichthys crocea. We analyzed the coding sequence of Larimichthys crocea LPCAT3 (Lc-LPCAT3) and explored the effect of Lc-LPCAT3 on palmitate (PA)-induced inflammation. We found that in macrophage cell line of Larimichthys crocea, the mRNA expression of Lc-lpcat3 was upregulated by PA with the elevated pro-inflammatory genes expression, including il1ß, il6, il8, tnfα and ifnγ. Next, the role of Lc-LPCAT3 in inflammation induced by PA was further investigated. Results showed that knockdown of Lc-LPCAT3 mitigated PA-induced pro-inflammatory genes mRNA expression, including il1ß, il8, tnfα and ifnγ, in which JNK signaling pathway was involved. In contrast, overexpression of Lc-LPCAT3 induced pro-inflammatory genes expression including il1ß, tnfα and ifnγ. Furthermore, several transcription factors with negative regulation of Lc-LPCAT3 promoter activity were discovered including LXRα, RXRα, PPARα, PPARγ, CEBPα, CEBPß, CEBPδ, SREBP1 and SREBP2, and SREBP1 had the strongest regulatory effect. In conclusion, we first discovered that fish LPCAT3 participated in PA-induced inflammation, and targeting SREBP1 might be an effective coping strategy.


Assuntos
1-Acilglicerofosfocolina O-Aciltransferase , Perciformes , 1-Acilglicerofosfocolina O-Aciltransferase/genética , 1-Acilglicerofosfocolina O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/veterinária , Interleucina-8 , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Mamíferos/genética , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Palmitatos/metabolismo , Perciformes/genética , Perciformes/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
12.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 173: 107515, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577293

RESUMO

Rapid speciation is an important aspect of adaptive radiations, but can obfuscate phylogenetic relationships among taxa. For recent radiations, there are challenges to reconstructing the relationships among the species due to often shorter branch lengths. Resolution of these relationships is further confounded when studies only use a few genetic markers. Double digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) is a method of next generation sequencing that identifies many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) throughout the genome. This increases statistical power to resolve close phylogenetic relationships like those found within an adaptive radiation. We used this approach to understand the evolutionary history of the rockfishes of the genus Sebastes, which experienced an adaptive radiation between 3 and 5 mya. Here, we reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships among six species of rockfish within the subgenus Sebastosomus using over 11,600 SNPs. This reconstruction includes the two recently diverged species, Sebastes mystinus and S. diaconus, that were first described genetically in 2008 using mtDNA control region sequence data and six microsatellite loci. We confirmed the relationship of these cryptic species as sister-taxa and found evidence that S. melanops and S. flavidus were also sister-taxa. The latter contradicts prior studies but is supported by our reconstruction using nuclear DNA and measures of genetic differentiation tests and a discriminant analysis of principal components. The relationships between the species of Sebastosomus are further supported by morphological, biological, and ecological justifications.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial , Perciformes , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Perciformes/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 836: 155602, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523351

RESUMO

The food system produces emissions at all stages, from agriculture and its inputs, and the livestock sector is nowadays one of the most significant contributors to environmental problems. The European swine production system is mainly intensive and generates high external costs such as water and air pollution. As a response to these emerging issues, there is a growing interest in the relationships between marketing and sustainability, with people that have begun to pay much more attention to health, environmental friendliness, and quality of products. The aim of this study is to understand if there is a market for a high-quality "Parma ham PDO", produced in sustainable supply chain at an environmental, health and animal welfare level. In this paper, we use discrete choice experiments to investigate Italian consumer's preferences and their willingness to pay (WTP) for Parma ham PDO with different characteristics, amongst which the use of air scrubber technology reducing pollutants emissions. Results seem to encourage the pork industry in better exploring pollutant emissions' reduction, showing a consumers' willingness to pay for this production technology. Similarly, results of this study can suggest the existence of a niche market for this typology of production.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Carne de Porco , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Comportamento do Consumidor , Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos , Itália , Suínos
14.
J Exp Biol ; 225(11)2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543020

RESUMO

Suction feeding in ray-finned fishes involves powerful buccal cavity expansion to accelerate water and food into the mouth. Previous XROMM studies in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) have shown that more than 90% of suction power in high performance strikes comes from the axial musculature. Thus, the shape of the axial muscles and skeleton may affect suction feeding mechanics. Royal knifefish (Chitala blanci) have an unusual postcranial morphology, with a ventrally flexed vertebral column and relatively large mass of epaxial muscle. Based on their body shape, we hypothesized that royal knifefish would generate high power strikes by utilizing large neurocranial elevation, vertebral column extension and epaxial shortening. As predicted, C. blanci generated high suction expansion power compared with the other three species studied to date (up to 160 W), which was achieved by increasing both the rate of volume change and the intraoral subambient pressure. The large epaxial muscle (25% of body mass) shortened at high velocities to produce large neurocranial elevation and vertebral extension (up to 41 deg, combined), as well as high muscle mass-specific power (up to 800 W kg-1). For the highest power strikes, axial muscles generated 95% of the power, and 64% of the axial muscle mass consisted of the epaxial muscles. The epaxial-dominated suction expansion of royal knifefish supports our hypothesis that postcranial morphology may be a strong predictor of suction feeding biomechanics.


Assuntos
Bass , Perciformes , Animais , Bass/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Perciformes/fisiologia , Sucção
15.
Aquat Toxicol ; 248: 106179, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576718

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is one of the most harmful contaminants in fresh-water systems. Fish larvae such as sacfry are particularly vulnerable to metals such as copper (Cu) due to a less-developed excretory organ system and permeable skin that can absorb metals directly from the water. However, the sublethal effects of metals on this life stage are not well understood. This study assessed the sublethal toxicity of Cu on purple-spotted gudgeon sacfry (PSG, Mogurnda adspersa). For this purpose, 96 h Cu toxicity bioassays were performed and toxic effects of Cu on PSG were measured at different levels of biological organization, from the individual (loss of equilibrium, wet weight), to tissue (chemical changes in retinal tissue composition) and molecular responses (whole body amino acid (AA) profiles). The EC10 and EC50 (ECx: effect concentration that affected X% of test organisms) were found to be 12 (9 - 15) µg Cu L-1 and 22 (19 - 24) µg Cu L-1, respectively. Copper stress caused a decrease in total amino acid content and changed the AA profile of PSG compared to the controls. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) mapping techniques showed accumulation of Cu in the retinal tissues disturbing the distribution of other elements such as zinc, sulfur, phosphorus and potassium. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy of control and Cu treated eye tissues revealed a change in protein secondary structure in retinal tissues in response to Cu accumulation, as well as decreased levels of the molecular retinal, consistent with the degradation of rhodopsin, a key protein in the visual sensory system. This is the first study to demonstrate the multi-level responses of PSG arising from exposure to environmentally realistic Cu concentrations and suggests that AA profiling can serve as a useful tool to assess the impacts of metals on fresh-water organisms.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Aminoácidos , Animais , Cobre/metabolismo , Perciformes/metabolismo , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Zinco/toxicidade
16.
Food Chem ; 391: 133237, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35640333

RESUMO

The effects of the treatment (UPFL) combining ultrasound (US) with plasma functionalized liquids (PFL) were evaluated on the quality of vacuum-packaged silver Pomfret stored at 4 ℃ for 15 days. Conformational modifications in myofibrillar proteins, improvements in nutritional value and biomedical index of fatty acids and lipids, reduced pH of 5.70, increased K-value, TBARS, and TVB-N at values of 12.05%, 0.576 mg MDA/kg, and 9.15 mg N/100 g, respectively, and 1.99 log reductions in spoilage microorganisms were evident immediately after treatments. UPFL presented better quality preservative effects when compared with individual applications of US or PFL, and vacuum packaging ensured optimal quality enhancement effects such as stability of myofibril fragmentation, inhibition of physicochemical quality degradation, and microbial growth control. The results also revealed the predominant cultivable spoilage microbiota of vacuum-packaged silver Pomfret treated with UPFL, providing valuable information towards developing broad-spectrum sanitisers and hurdle technology for the seafood industry.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Perciformes , Animais , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Alimentos Marinhos , Tecnologia , Vácuo
17.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35632672

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) function as micro regulators to impact gene expression after multiple pathogen infections, which have been largely studied in the last few years. Although lncRNA studies on lower vertebrates have received less attention than those on mammals, current studies suggest that lncRNA plays an important role in the immune response of fish to pathogen infections. Here, we studied the effect of MIR122HG as the host gene of miR-122 and indirectly negatively regulate MAVS-mediated antiviral immune responses in miiuy croaker (Miichthysmiiuy). We found that poly(I:C) significantly increases the host MIR122HG expression. The increased MIR122HG expression inhibited the production of the antiviral immune-related genes IFN-1, ISG15 and Viperin upon SCRV treatment. In addition, MIR122HG can act as a pivotally negative regulator involved in the MAVS-mediated NF-κB and IRF3 signaling pathways, which can effectively avoid an excessive immune response. Additionally, we found that MIR122HG can promote the replication of SCRV. Our study provides evidence about the involvement of lncRNAs in the antiviral immune response of fish and broadens the understanding of the function of lncRNAs as a precursor miRNA in teleost fish.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Perciformes , RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , Antivirais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Imunidade , Mamíferos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Perciformes/genética , Perciformes/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo
18.
Tissue Cell ; 76: 101809, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512495

RESUMO

This study examines the anatomical development of the visual system of Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, during the first 15 days of life at histological level, with emphasis in the immunohistochemical characterization of different cell types. As an altricial fish species, the retina was not developed at hatching. The appearance of eye pigmentation and the transformation of the retina from an undifferentiated neuroblastic layer into a laminated structure occurred during the first two days of life. At 16 days after hatching (DAH), the ganglion cells were arranged in a single row in the central region of the retina and the outer segments of the photoreceptors were morphologically developed. Furthermore, at this age, all the retinal cell types were immunohistochemically characterized. The presence of ganglion cell axons was confirmed with the TUJ1 antibody and the existence of functional synapses in the plexiform layers with antibodies against SV2. Cone opsins were immunostained with antibodies against visinin and CERN-922 immunoreactive rods were also identified. Different subpopulations of amacrine cells were immunostained with antibodies against αTH and PV. Highly GS-immunoreactive Müller cells were also detected at this age. These observations suggested that the T. thynnus retina was fully functional at the end of the second week of life. Basic studies on early morphology of the visual system and larval behavior are necessary to support applied research on larval rearing. Furthermore, they may have implications for understanding larval ecology in the wild.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Retina , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Larva , Neurônios
19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 125: 180-189, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561950

RESUMO

Aeromonas veronii is a freshwater bacterium associated with many diseases in aquatic animals. However, few cases of A. veronii infection were reported in Odontobutis potamophila, which has been becoming a promising fish species in China in recent years. In this study, the dominant bacteria were isolated from diseased O. potamophila showing signs of hemorrhage on fins, ulceration on the dorsal and abdomen. The representative isolate Stl3-1was identified as A. veronii based on analysis of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical features, as well as 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences. The median lethal dosage (LD50) of the isolate Stl3-1 for O. potamophila was determined as 4.5 × 105 CFU/mL. Histopathological analysis revealed that the isolate Stl3-1caused considerable histological lesions in the fish, including tissue cell degeneration, necrosis, and inflammatory cell infiltrating. Detection of virulence-related genes showed that A. veronii Stl3-1 was positive for exu, ompA, lip, flaH, hlyA, aer, flgM, tapA, act, flgA, gcaT and flgN. Additionally, quantitive real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was also undertaken to analyses the host defensive response in O. potamophila infected by A. veronii. The immune-related gene expressions in O. potamophila during experimental infection were monitored at different point of time, and the results showed that the expression levels of MHC II, Myd88, TLR, and SOD were significantly up-regulated in liver, gill, spleen, and head kidney. The results revealed that A. veronii was a pathogen causing mass mortalities of O. potamophila and will contribute to better understanding the host defensive response against A. veronii infection.


Assuntos
Aeromonas , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Perciformes , Aeromonas/genética , Aeromonas veronii/genética , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Peixes/genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Imunidade , Perciformes/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Virulência/genética
20.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 125: 171-179, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569776

RESUMO

The dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum is an important pathogenic parasite infecting cultured marine and brackish water fishes worldwide. This includes cultured Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus), which is one of the most desirable marine food fish with high economic value in the USA. A. ocellatum infects fish gills and causes tissue damage, increased respiratory rate, reduced appetite, and mortality, especially in closed aquaculture systems. This study mimicked the natural infection of A. ocellatum in cultured pompano and conducted a transcriptomic comparison of gene expression in the gills of control and A. ocellatum infected fish to explore the molecular mechanisms of infection. RNA-seq data revealed 604 differentially expressed genes in the infected fish gills. The immunoglobulin genes (including IgM/T) augmentation and IL1 inflammation suppression were detected after infection. Genes involved in reactive oxygen species mediating parasite killing were also highly induced. However, excessive oxidants have been linked to oxidative tissue damage and apoptosis. Correspondingly, widespread down-regulation of collagen genes and growth factor deprivation indicated impaired tissue repair, and meanwhile the key executor of apoptosis, caspase-3 was highly expressed (25.02-fold) in infected fish. The infection also influenced the respiratory gas sensing and transport genes and established hypoxic conditions in the gill tissue. Additionally, food intake and lipid metabolism were also affected. Our work provides the transcriptome sequencing of Florida pompano and provides key insights into the acute pathogenesis of A. ocellatum. This information can be utilized for designing optimal disease surveillance strategies, future selection for host resistance, and development of novel therapeutic measures.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Doenças dos Peixes , Perciformes , Animais , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/genética , Brânquias/parasitologia , Perciformes/genética , Transcriptoma
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